Vietnamese alphabet

ISBN (identifier) Vietnamese phonology Voiceless velar plosive
Vietnamese alphabet
Chữ Quốc Ngữ
LanguagesVietnamese, other indigenous languages of Vietnam
CreatorPortuguese Jesuits,[1][2][3] Alexandre de Rhodes
Parent systems

The Vietnamese alphabet (Vietnamese: chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "National language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language. It uses the Latin script based on Romance languages,[4] in particular, the Portuguese alphabet,[1] with some digraphs and the addition of nine accent marks or diacritics – four of them to create sounds, and the other five to indicate tone. These many diacritics, often two on the same vowel, make written Vietnamese recognizable among localized variants of Latin alphabets.[5]

Letter names and pronunciation

There are 29 letters in the Vietnamese alphabet. There are four to six tones, which are marked in the IPA as suprasegmentals following the phonemic value. It uses all the letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet except for F, J, W, and Z. The aforementioned letters are only used to write loanwords, languages of other ethnic groups in the country based on vietnamese phonetics to differentiate the meanings or even vietnamese dialects, for example: dz or z for southerner pronunciation of v in standard vietnamese.

Vietnamese alphabet in cursive
Vietnamese alphabet[6]
Letter Name IPA Name when

used in spelling

Hà Nội Sài Gòn
A a a /aː˧/ /aː˧/
Ă ă á /aː˧˥/ /aː˧˥/
 â /əː˧˥/ /əː˧˥/
B b /ɓe˧/ /ɓe˧/ bờ /ɓəː˨˩/
C c /se˧/ /se˧/ cờ /kəː˨˩/
D d /ze˧/ /je˧/ dờ /zəː˨˩/
Đ đ đê /ɗe˧/ /ɗe˧/ đờ /ɗəː˨˩/
E e e /ɛ˧/ /ɛ˧/
Ê ê ê /e˧/ /e˧/
G g giê /ʒe˧/ /ʒe˧, ɹe˧/ gờ /ɣəː˨˩/
H h hát, hắt /ha:t˧˥/ /hak˧˥/ hờ /həː˨˩/
I i i ngắn /i˧ ŋan˧˥/ /ɪi̯˧ ŋaŋ˧˥/[7]
K k ca /kaː˧/ /kaː˧/
L l en lờ /ɛn˧ ləː˨˩/ /ɛŋ˧ ləː˨˩/ lờ /ləː˨˩/
M m em mờ /ɛm˧ məː˨˩/ /ɛm˧ məː˨˩/ mờ /məː˨˩/
N n en nờ, anh nờ /ɛn˧ nəː˨˩/ /an˧ nəː˨˩/ nờ /nəː˨˩/
O o o /ɔ˧/ /ɔ˧/
Ô ô ô /o˧/ /o˧/
Ơ ơ ơ /əː˧/ /əː˧/
P p pê, bê phở /pe˧/ /pe˧/ pờ /pəː˨˩/
Q q quy /ku˧, kwi˧/ /kwi˧/ quờ /kwəː˨˩/
R r e rờ /ɛ˧ rəː˨˩/ /ɛ˧ ɹəː˨˩/ rờ /rəː˨˩/
S s ét xì, ét xờ /ɛt˦˥ si˨˩/ /ɛt˦˥, ə:t˦˥ (sə˨˩)/ sờ /ʂəː˨˩/
T t /te˧/ /te˧/ tờ /təː˨˩/
U u u /u˧/ /ʊu̯˧/[7]
Ư ư ư /ɨ˧/ /ɯ̽ɯ̯˧/[7]
V v /ve˧/ /ve˧/ vờ /vəː˧/
X x ích xì /ik˦˥ si˨˩/ /ɪ̈t˦˥ (si˨˩)/ xờ /səː˨˩/
Y y y dài /i˧ zaːj˨˩/ /ɪi̯˧ jaːj˨˩/[7]



The alphabet is largely derived from the Portuguese, although the usage of gh and gi was borrowed from Italian (compare ghetto, Giuseppe), and that for c/k/qu from Greek and Latin (compare canis, kinesis, quō vādis), mirroring the English usage of these letters (compare cat, kite, queen).

Grapheme Word-Initial (IPA) Word-Final Notes
Northern Southern Northern Southern
B b /ɓ/
C c /k/ /k/ ⟨k⟩ is used instead when preceding ⟨i y e ê⟩. K is also used before U in the Vietnamese city Pleiku.
⟨qu⟩ is used instead of ⟨co cu⟩ if a /w/ on-glide exists.
Realized as [k͡p] in word-final position following rounded vowels ⟨u ô o⟩.
Ch ch // /c/ /ʲk/ /t/ Multiple phonemic analyses of final ⟨ch⟩ have been proposed (main article).
D d /z/ /j/ In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨d⟩ represented /ð/. The distinction between ⟨d⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ is now purely etymological (and is the only one) in most modern dialects.
Đ đ /ɗ/
G g /ɣ/
Gh gh Spelling used ⟨gh⟩ instead of ⟨g⟩ before ⟨i e ê⟩, seemingly to follow the Italian convention. ⟨g⟩ is not allowed in these environments.
Gi gi /z/ /j/ In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨gi⟩ represented /ʝ/. The distinction between ⟨d⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ is now purely etymological (and is the only one) in most modern dialects. Realized as [ʒ] in Northern spelling pronunciation. Spelled ⟨g⟩ before another ⟨i⟩.[a]
H h /h/
K k /k/ Spelling used instead of ⟨c⟩ before ⟨i y e ê⟩ to follow the European tradition. ⟨c⟩ is not allowed in these environments.
Kh kh /x/ In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨kh⟩ was pronounced []
L l /l/
M m /m/ /m/
N n /n/ /n/ /ŋ/ In Southern Vietnamese, word-final ⟨n⟩ is realized as [ŋ] if not following ⟨i ê⟩.
Ng ng /ŋ/ /ŋ/ Realized as [ŋ͡m] in word-final position following rounded vowels ⟨u ô o⟩.
Ngh ngh Spelling used instead of ⟨ng⟩ before ⟨i e ê⟩ in accordance with ⟨gh⟩.
Nh nh /ɲ/ /ʲŋ/ /n/ Multiple phonemic analyses of final ⟨nh⟩ have been proposed (main article).
P p /p/ Only occurs initially in loanwords. Some Vietnamese pronounce it as a "b" sound instead (as in Arabic).
Ph ph /f/ In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨ph⟩ was pronounced []
Qu qu // Spelling used in place of ⟨co cu⟩ if a /w/ on-glide exists.
R r /z/ /r/ Variably pronounced as a fricative [ʐ], approximant [ɹ], flap [ɾ] or trill [r] in Southern speech.
S s /s/ /ʂ/ Realized as [ʃ] in Northern spelling pronunciation.
T t /t/ /t/ /k/ In Southern Vietnamese, word-final ⟨t⟩ is realized as [k] if not following ⟨i ê⟩.
Th th //
Tr tr // /ʈ/ Realized as [tʃ] in Northern spelling pronunciation.
V v /v/ /j/ In Middle Vietnamese, it was represented by a b with flourishȸ⟩ and was pronounced [β].
Can be realized as [v] in Southern speech through spelling pronunciation and in loanwords.
X x /s/ In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨x⟩ was pronounced [ɕ].
  1. ^ This causes some ambiguity with the diphthong ia/, for example gia could be either gi+a [za ~ ja] or gi+ia [ziə̯ ~ jiə̯]. If there is a tone mark the ambiguity is resolved: giá is gi+á and gía is gi+ía.



The correspondence between the orthography and pronunciation is somewhat complicated. In some cases, the same letter may represent several different sounds, and different letters may represent the same sound. This is because the orthography was designed centuries ago and the spoken language has changed, as shown in the chart directly above that contrasts the difference between Middle and Modern Vietnamese.

The letters y and i are mostly equivalent, and there is no concrete rule that says when to use one or the other, except in sequences like ay and uy (i.e. tay ("arm, hand") is read /tă̄j/ while tai ("ear") is read /tāj/). There have been attempts since the late 20th century to standardize the orthography by replacing all the vowel uses of y with i, the latest being a decision from the Vietnamese Ministry of Education in 1984. These efforts seem to have had limited effect. In textbooks published by Nhà Xuất bản Giáo dục ("Publishing House of Education"), y is used to represent /i/ only in Sino-Vietnamese words that are written with one letter y alone (diacritics can still be added, as in ý, ), at the beginning of a syllable when followed by ê (as in yếm, yết), after u, and in the sequence ay; therefore such forms as *lý and *kỹ are not "standard", though they are much preferred elsewhere. Most people and the popular media continue to use the spelling that they are most accustomed to.

Spelling and pronunciation in Vietnamese
Spelling Sound
a  /a/ ([æ] in some dialects) except as below
 /ă/ in au /ăw/ and ay /ăj/ (but /a/ in ao /aw/ and ai /aj/)
 /ăj/ before syllable-final nh /ŋ/ and ch /k/, see
 Vietnamese phonology#Analysis of final ch, nh
 /ə̯/ in ưa /ɨə̯/, ia /iə̯/ and ya /iə̯/
 /ə̯/ in ua except after q[note 1]
ă  /ă/
â  /ə̆/
e  /ɛ/
ê  /e/ except as below
 /ə̆j/ before syllable-final nh /ŋ/ and ch /k/, see
 Vietnamese phonology#Analysis of final ch, nh
 /ə̯/ in /iə̯/ and /iə̯/
i  /i/ except as below
 /j/ after any vowel letter
o  /ɔ/ except as below
 /ăw/ before ng and c[note 2]
 /w/ after any vowel letter (= after a or e)
 /w/ before any vowel letter except i (= before ă, a or e)
ô  /o/ except as below
 /ə̆w/ before ng and c except after a u that is not preceded by a q[note 3]
 /ə̯/ in except after q[note 4]
ơ  /ə/ except as below
 /ə̯/ in ươ /ɨə̯/
u  /u/ except as below
 /w/ after q or any vowel letter
 /w/ before any vowel letter except a, ô and i
 Before a, ô and i: /w/ if preceded by q, /u/ otherwise
ư  /ɨ/
y  /i/ except as below
 /j/ after any vowel letter except u (= after â and a)
  1. ^ qua is pronounced /kwa/ except in quay, where it is pronounced /kwă/. When not preceded by q, ua is pronounced /uə̯/.
  2. ^ However, oong and ooc are pronounced /ɔŋ/ and /ɔk/.
  3. ^ uông and uôc are pronounced /uə̯ŋ/ and /uə̯k/ when not preceded by a q.
  4. ^ quô is pronounced /kwo/ except in quông and quôc, where it is pronounced /kwə̆w/. When not preceded by q, is pronounced /uə̯/.

The uses of the letters i and y to represent the phoneme /i/ can be categorized as "standard" (as used in textbooks published by Nhà Xuất bản Giáo dục) and "non-standard" as follows.

Standard spellings in Vietnamese
Context "Standard" "Non-standard"
In one-lettered non-Sino-Vietnamese syllables i (e.g.: i tờ, í ới, ì ạch, ỉ ôi, đi ị)
In one-lettered Sino-Vietnamese syllables y (e.g.: y học, ý kiến, ỷ lại)
Syllable-initial, not followed by ê i (e.g.: ỉa đái, im lặng, ích lợi, ỉu xìu)
Syllable-initial, followed by ê y (e.g.: yếu ớt, yếm dãi, yết hầu)
After u y (e.g.: uy lực, huy hoàng, khuya khoắt, tuyển mộ, khuyết tật, khuỷu tay, huýt sáo, khuynh hướng)
After qu, not followed by ê, nh y (e.g.: quý giá, quấn quýt) i (e.g.: quí giá, quấn quít)
After qu, followed by ê, nh y (e.g.: quyên góp, xảo quyệt, mừng quýnh, hoa quỳnh)
After b, d, đ, r, x i (e.g.: bịa đặt, diêm dúa, địch thủ, rủ rỉ, triều đại, xinh xắn)
After g, not followed by a, ă, â, e, ê, o, ô, ơ, u, ư i (e.g.: cái gì?, giữ gìn)
After h, k, l, m, t, not followed by any letter, in non-Sino-Vietnamese syllables i (e.g.: ti hí, kì cọ, lí nhí, mí mắt, tí xíu)
After h, k, l, m, t, not followed by any letter, in Sino-Vietnamese syllables i (e.g.: hi vọng, kì thú, lí luận, mĩ thuật, giờ Tí) y (e.g.: hy vọng, kỳ thú, lý luận, mỹ thuật, giờ Tý)
After ch, gh, kh, nh, ph, th i (e.g.: chíp hôi, ghi nhớ, ý nghĩa, khiêu khích, nhí nhố, phiến đá, buồn thiu)
After n, s, v, not followed by any letter, in non-proper-noun syllables i (e.g.: ni cô, si tình, vi khuẩn)
After n, s, v, not followed by any letter, in proper nouns i (e.g.: Ni, Thuỵ Sĩ, Vi) y (e.g.: Ny, Thụy Sỹ, Vy)
After h, k, l, m, n, s, t, v, followed by a letter i (e.g.: thương hiệu, kiên trì, bại liệt, ngôi miếu, nũng nịu, siêu đẳng, mẫn tiệp, được việc)
In Vietnamese personal names, after a consonant i either i or y, depending on personal preference

This "standard" set by Nhà Xuất bản Giáo dục is not definite. It is unknown why the literature books use while the history books use .


Vowel nuclei

The table below matches the vowels of Hanoi Vietnamese (written in the IPA) and their respective orthographic symbols used in the writing system.

Front Central Back
Sound Spelling Sound Spelling Sound Spelling
Centering /iə̯/ iê/ia* /ɨə̯/ ươ/ưa* /uə̯/ uô/ua*
Close /i/ i, y /ɨ/ ư /u/ u
/e/ ê /ə/ ơ /o/ ô
/ə̆/ â
/ɛ/ e /a/ a /ɔ/ o
/ă/ ă


  1. preceded by an orthographic vowel: /xwīə̯n/ = khuyên 'to advise';
  2. at the beginning of a word derived from Chinese (written as i otherwise): /ʔīə̯w/ = yêu 'to love'.

Diphthongs and triphthongs

Rising Vowels Rising-Falling Vowels Falling Vowels
nucleus (V) /w/ on-glides /w/ + V + off-glide /j/ off-glides /w/ off-glides
front e /wɛ/ oe/(q)ue* /wɛw/ oeo/(q)ueo* /ɛw/ eo
ê /we/ /ew/ êu
i /wi/ uy /wiw/ uyu /iw/ iu
ia/iê/yê* /wiə̯/ uyê/uya* /iə̯w/ iêu/yêu*
central a /wa/ oa/(q)ua* /waj/ oai/(q)uai, /waw/ oao/(q)uao* /aj/ ai /aw/ ao
ă /wă/ oă/(q)uă* /wăj/ oay/(q)uay* /ăj/ ay /ăw/ au
â /wə̆/ /wə̆j/ uây /ə̆j/ ây /ə̆w/ âu
ơ /wə/ /əj/ ơi /əw/ ơu
ư /ɨj/ ưi /ɨw/ ưu
ưa/ươ* /ɨə̯j/ ươi /ɨə̯w/ ươu
back o /ɔj/ oi
ô /oj/ ôi
u /uj/ ui
ua/uô* /uə̯j/ uôi


The glide /w/ is written:

The off-glide /j/ is written as i except after â and ă, where it is written as y; note that /ăj/ is written as ay instead of *ăy (cf. ai /aj/) .

The diphthong /iə̯/ is written:

Note that the i of the diphthong changes to y after u:
  • ya: /xwīə̯/ = khuya 'late at night'
  • : /xwīə̯n/ = khuyên 'to advise'
changes to at the beginning of a syllable (ia does not change):
  • /īə̯n/ = yên 'calm'; /ǐə̯w/ yếu' 'weak, feeble'

The diphthong /uə̯/ is written:

The diphthong /ɨə̯/ is written:

Tone marks

Vietnamese is a tonal language, i.e., the meaning of each word depends on the "tone" (basically a specific tone and glottalization pattern) in which it is pronounced. There are six distinct tones in the standard northern dialect. In the south, there is a merging of the hỏi and ngã tones, in effect leaving five basic tones. The first one ("level tone") is not marked, and the other five are indicated by diacritics applied to the vowel part of the syllable. The tone names are chosen such that the name of each tone is spoken in the tone it identifies.

Name Contour Diacritic Vowels with diacritic
Ngang or Bằng mid level, ˧ unmarked A/a, Ă/ă, Â/â, E/e, Ê/ê, I/i, O/o, Ô/ô, Ơ/ơ, U/u, Ư/ư, Y/y
Huyền low falling, ˨˩ grave accent À/à, Ằ/ằ, Ầ/ầ, È/è, Ề/ề, Ì/ì, Ò/ò, Ồ/ồ, Ờ/ờ, Ù/ù, Ừ/ừ, Ỳ/ỳ
Hỏi mid falling, ˧˩ (Northern); dipping, ˨˩˥ (Southern) hook above Ả/ả, Ẳ/ẳ, Ẩ/ẩ, Ẻ/ẻ, Ể/ể, Ỉ/ỉ, Ỏ/ỏ, Ổ/ổ, Ở/ở, Ủ/ủ, Ử/ử, Ỷ/ỷ
Ngã glottalized rising, ˧˥ˀ (Northern); slightly lengthened Dấu Hỏi tone (Southern) tilde Ã/ã, Ẵ/ẵ, Ẫ/ẫ, Ẽ/ẽ, Ễ/ễ, Ĩ/ĩ, Õ/õ, Ỗ/ỗ, Ỡ/ỡ, Ũ/ũ, Ữ/ữ, Ỹ/ỹ
Sắc high rising, ˧˥ acute accent Á/á, Ắ/ắ, Ấ/ấ, É/é, Ế/ế, Í/í, Ó/ó, Ố/ố, Ớ/ớ, Ú/ú, Ứ/ứ, Ý/ý
Nặng glottalized falling, ˧˨ˀ (Northern); low rising, ˩˧ (Southern) dot below Ạ/ạ, Ặ/ặ, Ậ/ậ, Ẹ/ẹ, Ệ/ệ, Ị/ị, Ọ/ọ, Ộ/ộ, Ợ/ợ, Ụ/ụ, Ự/ự, Ỵ/ỵ

In syllables where the vowel part consists of more than one vowel (such as diphthongs and triphthongs), the placement of the tone is still a matter of debate. Generally, there are two methodologies, an "old style" and a "new style". While the "old style" emphasizes aesthetics by placing the tone mark as close as possible to the center of the word (by placing the tone mark on the last vowel if an ending consonant part exists and on the next-to-last vowel if the ending consonant doesn't exist, as in hóa, hủy), the "new style" emphasizes linguistic principles and tries to apply the tone mark on the main vowel (as in hoá, huỷ). In both styles, when one vowel already has a quality diacritic on it, the tone mark must be applied to it as well, regardless of where it appears in the syllable (thus thuế is acceptable while thúê is not). In the case of the ươ diphthong, the mark is placed on the ơ. The u in qu is considered part of the consonant. Currently, the new style is usually used in textbooks published by Nhà Xuất bản Giáo dục, while most people still prefer the old style in casual uses. Among Overseas Vietnamese communities, the old style is predominant for all purposes.

In lexical ordering, differences in letters are treated as primary, differences in tone markings as secondary, and differences in case as tertiary differences. (Letters include for instance A and Ă but not Ẳ. Older dictionaries also treated digraphs and trigraphs like CH and NGH as base letters.[9]) Ordering according to primary and secondary differences proceeds syllable by syllable. According to this principle, a dictionary lists tuân thủ before tuần chay because the secondary difference in the first syllable takes precedence over the primary difference in the second.


In the past, syllables in multisyllabic words were concatenated with hyphens, but this practice has died out, and hyphenation is now reserved for word-borrowings from other languages. A written syllable consists of at most three parts, in the following order from left to right:

  1. An optional beginning consonant part
  2. A required vowel syllable nucleus and the tone mark, if needed, applied above or below it
  3. An ending consonant part, can only be one of the following: c, ch, m, n, ng, nh, p, t, or nothing.[10]


A page from Alexandre de Rhodes' 1651 dictionary

Since the Triệu dynasty in the 2nd century BC, Vietnamese literature, government papers, scholarly works, and religious scripture were all written in classical Chinese (chữ Hán). Since the 12th century, several Vietnamese words started to be written in chữ Nôm, using variant Chinese characters, each of them representing one word. The system was based on chu Han, but was also supplemented with Vietnamese-invented characters (chữ thuần nôm, proper Nom characters) to represent native Vietnamese words.

Creation of chữ Quốc ngữ

As early as 1620 with the work of Francisco de Pina, Portuguese and Italian Jesuit missionaries in Vietnam began using Latin script to transcribe the Vietnamese language as an assistance for learning the language.[1][3] The work was continued by the Avignonese Alexandre de Rhodes. Building on previous dictionaries by Gaspar do Amaral and Antonio Barbosa, Rhodes wrote the Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum, a Vietnamese–Portuguese–Latin dictionary, which was later printed in Rome in 1651, using their spelling system.[1][11] These efforts led eventually to the development of the present Vietnamese alphabet. Still, chữ Nôm remained the dominant script in Vietnamese Catholic literature until late 19th century.[12]

Colonial Times

In 1910, French colonial administration enforced chữ Quốc ngữ.[13] The Latin alphabet became a means to publish Vietnamese popular literature, which were disparaged as vulgar by the Chinese-educated imperial elites.[14] Historian Pamela A. Pears asserted that by instituting the Latin alphabet in Vietnam, the French cut the Vietnamese from their traditional Hán Nôm literature.[15] Nowadays, although the Vietnamese majorly use chữ Quốc ngữ, new Vietnamese terms for new items or words are often calqued from Hán Nôm. Some French had originally planned to replace Vietnamese with French, but this never was a serious project, given the small number of French settlers compared with the native population. The French had to reluctantly accept the use of chữ Quốc ngữ to write Vietnamese, since this writing system is based on Portuguese orthography by Portugese missionaries, not by the French.[16]

Mass education

Between 1907-1908 the short-lived Tonkin Free School promulgated quốc ngữ and taught French to the general population.

By 1917, the French had suppressed Vietnam's Confucian examination system, viewed as an aristocratic system linked with the "ancient regime", thereby forcing Vietnamese elites to educate their offspring in the French language education system. Emperor Khải Định declared the traditional writing system abolished in 1918.[14] While the most traditional nationalists favoured the Confucian examination system and the use of ideograms, Vietnamese revolutionaries and progressive nationalists as well as pro-French elites viewed the French education system as a means to liberate the Vietnamese from old Chinese domination, to democratize education and to link the Vietnamese to ideals expressed by the French republic.

The French colonial regime then set up another educational system, teaching Vietnamese as first language using quoc ngu in primary school, and then French as a second language (taught in quoc ngu). Hundreds of thousands of textbooks for primary education began to be published in quoc ngu, with the unintentional result of turning the script into the popular medium for the expression of Vietnamese culture.[17]

Late 20th century to present

Prior to the advent of 21st-century computer-assisted typesetting methods, the act of typesetting and printing Vietnamese has been described as a "nightmare" due to the number of accents and diacritics.[18][19][20] Contemporary Vietnamese texts sometimes included words which have not been adapted to modern Vietnamese orthography, especially for documents written in Chinese characters. The Vietnamese language itself has been likened to a system akin to "ruby characters" elsewhere in Asia. See Vietnamese language and computers for usage on computers and on the internet.

Typing Vietnamese (computer support)

The universal character set Unicode has full support for the Vietnamese writing system, although it does not have a separate segment for it. The required characters that other languages use are scattered throughout the Basic Latin, Latin-1 Supplement, Latin Extended-A, and Latin Extended-B blocks; those that remain (such as the letters with more than one diacritic) are placed in the Latin Extended Additional block. An ASCII-based writing convention, Vietnamese Quoted Readable, and several byte-based encodings including VSCII (TCVN), VNI, VISCII and Windows-1258 were widely used before Unicode became popular. Most new documents now exclusively use the Unicode format UTF-8.

Unicode allows the user to choose between precomposed characters and combining characters in inputting Vietnamese. Because in the past some fonts implemented combining characters in a nonstandard way (see Verdana font), most people use precomposed characters when composing Vietnamese-language documents (except on Windows where Windows-1258 used combining characters).

Most keyboards used by Vietnamese-language users do not support direct input of diacritics by default.[citation needed] Various free software such as Unikey that act as keyboard drivers exist. They support the most popular input methods, including Telex, VNI, VIQR and its variants.

See also


Further reading


  1. ^ a b c d Jacques, Roland (2002). Portuguese Pioneers of Vietnamese Linguistics Prior to 1650 – Pionniers Portugais de la Linguistique Vietnamienne Jusqu'en 1650 (in English and French). Bangkok, Thailand: Orchid Press. ISBN 974-8304-77-9.
  2. ^ Jacques, Roland (2004). "Bồ Đào Nha và công trình sáng chế chữ quốc ngữ: Phải chăng cần viết lại lịch sử?" Translated by Nguyễn Đăng Trúc. In Các nhà truyền giáo Bồ Đào Nha và thời kỳ đầu của Giáo hội Công giáo Việt Nam (Quyển 1)Les missionnaires portugais et les débuts de l'Eglise catholique au Viêt-nam (Tome 1) (in Vietnamese & French). Reichstett, France: Định Hướng Tùng Thư. ISBN 2-912554-26-8.
  3. ^ a b Trần, Quốc Anh; Phạm, Thị Kiều Ly (October 2019). Từ Nước Mặn đến Roma: Những đóng góp của các giáo sĩ Dòng Tên trong quá trình La tinh hoá tiếng Việt ở thế kỷ 17. Conference 400 năm hình thành và phát triển chữ Quốc ngữ trong lịch sử loan báo Tin Mừng tại Việt Nam. Hochiminh City: Ủy ban Văn hóa, Catholic Bishops' Conference of Vietnam.
  4. ^ Haudricourt, André-Georges. 2010. "The Origin of the Peculiarities of the Vietnamese Alphabet." Mon-Khmer Studies 39: 89–104. Translated from: Haudricourt, André-Georges. 1949. "L'origine Des Particularités de L'alphabet Vietnamien." Dân Viêt-Nam 3: 61–68.
  5. ^ Jakob Rupert Friederichsen Opening Up Knowledge Production Through Participatory Research? Frankfurt 2009 [6.1 History of Science and Research in Vietnam] Page 126 "6.1.2 French colonial science in Vietnam: With the colonial era, deep changes took place in education, communication, and ... French colonizers installed a modern European system of education to replace the literary and Confucianism-based model, they promoted a romanized Vietnamese script (Quốc Ngữ) to replace the Sino-Vietnamese characters (Hán Nôm)"
  6. ^ "Vietnam Alphabet". vietnamesetypography.
  7. ^ a b c d The close vowels /i, ɨ, u/ are diphthongized [ɪi̯, ɯ̽ɯ̯, ʊu̯].
  8. ^ "Do you know How to pronounce Igrec?". HowToPronounce.com. Retrieved 2017-10-30.
  9. ^ See for example Lê Bá Khanh; Lê Bá Kông (1998) [1975]. Vietnamese-English/English-Vietnamese Dictionary (7th ed.). New York City: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-87052-924-2.
  10. ^ "vietnamese Alphabet". Omniglot.com. 2014.
  11. ^ Tran, Anh Q. (October 2018). "The Historiography of the Jesuits in Vietnam: 1615–1773 and 1957–2007". Brill.
  12. ^ Ostrowski, Brian Eugene (2010). "The Rise of Christian Nôm Literature in Seventeenth-Century Vietnam: Fusing European Content and Local Expression". In Wilcox, Wynn (ed.). Vietnam and the West: New Approaches. Ithaca, New York: SEAP Publications, Cornell university Press. pp. 23, 38. ISBN 9780877277828.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  13. ^ "Quoc-ngu | Vietnamese writing system". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-04-13.
  14. ^ a b Nguyên Tùng, "Langues, écritures et littératures au Viêt-nam", Aséanie, Sciences humaines en Asie du Sud-Est, Vol. 2000/5, pp. 135-149.
  15. ^ Pamela A. Pears (2006). Remnants of Empire in Algeria and Vietnam: Women, Words, and War. Lexington Books. p. 18. ISBN 0-7391-2022-0. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  16. ^ Trần Bích San. "Thi cử và giáo dục Việt Nam dưới thời thuộc Pháp" (in Vietnamese). Note 3. "The French had to accept reluctantly the existence of chữ quốc ngữ. The propagation of chữ quốc ngữ in Cochinchina was, in fact, not without resistance [by French authority or pro-French Vietnamese elite] [...] Chữ quốc ngữ was created by Portuguese missionaries in the phonemic orthography of Portuguese language. The Vietnamese could not use chữ quốc ngữ to learn French script. The French would mispronounce chữ quốc ngữ in French orthography, particularly people's names and place names. Thus, the French constantly disparaged chữ quốc ngữ because of its uselessness in helping with the propagation of French script."
  17. ^ Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso. pp. 127-128.
  18. ^ Wellisch 1978, p. 94.
  19. ^ "Language Monthly, Issues 40–57" 1987, p. 20.
  20. ^ Sassoon 1995, p. 123.