Voiced labio-velar approximant

About this sound International Phonetic Alphabet chart Fricative consonant
Advertisement - You can get this game from STEAM
Voiced labio-velar approximant
w
IPA Number170
Encoding
Entity (decimal)w
Unicode (hex)U+0077
X-SAMPAw
Braille⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456)
Audio sample
Compressed labio-velar approximant
ɰᵝ
wᵝ

The voiced labio-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English. It is the sound denoted by the letter ⟨w⟩ in the English alphabet;[1] likewise, the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨w⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is w. In most languages it is a labialized velar approximant [ɰʷ], and the semivocalic counterpart of the close back rounded vowel [u] - i.e. the non-syllabic close back rounded vowel. In inventory charts of languages with other labialized velar consonants, /w/ will be placed in the same column as those consonants. When consonant charts have only labial and velar columns, /w/ may be placed in the velar column, (bi)labial column, or both. The placement may have more to do with phonological criteria than phonetic ones.[2]

Some languages have the voiced labio-prevelar approximant,[3] which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced labio-prevelar approximant, though not as front as the prototypical labialized palatal approximant.

Features

Features of the voiced labialized velar approximant:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ауаҩы/auaòy [awaˈɥə] 'human' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe оды/ody About this sound[wadə]  'thin'
Arabic Modern Standard[4] وَرْد‎/ward [ward] 'rose' See Arabic phonology
Assamese ৱাশ্বিংটন/washington [waʃiŋtɔn] 'Washington'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ktawa [kta:wa] 'book' Most speakers. [v] and [ʋ] are used in the Urmia dialects.
Basque lau [law] 'four'
Belarusian воўк/voŭk [vɔwk] 'wolf' See Belarusian phonology
Bengali ওয়াদা/uada [wada] 'promise' See Bengali phonology
Berber ⴰⵍ/awal [æwæl] 'speech'
Catalan[5] creuar [kɾəˈwa] 'to cross' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese /waat About this sound[wɑːt̚˧] 'dig' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin /wā About this sound[wa̠˥] See Mandarin phonology
Dutch Colloquial kouwe [ˈkʌu̯wə] 'cold' Lenited allophone of /d/ after /ʌu̯/. See Dutch phonology
Standard Surinamese welp [wɛɫp] 'cub' Corresponds to [ʋ] in the Netherlands and to [β̞] in Belgium. See Dutch phonology
English weep [wiːp] 'weep' See English phonology
Esperanto aŭto ['awto] 'car' See Esperanto phonology
French[6] oui [wi] 'yes' See French phonology
German Bauer [bau̯ɐ] 'farmer' Allophone of [u] in between two vowels. See German phonology
Hawaiian[7] wikiwiki [wikiwiki] 'fast' May also be realized as [v]. See Hawaiian phonology
Hebrew Oriental כּוֹחַ‎/kowaḥ [ˈkowaħ] 'power' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani[8] विश्वास [vɪʃwaːs] 'believe' See Hindustani phonology
Irish vóta [ˈwoːt̪ˠə] 'vote' See Irish phonology
Italian[9] uomo [ˈwɔːmo] 'man' See Italian phonology
Japanese わたし/watashi [ɰᵝataɕi] 'I' Pronounced with lip compression. See Japanese phonology
Kabardian уэ/wǎ About this sound[wa]  'you'
Korean 왜가리/waegari [wɛɡɐɾi] 'heron' See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[10] zwee [t͡swe̝ː] 'two' Allophone of /v/ after /k, t͡s, ʃ/.[11] See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay wang [waŋ] 'money'
Mayan Yucatec witz [wit͡s] 'mountain'
Nepali कील [wʌkil] 'lawyer' See Nepali phonology
Pashto ﻭﺍﺭ‎/war [wɑr] 'one time'
Polish[12] łaska About this sound[ˈwäskä]  'grace' See Polish phonology. Corresponds to [ɫ] in older pronunciation and eastern dialects
Portuguese[13] Most dialects quando [ˈkwɐ̃du] 'when' Post-lexically after /k/ and /ɡ/. See Portuguese phonology
boa [ˈbow.wɐ] 'good' (f.) Epenthetic glide or allophone of /u/, following a stressed rounded vowel and preceding an unrounded one.[14]
General Brazilian qual [ˈkwaw] 'which' Allophone of /l/ in coda position for most Brazilian dialects.[15]
Romanian dulău [duˈləw] 'mastiff' See Romanian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Croatian[16] vuk [wûːk] 'wolf' Allophone of /ʋ/ before /u/.[16] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Seri cmiique [ˈkw̃ĩːkːɛ] 'person' Allophone of /m/
Slovene[17][18] cerkev [ˈt͡sèːrkəw] 'church' Allophone of /ʋ/ in the syllable coda.[17][18] Voiceless [ʍ] before voiceless consonants. See Slovene phonology
Sotho sewa [ˈsewa] 'epidemic' See Sesotho phonology
Spanish[19] cuanto [ˈkwãn̪t̪o̞] 'as much' See Spanish phonology
Swahili mwanafunzi [mwɑnɑfunzi] 'student'
Tagalog araw [ˈɐɾaw] 'day' See Tagalog phonology
Thai แห /waen [wɛn˩˩˦] 'ring'
Ukrainian вовк/voŭk [vɔwk] 'wolf' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[20] tuần [t̪wən˨˩] 'week' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh gwae [ɡwaɨ] 'woe' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian skowe [skoːwə] 'to shove'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Guidelines for Transcription of English Consonants and Vowels (PDF); see the examples on the fifth page.
  2. ^ Ohala & Lorentz (1977:577)
  3. ^ Instead of "pre-velar", it can be called "advanced velar", "fronted velar", "front-velar", "palato-velar", "post-palatal", "retracted palatal" or "backed palatal".
  4. ^ Watson (2002:13)
  5. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:55)
  6. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:75)
  7. ^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:xvii)
  8. ^ Ladefoged (2005:141)
  9. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  10. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67, 69.
  11. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 69.
  12. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  13. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:230)
  14. ^ (in Portuguese) Delta: Documentation of studies on theoretical and applied Linguistics – Problems in the tense variant of carioca speech.
  15. ^ Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (23 Dec 2004). "Brazilian Portuguese". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 34 (2): 227–232. doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
  16. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:68)
  17. ^ a b Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:136)
  18. ^ a b Greenberg (2006:18)
  19. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:256)
  20. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)