Treaty of Friendship

United States Soviet Union Russia

A Treaty of Friendship, also known as a Friendship Treaty, is a common generic name for any treaty establishing close ties between countries. Friendship treaties have been used for agreements about use and development of resources, territorial integrity, access to harbours, trading lanes and fisheries, and promises of cooperation. Whilst not common, there are some treaties agreeing to some forms of military alliance which have use friendship terminology in their titles,[1] as well as some non-aggression pacts. Additionally, Friendship Treaties have also signalled an independent relationship with emerging states.[2]

History

Ancient Greeks distinguished between three different types of friendships between two polities: Philiai , symmachia, and epimachia. Both symmachia and epimachia were types of alliances, with the former committing States to support each other in battle and the latter requiring parties to assist each other if one suffered an invasion. Philiai, then, made the important distinction of denoting friendship between polities but did not give the treaty partners the status of allies. Romans had a similar word amicitia, which was a state of diplomatic relations which could coexist with an alliance, or exist without it. The Romans employed a practice of establishing peace and friendship with polities on its peripheries, though in practice these relationships were usually built on unequal treaties, requiring the neighbour to support Rome militarily, though not necessarily the reverse.[1]

In most cases, the friendship treaties are not based on equal partnership. This is particularly the case in treaties between aboriginal nations and the colonizers, both in America and in the Pacific, throughout the Colonial era. These treaties, often written primarily in the language of the coloniser, manipulated the terminology of friendship by the larger powers in order to create an environment of trust, primarily for the benefit of themselves. While promising protection in return for these benefits, the treaties are more subtle ways of accessing resources for commercial exploitation of smaller nations.[1]

Since the early 2000s, friendship in international relations has been under closer analysis. Whilst friendship terminology had always been used in discous and diplomacy, the analysis of friendship in international relations had been dismissed as merely being synonymous with good relations. In 2007, Felix Berenskoetter called for the inclusion of friendship analysis into international relations and since then a modest body of literature around the concept has been formed.[3][4]

Terminology

In the Soviet Union, Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance or Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance (Russian: Договор о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимопомощи) was a standard Russian language reference to various treaties both internally, between the Soviet Republics, and externally, with countries considered friendly. This terminology is still in use for some post-Soviet states. The terminology was used in many bilateral treaties the Soviet Union made, but also was used in the Warsaw Pact.[5]

In the United States, these types of treaties are commonly a Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation. More than a hundred so-called "Treaties of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation" have been signed since independence. Since 1946, these treaties have dealt with commercial matters concerned with the protection of persons, natural and juridical, and of the property and interests of such persons. They define the treatment each country owes the nationals of the other; their rights to engage in business and other activities within the boundaries of the former; and the respect due them, their property and their enterprises.[5]

List of Friendship Treaties

List of Friendship Treaties
Signatories Treaty Date Signed
 Mosquito Coast
 United Kingdom
Treaty of Friendship and Alliance 16 March 1740
 France
 United States
Treaty of Amity and Commerce (United States–France) 6 February 1778
 Morocco
 United States
Moroccan–American Treaty of Friendship 28 June 1786
 Ottoman Empire
 United States
Treaty of Tripoli (Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States of America and the Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary) 4 November 1796
 Hawaii
 United States
Hawaii-United States Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation 1849
 Brunei
 United States
Brunei–United States Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Commerce and Navigation 23 June 1850
 Japan
 United Kingdom
Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty 14 October 1854
 Korea
 United States
United States–Korea Treaty of 1882 1882
 Brazil
 Japan
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between Brazil and Japan[6] 1895
 Tonga
 United Kingdom
Treaty of Friendship between Tonga and the United Kingdom 1900
 Bolivia
 Chile
Treaty of Peace and Friendship (1904) 20 October 1904
 Mongolia
 Tibet
Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet 11 January 1913
 Persia
 Soviet Union
Russo-Persian Treaty of Friendship 26 February 1921
 Turkey
 Soviet Union
Treaty of Moscow (1921) [note 1] 16 March 1921
 Portugal
 Spain
Portuguese–Spanish Treaty of Friendship and Non-Aggression 17 March 1939
 Nazi Germany
 Soviet Union
German–Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Demarcation 23 August 1939
 Nazi Germany
 Turkey
German–Turkish Treaty of Friendship 18 June 1941
 Ecuador
 Peru
Rio Protocol aka Protocol of Friendship and Peace 29 January 1942
 China
 Soviet Union
Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance 14 August 1945
 Taiwan
 United States
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between the United States of America and the Republic of China 4 November 1946
 Finland
 Soviet Union
Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 8 April 1948
 India
   Nepal
1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship 31 July 1950
 Netherlands
 United States
DAFT (Dutch-American Friendship Treaty) 27 March 1956
 North Korea
 Soviet Union
The DPRK-Soviet Union Agreement on Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance [7] 6 July 1961
 China
 North Korea
Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty 11 July 1961
 France
 Germany
Élysée Treaty aka Treaty of Friendship 22 January 1963
 India
 Soviet Union
Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation August 1971
 Bangladesh
 India
Indo-Bangla Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Peace 19 March 1972
 Australia
 Japan
Basic Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation 16 June 1976
 Portugal
 Spain
Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between Spain and Portugal 2 November 1977
 China
 Japan
Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and China 12 August 1978
 People's Republic of Kampuchea
 Vietnam
Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation[8] 1979
 Kiribati
 United States
Treaty of Tarawa aka Treaty of Friendship Between the United States of America and the Republic of Kiribati 20 September 1979
 Equatorial Guinea
 Spain
Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between Spain and Equatorial Guinea of 1980 23 October 1980
 Argentina
 Chile
Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina 29 November 1984
 Kazakhstan
 Russia
Kazakh-Russian Agreement on Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance [9] 25 May 1992
 Tajikistan
 Russia
Russia-Tajikistan Agreement on Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance [10] 25 May 1993
 Russia
 Ukraine
Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty 31 May 1997
 North Korea
 Russia
North Korea-Russia Treaty of 2000 [ja] 9 February 2000
 China
 Russia
2001 Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship 16 July 2001
 Italy
 Libya
Treaty on Friendship, Partnership and Cooperation between Italy and Libya [11] 2008
  1. ^ The preamble of the treaty stating that it is a "Treaty of Friendship and Brotherhood"

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Devere, Heather; Mark, Simon; Verbitsky, Jane (2011-12-01). "The Language of Friendship in International Treaties". International Politics. 48. doi:10.1057/ip.2010.34.
  2. ^ Devere, Heather. Friendship in International Treaties. pp. 182–198.
  3. ^ "Friendship and Positive Peace: Conceptualising Friendship in Politics and International Relations (in Politics and Governance)". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  4. ^ Berenskoetter, Felix (2007-09-01). "Friends, There Are No Friends? An Intimate Reframing of the International". Millennium: Journal of International Studies. 35 (3): 647–676. doi:10.1177/03058298070350031501. ISSN 0305-8298.
  5. ^ a b Walker, Herman. "Modern treaties of friendship, commerce and navigation". Minnesota Law Review.
  6. ^ Ninomiya, Masato O centenário do Tratado de Amizade, Comércio e Navegação entre Brasil e Japão November 18, 2011
  7. ^ Studies), Marie DuMond (Center for Strategic and International. "1961 Treaty of Friendship Cooperation and Mutual Assistance Between..." www.documentcloud.org. Retrieved 2020-02-22.
  8. ^ Pobzeb Vang, Five Principles of Chinese Foreign Policies
  9. ^ "Russia-Kazakhstan | Russia-Kazakhstan relations | The Embassy of the Russian Federation to the Republic of Kazakhstan". www.rfembassy.kz. Retrieved 2020-02-22.
  10. ^ "Relations of Tajikistan with Russia | Ministry of foreign affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan". mfa.tj. Retrieved 2020-02-22.
  11. ^ Ronzitti, Natalino. "The Treaty on Friendship, Partnership and Cooperation between Italy and Libya: New Prospects for Cooperation in the Mediterranean?" (PDF). www.gla.ac.uk. Bulletin of Italian Politics Vol. 1, No. 1, 2009, 125-133.