Tropical savanna climate

Template:Climate chart/How to read a climate chart Colombia Köppen climate classification
Worldwide zones of Tropical savanna climate (Aw/As).

Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories Aw (for a dry winter) and As (driest month having less than 60 mm (2.36 inches) of precipitation and also less than of precipitation) [1]:200–1

This latter fact is in direct contrast to a tropical monsoon climate, whose driest month sees less than 60 mm of precipitation but has more than of precipitation. In essence, a tropical savanna climate tends to either see less rainfall than a tropical monsoon climate or have more pronounced dry season(s).

In tropical savanna climates, the dry season can become severe, and often drought conditions prevail during the course of the year. Tropical savanna climates often feature tree-studded grasslands, rather than thick jungle. It is this widespread occurrence of tall, coarse grass (called savanna) which has led to Aw and As climates often being referred to as tropical savanna. However, there is some doubt whether tropical grasslands are climatically induced. Additionally, pure savannas, without trees, are the exception rather than the rule.

Versions

There are generally four types of tropical savanna climates:

Distribution

Tropical savanna climates are most commonly found in Africa, Asia and South America. The climate is also prevalent in sections of Central America, northern Australia, the Pacific Islands, in sections of North America and some islands in the Caribbean. Most places that have this climate are found at the outer margins of the tropical zone, but occasionally an inner-tropical location (e.g., San Marcos, Antioquia, Colombia) also qualifies. Similarly, the Caribbean coast, eastward from the Gulf of Urabá on the ColombiaPanamá border to the Orinoco river delta, on the Atlantic Ocean (ca. 4,000 km), have long dry periods (the extreme is the BSh climate (see below), characterized by very low, unreliable precipitation, present, for instance, in extensive areas in the Guajira, and Coro, western Venezuela, the northernmost peninsulas in South America, which receive <300 mm total annual precipitation, practically all in two or three months). This condition extends to the Lesser Antilles and Greater Antilles forming the Circumcaribbean dry belt. The length and severity of the dry season diminishes inland (southward); at the latitude of the Amazon river—which flows eastward, just south of the equatorial line—the climate is Af. East from the Andes, between the arid Caribbean and the ever-wet Amazon, are the Orinoco river llanos or savannas, from where this climate takes its name.

Sometimes As is used in place of Aw if the dry season occurs during the time of higher sun and longer days, such as in Honolulu, Hawaii.[2] This may also be due to a rain shadow effect that cuts off summer precipitation in a tropical area. This is the case in East Africa (Mombasa, Kenya, Somalia), Sri Lanka (Trincomalee) and coastal regions of Northeastern Brazil (from Fortaleza through Natal to Maceió), for instance. The difference between 'summer' and 'winter' in such locations is usually so slight that a distinction between an As and Aw climate is a quibble. In most places that have tropical wet and dry climates, however, the dry season occurs during the time of lower sun and shorter days because of reduction of or lack of convection, which in turn is due to the meridional shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone during the entire course of the year.

Cities with a tropical savanna climate

Some examples of tropical savanna climates

Accra, Ghana
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
15
 
 
31
23
 
 
33
 
 
31
24
 
 
56
 
 
31
24
 
 
81
 
 
31
24
 
 
142
 
 
31
24
 
 
178
 
 
29
23
 
 
46
 
 
27
23
 
 
15
 
 
27
22
 
 
36
 
 
27
23
 
 
64
 
 
29
23
 
 
36
 
 
31
24
 
 
23
 
 
31
24
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: BBC Weather[3]
Monte Cristi, Dominican Republic
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
74
 
 
29
19
 
 
47
 
 
29
20
 
 
48
 
 
30
20
 
 
59
 
 
31
21
 
 
60
 
 
32
22
 
 
40
 
 
33
23
 
 
22
 
 
34
23
 
 
28
 
 
34
23
 
 
35
 
 
34
23
 
 
68
 
 
33
22
 
 
108
 
 
31
21
 
 
84
 
 
29
20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: NOAA[4]
Brasília, Brazil
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
241
 
 
27
17
 
 
215
 
 
27
17
 
 
189
 
 
27
18
 
 
124
 
 
27
17
 
 
39
 
 
26
15
 
 
8.8
 
 
25
13
 
 
12
 
 
25
13
 
 
13
 
 
27
15
 
 
52
 
 
28
16
 
 
172
 
 
28
17
 
 
238
 
 
27
18
 
 
249
 
 
26
18
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Information Service [1]
Darwin, Australia
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
466
 
 
32
25
 
 
373
 
 
32
25
 
 
335
 
 
32
25
 
 
108
 
 
33
24
 
 
25
 
 
32
23
 
 
2.3
 
 
31
20
 
 
1.2
 
 
31
20
 
 
5.8
 
 
32
20
 
 
18
 
 
33
23
 
 
65
 
 
34
25
 
 
137
 
 
34
26
 
 
276
 
 
33
26
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology [2]
Mandalay, Myanmar
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
4
 
 
29
13
 
 
2
 
 
32
15
 
 
1
 
 
36
20
 
 
40
 
 
38
24
 
 
138
 
 
37
26
 
 
99
 
 
34
26
 
 
74
 
 
34
26
 
 
136
 
 
32
25
 
 
150
 
 
33
25
 
 
125
 
 
32
24
 
 
38
 
 
30
19
 
 
6
 
 
28
15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Tegucigalpa, Honduras
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
5.3
 
 
26
14
 
 
4.7
 
 
27
15
 
 
9.9
 
 
30
16
 
 
43
 
 
30
17
 
 
144
 
 
30
18
 
 
159
 
 
29
18
 
 
82
 
 
28
18
 
 
89
 
 
29
18
 
 
177
 
 
29
18
 
 
109
 
 
27
18
 
 
40
 
 
26
16
 
 
9.9
 
 
25
15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-020263-5.
  2. ^ "Honolulu, Hawaii Köppen Climate Classification". Weatherbase.
  3. ^ "Average Conditions Accra, Ghana". BBC Weather. May 2011. Archived from the original on 21 October 2006. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
  4. ^ "Station Name: MONTE CRISTI ... Country: DOMINICAN REPUBLIC". NOAA.
  5. ^ "Weather Information for Tegucigalpa, Country: HONDURAS". WMO.