Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic (1920–25) Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Туркестанская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика
Autonomous republic of the Russian SFSR
Flag of Turkestan ASSR
Map of Soviet Central Asia in 1922, indicating the location and extent of the Turkestan ASSR (brown).
Historical eraInterwar era
• Established
30 April 1918
• Disestablished
27 October 1924
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian Turkestan
Uzbek SSR
Turkmen SSR
Tajik ASSR
Kara-Kirghiz AO
Karakalpak AO
South Russia
Today part ofKazakhstan

The Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (initially, the Turkestan Socialist Federative Republic; 30 April 1918 – 27 October 1924) was an autonomous republic of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic located in Soviet Central Asia.

During the Russian Empire, the Turkestan ASSR's territory was governed as Turkestan Krai, the Emirate of Bukhara, and the Khanate of Khiva. From 1905, Pan-Turkist ideologues like Ismail Gasprinski aimed to suppress differences among the peoples who spoke Turkic languages, uniting them into one government.[1]

This idea was supported by Vladimir Lenin, and after the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Bolsheviks in Tashkent created the Turkestan ASSR. But in February 1918, the Islamic Council (Uzbek: Shuroi Islamia) and the Council of Intelligentsia (Uzb. Shuroi Ulammo) met in Kokand city and declared a rival Turkestan Autonomous Republic, battling Bolshevik forces until the 1920s as part of the conservative Basmachi rebellion.[1]

The Turkestan Soviet Federative Republic was officially proclaimed on April 30, 1918.[2][3]

In the late 1917, the TSFR was cut off from the RSFSR by the revolt of the Orenburg Cossacks, but held out, despite being surrounded by hostile states, until the arrival of the Red Army in September 1919 after the Counteroffensive of Eastern Front.[4]

Meanwhile, a power struggle among the Communists ensued between those favoring a Pan-Turkist government like Turar Ryskulov and Tursun Khojaev, and those in favor of dividing Soviet Turkestan into smaller ethnic or regional units, such as Fayzulla Khodzhayev and Akmal Ikramov. The latter group won, as national delimitation in Central Asia began in 1924.[1] Upon dissolution, the Turkestan ASSR was split into Turkmen SSR (now Turkmenistan), Uzbek SSR (now Uzbekistan) with the Tajik ASSR (now Tajikistan), Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (now Kyrgyzstan), and Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast (now Karakalpakstan).[1]

Date Name
30 April 1918 Turkestan Soviet Federative Republic (constitution adopted 15 October 1918)
24 September 1920 Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (constitution approved 24 September 1920)
30 December 1922 Turkestan A.S.S.R. part of Soviet Union (within Russian S.F.S.R.)
27 October 1924 Dissolved


Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars ("Turksovnarkom").

Initial date Final date Name
15 November 1917 November 1918 Fyodor Kolesov (ru)
November 1918 19 January 1919 Vladislav Figelskiy (ru)
19 January 1919 31 March 1919 Post vacant
31 March 1919 12 September 1919 Karp Sorokin (ru)
12 September 1919 March 1920 Turksovnarkom defunct
March 1920 May 1920 Jānis Rudzutaks
May 1920 September 1920 Isidor Lubimov (ru)
19 September 1920 October 1922 Kaikhaziz Atabayev
October 1922 12 January 1924 Turar Ryskulov
12 January 1924 27 October 1924 Sharustam Islamov (ru)


  1. ^ a b c d Yalcin, Resul (2002). The Rebirth of Uzbekistan: Politics, Economy, and Society in the Post-Soviet Era. Garnet & Ithaca Press. pp. 36–38, 163–164.
  2. ^ "ТУРКЕСТАНСКАЯ АВТОНОМНАЯ СОВЕТСКАЯ СОЦИАЛИСТИЧЕСКАЯ РЕСПУБЛИКА • Большая российская энциклопедия - электронная версия", Bigenc.ru/domestic_history/text/4210080, retrieved 2 September 2020
  3. ^ "Положение о Туркестанской Советской Федеративной Республике — Викитека", Ru.wikisource.org, retrieved 2 September 2020
  4. ^ Smele, Jonathan D. The 'Russian' Civil Wars, 1916-1926: Ten Years That Shook the World. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 228. ISBN 9781849044240.