Voting at the Eurovision Song Contest

Eurovision Song Contest 2016 Eurovision Song Contest 2019 Germany

The winner of the Eurovision Song Contest is selected by a positional voting system. The most recent system was implemented in the 2016 contest, and sees each participating country award two sets of 12, 10, 8–1 points to their 10 favourite songs: one set from their professional jury and the other from tele-voting.[1]


Small, demographically-balanced juries made up of ordinary people had been used to rank the entries, but after the widespread use of telephone voting in 1998 the contest organizers resorted to juries only in the event of a televoting malfunctions. In 2003, Eircom's telephone polling system malfunctioned. Irish broadcaster RTÉ did not receive the polling results from Eircom in time, and substituted votes by a panel of judges.[2] Between 1997 and 2003 (the first years of televoting), lines were opened to the public for only five minutes after the performance and recap of the final song. Between 2004 and 2006 the lines were opened for 10 minutes, and from 2007 to 2009 they were opened for 15 minutes. In 2010 viewers were allowed to vote during the performances, but this was rescinded for the 2012 contest. Since the 2006 contest, the presenters use a special phrase to start the televoting process known as "Europe, start voting now!". This also applies to Australia since 2015. When everything is all done, "Europe, stop voting now!" is used to signal the end of the process.[citation needed]

The BBC contacted regional juries by telephone to choose the 1956 winners, and the European Broadcasting Union (producers of the contest) later began contacting international juries by telephone. This method continued to be used until 1993. The following year saw the first satellite linkup to juries.[citation needed]

To announce the votes, the contest's presenters connect by satellite to each country in turn and inviting a spokesperson to read the country's votes in French or English. The presenters originally repeated the votes in both languages, but since 2004 the votes have been translated due to time constraints. To offset increased voting time required by a larger number of participating countries, since 2006 only countries' eight-, 10-, and 12-point scores are read aloud; one- to seven-point votes are added automatically to the scoreboard while each country's spokesperson is introduced. The scoreboard displays the number of points each country has received and, since 2008, a progress bar indicating the number of countries which have voted. Since 2016, only the 12-point score is read aloud due to the new voting system, meaning that the nine scoring countries were added automatically to the scoreboard (1-8 and 10 points). In addition, the televoting points are combined together and the presenters announce them in order, starting from the country with the lowest score and ending with the country with the highest score from the televoting. For the 2019 contest the system is the same as before but this time, the presenters will announce the televoting points based on the juries' rankings.

Voting systems

Year Points Voting system
1956 2 Two-member juries from each country awarded two points to their favourite song.
1957–61 10–1 Ten-member juries distributed 10 points among their favourite songs.
1962 3–1 Ten-member juries awarded points to their three favourite songs.
1963 5–1 Twenty-member juries awarded points to their five favourite songs.
1964–66 5, 3, 1 / 6, 3 / 9 Ten-member juries distributed 9 points in three possible ways. If all their votes went to one single song, it got all the 9 points, if they went to two songs, they got 6 and 3 points, and if they went to three or more, the top three got 5, 3 and 1 points. No jury ever gave 9 points to a single song, but Belgium used the 6-3 system in 1965.
1967–69 10–1 Ten-member juries distributed ten points among their favourite songs.
1970 Ten-member juries distributed 10 points among their favourite songs. A tie-breaking round was available.
1971–73 10–2 Two-member juries (one aged over 25 and the other under 25, with at least 10 years between their ages) rated songs between one and five points.
1974 10–1 Ten-member juries distributed ten points among their favourite songs.
1975–96 12, 10, 8–1 All countries had at least eleven jury members (later rising to sixteen) that would award points to their top ten songs. From 1975 to 1979, the scores were announced in the order in which the songs performed, while the ascending format of going from 1-8 points, 10 points and finally 12 points, was introduced in 1980.
1997 Twenty countries had jury members and five countries used televote to decide which songs would get points.[3]
1998–2000 All countries should use telephone voting to decide which songs would receive points. In exceptional circumstances (e.g. weak telephone system) where televoting was not possible at all, a jury was used.[4][5][6]
2001–02 Every broadcaster was free to make a choice between the full televoting system and the mixed 50–50 system to decide which songs would receive points. In exceptional circumstances where televoting was not possible, only a jury was used.[7][8]
2003 All countries should use telephone/SMS voting to decide which songs would receive points. In exceptional circumstances where televoting was not possible at all, only a jury was used.[9]
2009 (semifinals)
All countries used televoting and/or SMS-voting and to decide which songs would receive points. Back-up juries are used by each country (with eight members) in the event of a televoting failure.
2009 (final);
All countries used televoting and/or SMS-voting (50%) and five-member juries (50%), apart from San Marino which is 100% jury due to country size. This is so called jury–televote 50/50. In the event of a televoting failure, only a jury is used by that country; in the event of a jury failure, only televoting is used by that country. The two parts of the vote were combined by awarding 12, 10, 8–1 points to the top ten in each discipline, then combining the scores. Where two songs were tied, the televote score took precedence.
2013–15 The same as in 2009–12, except jury and televote are combined differently. The jurors and televoting each rank all the competing entries, rather than just their top ten. The scores are then added together and in the event of a tie, the televote score takes precedence.[10][11]
2016–19 (12, 10, 8–1) x 2 The jury and the televote each award an independent set of points. First the jury points are announced and then the televoting points are calculated together before being added to the jury points, effectively doubling the points which can be awarded in total.[1] With a total of 43 voting countries (maximum number of participating countries), the maximum number of points one can mathematically receive is now 1008 (42 countries giving 12 points in each of jury and popular votes)

The most-used voting system (other than the current one) was last used for the 1969 contest. This system was used from 1957 to 1961 and from 1967 to 1969. Ten jurors in each country each cast one vote for their favourite song. In 1969 this resulted in a four-way tie for first place (between the UK, the Netherlands, France, and Spain), with no tie-breaking procedure. A second round of voting in the event of a tie was introduced to this system the following year.

From 1962 to 1966, a voting system similar to the current one was used. In 1962, each country awarded its top three one, two and three points; in 1963 the top five were awarded one, two, three, four and five points, and from 1964 to 1966, each country usually awarded its top three one, three and five points. With the latter system, a country could choose to give points to two countries instead of three (giving three to one and six to the other); in 1965, Belgium awarded the United Kingdom six points and Italy three. Although it was possible to give one country nine points, this never occurred.

The 1971, 1972, and 1973 contests saw the jurors "in vision" for the first time. Each country was represented by two jurors: one older than 25 and one younger, with at least ten years' difference in their ages. Each juror gave a minimum of one point and a maximum of five points to each song. In 1974 the previous system of ten jurors was used, and the following year the current system was introduced. Spokespeople were next seen on screen in 1994 with a satellite link to the venue.

The 2004 contest had its first semifinal, with a slight change in voting: countries which did not qualify from the semifinal would be allowed to cast votes in the final. This resulted in Ukraine's Ruslana finishing first, with a record 280 points. If the voting had been conducted as it had been from 1956 to 2003 (when only finalist countries could vote), Serbia and Montenegro's Željko Joksimović would have won the contest with 190 points: a 15-point lead over Ruslana, who would have scored 175 points. To date, non-qualifying countries are still allowed to vote in the final. In 2006, Serbia and Montenegro were able to vote in the semifinal and the final despite their non-participation due to a scandal in the selection process (which resulted in Macedonia entering the final instead of Poland).

With the introduction of two semifinals in 2008, a new method of selecting finalists was created. The top nine songs (ranked by televote) qualified, along with one song selected by the back-up juries. This method, in most cases, meant that the tenth song in the televoting failed to qualify; this attracted some criticism, especially from Macedonia (who had placed 10th in the televote in both years).[12] In 2010 the 2009 final system was used, with a combination of televoting and jury votes from each country also used to select the semi-finalists.[13] Each participating country had a national jury, consisting of five music-industry professionals[14] appointed by national broadcasters.[15]

Highest scores

"A Million Voices" sung by Russian artist Polina Gagarina, became the first song to get over 300 points without winning the contest (and the only one during the era when each country delivered only one set of points); with a new voting system introduced in 2016, Australia became the first country to get over 500 points without winning the contest. In 2017, Bulgaria became the first non-winning country to score above 600 points, as well as Portugal becoming the first country to get over 750 points - winning the contest as a result of this with the song "Amar pelos dois" by Salvador Sobral. As the number of voting countries and the voting systems have varied, it may be more relevant to compare what percentage of all points awarded in the competition that each song received (computed from the published scoreboards [1] [2]. The table below show winning songs by the percentage of all votes.

Top 5 Winners by percentage of all votes

This table shows top 5 winning songs by the percentage from the all votes cast.

Contest Country Artist Song Points Percentage of all points cast Percentage of maximum possible points
1964  Italy Gigliola Cinquetti "Non ho l'età" 49 34.03% 65.33%
1957  Netherlands Corry Brokken "Net als toen" 31 31.00% 34.44%
1967  United Kingdom Sandie Shaw "Puppet on a String" 47 27.65% 29.38%
1962  France Isabelle Aubret "Un premier amour" 26 27.08% 57.78%
1958 André Claveau "Dors, mon amour" 27 27.00% 30.00%

Top 5 Winners by percentage of the maximum possible score

This table shows top 5 winning songs by the percentage from the maximum possible score a song can achieve.

Contest Country Artist Song Points Percentage of all points cast Percentage of maximum possible points
1973  Luxembourg Anne-Marie David "Tu te reconnaîtras" 129 14.05% 80.63%
1976  United Kingdom Brotherhood of Man "Save Your Kisses for Me" 164 15.71% 80.39%
1982  Germany Nicole "Ein Bißchen Frieden" 161 15.42% 78.92%
1997  United Kingdom Katrina and the Waves "Love Shine a Light" 227 15.66% 78.82%
2009  Norway Alexander Rybak "Fairytale" 387 15.89% 78.66%

Top 10 participants by number of votes

This table shows top 10 participating songs (both winning and non-winning) by the number of votes cast.

Contest Country Artist Song Points Percentage of all points cast Percentage of maximum possible points
2017  Portugal Salvador Sobral "Amar pelos dois" 758 15.56% 77.03%
 Bulgaria Kristian Kostov "Beautiful Mess" 615 12.62% 62.50%
2016  Ukraine Jamala "1944" 534 10.96% 54.27%
2018  Israel Netta Barzilai "Toy" 529 10.61% 52.48%
2016  Australia Dami Im "Sound of Silence" 511 10.48% 51.93%
2019  The Netherlands Duncan Laurence "Arcade" 498 10.60% 51.25%
2016  Russia Sergey Lazarev "You Are the Only One" 491 10.32% 49.89%
2019  Italy Mahmood "Soldi" 472 10.17% 49.17%
2018  Cyprus Eleni Foureira "Fuego" 436 8.95% 43.25%
2009  Norway Alexander Rybak "Fairytale" 387 15.89% 78.66%

Under the 2013–15 voting system Portugal would have received 17.12% of points in the 2017 competition.[16]

Top 10 participants by number of jury points

Contest Country Artist Song Jury Points Points
2017  Portugal Salvador Sobral "Amar Pelos Dois" 382 758
2016  Australia Dami Im "Sound of Silence" 320 511
2017  Bulgaria Kristian Kostov "Beautiful Mess" 278 615
2018  Austria Cesár Sampson "Nobody But You" 271 342
2018  Sweden Benjamin Ingrosso "Dance You Off" 253 274
2019  North Macedonia Tamara Todevska "Proud" 247 305
2019  Sweden John Lundvik "Too Late For Love" 241 334
2019  Netherlands Duncan Laurence "Arcade" 237 498
2019  Italy Mahmood "Soldi" 219 472
2017  Sweden Robin Bengtsson "I Can't Go On" 218 344


A tie-break procedure was implemented after the 1969 contest, in which France, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom tied for first place. With no tie-breaking system in place at the time, it was determined that all four countries would be awarded the title; in protest, Austria, Finland, Sweden, Norway and Portugal did not participate the following year.

The current tie-break procedure was implemented in the 2016 contest. In the procedure, sometimes known as a countback, if two (or more) countries tie, the song receiving more points from the televote is the winner. If the songs received the same number of televote points, the song that received at least one televote point from the greatest number of countries is the winner. If there is still a tie, a second tie-breaker counts the number of countries who assigned twelve televote points to each entry in the tie. Tie-breaks continue with ten points, eight points, and so on until the tie is resolved. If the tie cannot be resolved after the number of countries which assigned one point to the song is equal, the song performed earlier in the running order is declared the winner, unless the host country performed earlier (in which case the song performed later would be the winner). The tie-break procedure originally applied only to first place ties,[17] but since 2008 has been applied to all places.[18]

In 1991, the tie-break procedure was implemented when Sweden and France both had 146 points at the end of the voting. At the time, there was no televoting system, and the tie-break rule was slightly different; the first tie-break rule at the time concerned the number of 12 points each country had received.[19][20] Both Sweden and France had received the maximum twelve points four times; when the number of ten-point scores was counted Sweden, represented by Carola and "Fångad av en stormvind", claimed its third victory since it received five ten-point scores against France's two. The French song "Le Dernier qui a parlé...", performed by Amina, finished second with the smallest-ever losing margin.

Scoring no points

Colour-coded map
Countries that received no points, and the number of times for each

As each participating country casts a series of preference votes, under the current scoring system it is rare that a song fails to receive any votes at all; such a result means that the song failed to make the top ten most popular songs in any country.

The first zero points in Eurovision were scored in 1962, under a new voting system. When a country finishes with a score of zero, it is often referred to in English-language media as nul points or nil points, albeit incorrectly. Grammatical French for "no points" is pas de points or zéro point, but none of these phrases are used in the contest; before 2016's voting overhaul, no-point scores were not announced by the presenters. Following the change in the voting system, a country receiving no points from the public voting is announced as receiving "zero points".[21]

Before 1975

Entries which received no points before the introduction of the scoring system introduced in 1975 are:

Contest Country Artist Song
1962  Belgium Fud Leclerc "Ton nom"
 Spain Victor Balaguer "Llámame"
 Austria Eleonore Schwarz "Nur in der Wiener Luft"
 Netherlands De Spelbrekers "Katinka"
1963 Annie Palmen "Een speeldoos"
 Norway Anita Thallaug "Solhverv"
 Finland Laila Halme "Muistojeni laulu"
 Sweden Monica Zetterlund "En gång i Stockholm"
1964  Germany Nora Nova "Man gewöhnt sich so schnell an das Schöne"
 Portugal António Calvário "Oração"
 Yugoslavia Sabahudin Kurt "Život je sklopio krug"
  Switzerland Anita Traversi "I miei pensieri"
1965  Spain Conchita Bautista "¡Qué bueno, qué bueno!"
 Germany Ulla Wiesner "Paradies, wo bist du?"
 Belgium Lize Marke "Als het weer lente is"
 Finland Viktor Klimenko "Aurinko laskee länteen"
1966  Monaco Tereza Kesovija "Bien plus fort"
 Italy Domenico Modugno "Dio, come ti amo"
1967   Switzerland Géraldine "Quel cœur vas-tu briser?"
1970  Luxembourg David Alexandre Winter "Je suis tombé du ciel"

1975 to 2015


Entries which received no points since the introduction of this system in 1975 up until the scoring reformation in 2016 are:

Contest Country Artist Song
1978  Norway Jahn Teigen "Mil etter mil"
1981 Finn Kalvik "Aldri i livet"
1982  Finland Kojo "Nuku pommiin"
1983  Spain Remedios Amaya "¿Quién maneja mi barca?"
 Turkey Çetin Alp and The Short Waves "Opera"
1987 Seyyal Taner and Grup Locomotif "Şarkım Sevgi Üstüne"
1988  Austria Wilfried "Lisa Mona Lisa"
1989  Iceland Daníel Ágúst "Það sem enginn sér"
1991  Austria Thomas Forstner "Venedig im Regen"
1994  Lithuania Ovidijus Vyšniauskas "Lopšinė mylimai"
1997  Norway Tor Endresen "San Francisco"
 Portugal Célia Lawson "Antes do adeus"
1998   Switzerland Gunvor "Lass ihn"
2003  United Kingdom Jemini "Cry Baby"[22]
2015  Austria (host) The Makemakes "I Am Yours"
 Germany Ann Sophie "Black Smoke"

The first time a host nation ever finished with nul points was in the 2015 final, when Austria's "I Am Yours" by The Makemakes scored zero. In 2003, following the UK's first zero score,[22] an online poll was held to determine public opinion about each zero-point entry's worthiness of the score. Spain's "¿Quién maneja mi barca?" (1983) won the poll as the song that least deserved a zero, and Austria's "Lisa Mona Lisa" (1988) was the song most deserving of a zero.[23]

In 2012, although it scored in the combined voting, France's "Echo (You and I)" by Anggun would have received no points if televoting alone had been used. In that year's first semi-final, although Belgium's "Would You?" by Iris received two points in the televoting-only hypothetical results from the Albanian jury (since Albania did not use televoting); Belgium would have received no official points from televoting alone.[24] In his book, Nul Points, comic writer Tim Moore interviews several of these performers about how their Eurovision score affected their careers.[25]

Since the creation of a qualifying round (semifinal) in 2004[26] and an expansion to two semifinals in 2008,[27] more than thirty countries vote each night – even countries which have been eliminated or have already qualified. No points are rarer; it would require a song to place less than tenth in every country in jury voting and televote.


Entries which received no points during the semifinals are:

Contest Country Artist Song
2004   Switzerland Piero Esteriore & The MusicStars "Celebrate"
2009  Czech Republic Gypsy.cz "Aven Romale"[28]

2016 onwards: One section of voting

With the new televoting system being introduced in the 2016 contest, scoring no points in either the jury voting or televoting phase is possible. An overall "nul points" is also possible, but much less likely, and has not yet happened. The closest to overall "nul points" came San Marino in 2017, receiving a single point from the German televote.

In 2016, the Czech Republic's entry "I Stand" received no points from the televote. They did get 41 points from juries.[29] In 2017, Spain's entry "Do It for Your Lover" received no points from the juries. They did get five points from the televote. Also in 2017, Austria's entry "Running on Air" received no points from the televote but they did get 93 points from juries. In 2019, Germany's entry "Sisters" obtained no points from the televote with 24 from the juries.

In finals

Entries that received no jury points are:

Contest Country Artist Song
2017  Spain Manel Navarro "Do It for Your Lover"
2019  Israel (host) Kobi Marimi "Home"

Entries that received no televote points are:

Contest Country Artist Song
2016  Czech Republic Gabriela Gunčíková "I Stand"
2017  Austria Nathan Trent "Running on Air"
2019  Germany S!sters "Sister"

In semifinals

Entries that received no jury points in the semifinals are:

Contest Country Artist Song
2017  San Marino Valentina Monetta & Jimmie Wilson "Spirit of the Night"

Entries that received no televote points in the semifinals are:

Contest Country Artist Song
2017  Malta Claudia Faniello "Breathlessly"
2018  Iceland Ari Ólafsson "Our Choice"
2019  Austria Paenda "Limits"

Junior Eurovision

No entry in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest has ever received nul points; between 2005 and 2015, each contestant began with 12 points to prevent such a result.[30] However, there has not been a situation that the 12 points received in the beginning would have remained as the sole points.[citation needed] The closest to that was Croatia in 2014 which ended up with 13 points after receiving a single point from San Marino. On 15 October 2012, it was announced by the EBU, that for the first time in the contest's history a new "Kids Jury" was being introduced into the voting system. The jury consists of members aged between 10 and 15, and representing each of the participating countries. A spokesperson from the jury would then announce the points 1–8, 10 and the maximum 12 as decided upon by the jury members.[31] In 2016 the Kids Jury was removed and instead, each country awarded 1–8, 10 and 12 points from both adult and kid's juries, also eliminating televoting from the contest.[32] An expert panel were also present at the 2016 contest, with each of the panelists being able to award 1–8, 10 and 12 points themselves.[33]

In 2018, Portugal and Wales earnt 0 points in the jury voting. In 2019, Portugal earnt 0 points in the jury voting again.

Regional bloc voting

Although statistical analysis of the results from 2001 to 2005 suggests regional bloc voting,[34] it is debatable how much in each case is due to ethnic diaspora voting, a sense of ethnic kinship, political alliances or a tendency for culturally-close countries to have similar musical tastes.[35] Several countries can be categorised as voting blocs, which regularly award one another high points.[34]

It is still common for countries to award points to their neighbours regularly, even if they are not part of a voting bloc (for example, Finland and Estonia, Germany and Denmark, the Baltic states and Russia or Albania and Greece). Votes may also be based on a diaspora. Greece, Turkey, Poland, Russia and the former Yugoslav countries normally get high scores from Germany or the United Kingdom, Armenia gets votes from France and Belgium, Poland from Ireland, Romania from Spain and Italy and Albania from Switzerland, Italy and San Marino. Former Eurovision TV director Bjørn Erichsen disagreed with the assertion that regional bloc voting significantly affects the contest's outcome, saying that Russia's first victory in 2008 was only possible with votes from thirty-eight of the participating countries.[36]

In a recent study,[37] a new methodology is presented which allows a complete analysis of the competition from 1957 until 2017. The voting patterns change and the previous studies restrained their analysis to a particular time window where the voting scheme is homogeneous and this approach allows the sampling comparison over arbitrary periods consistent with the unbiased assumption of voting patterns. This methodology also allows for a sliding time window to accumulate a degree of collusion over the years producing a weighted network. The previous results are supported and the changes over time provide insight into the collusive behaviours given more or less choice.

See also


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  2. ^ Nick, Paton Walsh (2003-05-30). "Vote switch 'stole Tatu's Eurovision win'". The Guardian.
  3. ^ "Eurovision 1997". Eurovision.tv. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  4. ^ "Eurovision history". Eurovision.tv. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  5. ^ "Rules of Eurovision Song Contest 1999" (PDF). Myledbury. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  6. ^ "Rules of Eurovision Song Contest 2000" (PDF). Myledbury. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  7. ^ "Rules of Eurovision Song Contest 2001" (PDF). myledbury. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  8. ^ "Rules of Eurovision Song Contest 2002" (PDF). Myledbury. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  9. ^ "Rules of Eurovision Song Contest 2003" (PDF). myledbury. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  10. ^ https://www.eurovision.tv/upload/press-downloads/2013/Public_version_ESC_2013_Rules_ENG_FINAL.pdf
  11. ^ http://sofabet.com/2013/03/11/eurovision-2013-how-will-birds-fly-for-the-netherlands/
  12. ^ Viniker, Barry (2009-05-20). "FYR Macedonia threatens Eurovision withdrawal". ESCToday. Archived from the original on 2009-05-21. Retrieved 24 January 2010.
  13. ^ Bakker, Sietse (2009-10-11). "Exclusive: Juries also get 50% stake in Semi-Final result!". EBU. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  14. ^ Bakker, Sietse (22 January 2015). "EBU restores televoting window as from 2012". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
  15. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-30. Retrieved 2015-05-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) read 2015-05-20
  16. ^ https://oikotimes.com/2017/05/16/eurovision-2017-results-under-the-old-system/[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "Public rules of the 60th Eurovision Song Contest" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  18. ^ "Eurovision 2008 Final". Eurovision.tv. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  19. ^ http://www.myledbury.co.uk/eurovision/pdf/esc2002.pdf
  20. ^ http://www.myledbury.co.uk/eurovision/pdf/esc2003.pdf
  21. ^ Adrian Kavanagh (May 13, 2016). "2016 Eurovision Final results estimate (or televote estimate!): To Russia with Love or Going to a Land Down Under?". Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  22. ^ a b "'Nul points' sparks Eurovision rejig". Broadcast. Retrieved 29 May 2003.
  23. ^ "The BIG Zero". sechuk.com.
  24. ^ Siim, Jarmo. "Eurovision 2012 split jury-televote results revealed". Eurovision. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  25. ^ "Nul Points: Amazon.co.uk: Tim Moore: 9780099492979: Books". amazon.co.uk.
  26. ^ "Rules of the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. MyLedbury.
  27. ^ "Eurovision: 2 semi finals confirmed!". Esctoday. Archived from the original on 25 June 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2007.
  28. ^ Cameron, Rob. "Czechs pull out of Eurovision after three years and "nul points"". Radio Prague. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  29. ^ "ESC 2016 grand final full results". Eurovision. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  30. ^ "'Your votes please: the spokespersons'". ESC Today. 26 November 2005. Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  31. ^ Siim, Jarmo (15 October 2012). "Extra 'country' to give points in 2012". junioreurovision.tv. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  32. ^ Jordan, Paul (13 May 2016). "Format changes for the Junior Eurovision 2016". junioreurovision.tv. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  33. ^ Jordan, Paul (13 May 2016). "Jedward to appear at Junior Eurovision 2016!". junioreurovision.tv. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  34. ^ a b Derek Gatherer (2005-09-20). "Comparison of Eurovision Song Contest Simulation with Actual Results Reveals Shifting Patterns of Collusive Voting Alliances". Retrieved 2007-05-14. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  35. ^ Victor Ginsburgh, Abdul Noury (October 2006). "The Eurovision Song Contest:: Is Voting Political or Cultural?" (PDF). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)[permanent dead link]
  36. ^ Bakker, Sietse. "Eurovision TV Director responds to allegations on voting". Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  37. ^ Mantzaris, Alexander V., Rein, Samuel R. and Hopkins, Alexander D. "Examining Collusion and Voting Biases Between Countries During the Eurovision Song Contest Since 1957.", Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation vol. 21, no. 1. 31 Jan 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2017.