Transnational Radical Party
|Abbreviation||TRP or NRPTT|
|Predecessor||Radical Party (Italy)|
|Formation||1 January 1989|
|Purpose||Defense of personal and collective freedoms, human, civil and political rights|
|Headquarters||Via di Torre Argentina 76, 00186 Rome|
Coordinator and legal representative
The Transnational Radical Party (TRP), whose official name is Nonviolent Radical Party, Transnational and Transparty (NRPTT), is a political association of citizens, members of parliament and members of government of various national and political backgrounds who intend to adopt nonviolent means to create an effective body of international law with respect for individuals, human, civil and political rights, as well as the affirmation of democracy and political freedom in the world.
The TRP does not participate in elections, and despite being named "party", is a non-governmental organization (NGO), adept in building synergies among political forces aimed at achieving the goals of its congressional motions.
The TRP is the direct evolution of the Italian Radical Party (1955–1989) and is separate from the once-connected Italian Radicals party (founded in 2001), has been an NGO at the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations (UN) since 1995, listed in the general consultative status' category.
The TRP's forerunner, the Radical Party (PR), was established in 1955 by a left-wing splinter group from the centre-right Italian Liberal Party (PLI). In 1989 the PR was transformed into the TRP. In 1992 a majority of the Radicals formed, at the national-level in Italian politics, the Pannella List, as its most senior figure was Marco Pannella. Since 1999 the List ran in elections under the banner of Bonino List, named after Emma Bonino. In 2001 the Radicals in Italy formed the Italian Radicals (RI).
Background and foundation
In the first European Parliament election in 1979 the PR obtained its best result ever countrywide (3.7% of the vote, resulting in the election of three MEPs, including Pannella). Following the election, the PR was involved with the Coordination of European Green and Radical Parties (CEGRP) and its unsuccessful efforts to create a single pan-European platform for green and radical politics. More importantly, since then, the party projected itself into international politics.
In 1988, after a decade during which transnational issues and values were emphasised, the PR's congress decided that the party would be transformed during 1989 into the TRP and that the latter would not present itself in elections (in order to avoid competition with the other parties and stimulate cooperation instead), while permitting "dual membership" with other parties. The new symbol featuring the stylised face of Mahatma Gandhi was the point of no return in the transformation of the PR into an instrument of political fight completely at disposal of issue-oriented campaigns.
All this provoked great controversy among Radicals. Some long-time members left in order to continue their own activity in other parties or retire from public life. However, also most TRP Radicals continued to be actively engaged in politics, sometimes supported by the TRP itself, sometimes seeking hospitality in traditional parties or creating entirely new electoral lists. In the 1989 European Parliament election Pannella stood as a successful candidate of the joint list between the PLI (his former party) and the Italian Republican Party, some Radicals formed the "Anti-prohibition List on Drugs" (1 MEP), while others joined the Rainbow Greens (2 MEPs). In the run-up of the 1992 general election the Pannella List was formed.
Sergio Stanzani and Emma Bonino were the first secretary and president of the party, respectively. In 1993 Bonino, who would be appointed to the European Commission in 1995, replaced Stanzani, and Pannella became president.
International activities and ECOSOC recognition
The TRP was soon involved in comparing the conditions of the rule of law among different democracies throughout the world. While its members and economic resources continued to come primarily from Italy, the party strengthened its activities worldwide, especially in the countries of post-communist Eastern Europe. In this respect, the TRP launched the Multilingual Telematics System, one of the first bulletin board systems in Italy to allow multiple connections at the same time with the many countries where the party had influence and membership.
In 1995, after an intense institutional work, the TRP became a non-governmental organization for the promotion of human rights' legislation and the affirmation of democracy and freedom worldwide. As such, it was granted the general consultative status at the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations (UN).
Also in 1995 Olivier Dupuis, a long-time Radical from Belgium and founding member of the TRP who had moved to Budapest, Hungary in 1988 and from there had coordinated TRP's activities in Eastern Europe, was elected secretary of the party, while Jean-François Hory, a French MEP of the Radical Party of the Left within the TRP-sponsored European Radical Alliance group, was president. In 1996 Dupuis took Pannella's seat in the European Parliament.
Within the UN, the party has carried out high-profile battles on several issues: the moratorium on the death penalty and the proposal of his complete abolition, anti-prohibition against global mafias, fair justice, freedom of scientific research and the ban on female genital mutilation. Additionally, the TRP has allowed access to UN meetings to some stateless people, including Tibetans, Uyghurs and Montagnards., and led active monitoring of the conflicts against despotic regimes, such as the case of Ukraine versus Russia, or gave voice to dissidents opposed to authoritarian regimes like Cuba and Turkey. For its proposal of a peace plan in the Chechen–Russian conflict, the party has collided with Russia and its members risked expulsion from the country.
"Italian plague", decline and internal crisis
Despite its successes worldwide, the TRP and its initiaves mostly failed to find space on the local press in Italy, which has often focused merely on the internal conflicts within the Radical world. The inadequate information on Radical initiatives by the Italian media has been meticulously verified by the TRP-sponsored Centro d'Ascolto dell'Informazione Radiotelevisiva and produced several sentences featuring compensations to be paid by RAI, the Italian public broadcaster, and commercial TV as well. Some confusion came from the fact that since the 2000s, rather than highlighting its expansion abroad, the TRP has preferred to focus on the "Case Italy", emblematic of the decadence of a constitutional political system into a "real democracy", that is to say a formal democracy in which its very institutions substantially act in contrast with the constitution. According to the TRP, Italy has become a "partycratic regime" and, as such, has started to spread the "plague" of "real democracy" around the democratic world. That was denounced by Radicals within international organisations and though the publication of a "yellow book" on the "Italian plague".
However, the TRP effectively suffered internal problems too. In 2003 Dupuis resigned from secretary because of serious political differences with Pannella. In 2011–14 Demba Traoré, a politician from Mali, served briefly as secretary: he left the party without officially resigning, after being returned to the government of his own country. The TRP was later provisionally run by a committee, known as the "Senate" (Senato), led by Pannella and composed of the party's leading members.
Re-organisation and split of the Italian Radicals
After the death of Pannella in May 2016, an extraordinary congress was convened in September to overcome the long inactivity due to the absence of the secretary, as well as the economic problems undermining the party's viability. The congress adopted with 178 votes in favour, 79 against and 13 abstentions on the final resolution:
- set three main goals (1. affirmation of the rule of law and the human right of knowledge; 2. justice reform in Italy, including pardon, amnesty, abolition of the article 41-bis prison regime and of life sentences; 3. formation of the United States of Europe, inspired on the Ventotene Manifesto);
- set a membership target of 3,000 members for 2017 and 2018 in order to pay for the party's debts, otherwise the TRP would be dissolved;
- suspended the party's organs (president, secretary, treasurer, senate, etc.), with the exception of the congress;
- elected a collective leadership led by Rita Bernardini, Antonella Casu, Sergio D'Elia and Maurizio Turco (legal representative).
The minority faction, led by Bonino and Marco Cappato, in turn, controlled the RI, as confirmed in their November 2016 congress. In February 2017 the TRP severed its ties with the RI (accused of boycotting the TRP, using its assets without paying for them and pursuing an Italian-only electoral agenda), and the latter could no longer use the Radical headquarters. However, the RI's congress invited its members to adhere to the TRP. The 3,000-member target for 2017 was achieved by the TRP in December, while the RI had launched a pro-Europeanist electoral list named More Europe for the 2018 Italian general election.
- Secretary: Sergio Stanzani (1989–1993), Emma Bonino (1993–1995), Olivier Dupuis (1995–2003), Demba Traoré (2011–2014)
- President: Emma Bonino (1989–1993), Marco Pannella (1993–1995), Jean-François Hory (1995–2002), Sergio Stanzani (2002–2011)
- Treasurer: Paolo Vigevano (1989–1993), Ottavio Lavaggi (1993–1995), Danilo Quinto (1995–2005), Maurizio Turco (2005–2016)
The 2016 congress elected a collective Presidency, composed of the following members: Matteo Angioli, Angiolo Bandinelli, Marco Beltrandi, Rita Bernardini (coordinator), Maurizio Bolognetti, Antonella Casu (coordinator), Antonio Cerrone, Deborah Cianfanelli, Maria Antonietta Coscioni, Sergio D'Elia (coordinator), Mariano Giustino, Giuseppe Rippa, Giuseppe Rossodivita, Irene Testa, Maurizio Turco (coordinator and legal representative), Valter Vecellio, and Elisabetta Zamparutti.
Current prominent members (as of December 2017):
- Emma Bonino, former Italian Member of the European Parliament, European Commissioner and Italian Minister;
- Marco Cappato, former Italian Member of the European Parliament;
- Maurizio Turco, former Italian Member of the European Parliament;
- Andrè Gattolin, Senator, France;
- Dolkun Isa, President of World Uyghur Congress, China/Germany;
- Jianli Jang President of Initiative for China, China;
- Pandeli Majko, former Prime Minister, Albania;
- Sam Rainsy, President of the Cambodia National Rescue Party, Cambodia;
- Tioulong Samura, Member of Parliament, Cambodia;
- Mu Sochua, Vice President of the Cambodia National Rescue Party, Cambodia;
- Struan Stevenson, former UK Member of the European Parliament;
- Najima Thay Thay Rhozali, former Secretary of State for Literacy and non-formal Education, Morocco;
- Thubten Wangchen, monk, Member of the Tibetan Parliament in Exile;
- Rama Yade, former Secretary of State, France;
Former prominent members:
- Marco Pannella, former Italian Member of the European Parliament;
- Gianfranco Dell'Alba, former Italian Member of the European Parliament;
- Benedetto Della Vedova, Italian Undersecretary and former Italian Member of the European Parliament;
- Olivier Dupuis, former Italian Member of the European Parliament;
- David Borden, Executive Director of DRCNet;
- Enver Can, President of the Eastern Turkistan National Congress;
- Chris Davies, former British Member of the European Parliament;
- Wei Jingsheng, President of the Chinese Overseas Coalition for Democracy;
- Oumar Khambiev, former Chechen Minister;
- Kok Ksor, President of the Montagnard Foundation, Inc.;
- Quan Nguyen, President of the International Committee for the Nonviolent in Vietnam;
- Arben Xaferi, Chairman of the Democratic Party of Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia;
- Vanida Tephsouvan, Executive Director of the Lao Movement of Human Rights;
- Arnold S. Trebach, President International Antiprohibitionist League;
- Vo Van Ai, President of the Vietnam Committee for Human Rights.
- Right to know
- Rule of law
- Radicalism (historical)
- Italian Radicals (disambiguation)
- Liberalism and radicalism in Italy
- "1 June is the last day to apply for consultative status with ECOSOC". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- The International Politics of Esperanto at the Nitobe Center for Language Democracy
- Elizabeth Bomberg (2 August 2005). Green Parties and Politics in the European Union. Routledge. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-134-85145-4.
- Sergio Stanzani (11 March 1988). "Un programma politico". Notizie Radicali (in Italian) (51). Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Gianfranco Spadaccia (29–30 April 1988). "Il simbolo di Gandhi fa la differenza". Atti del Convegno "I Radicali e la Nonviolenza: Un Metodo, Una Speranza" (in Italian). Roma. Retrieved 26 February 2016.CS1 maint: date format (link)
- "Lettera aperta di Mauro Mellini al Primo segretario del Partito Radicale Sergio Stanzani". Notizie Radicali (in Italian) (262). 30 November 1988. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Massimo Teodori (1996). "L'illusione transnazionale e transpartitica". Marco Pannella — Un Eretico Liberale Nella Crisi della Repubblica (in Italian). Venezia: Casa editrice Marsilio. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "L'organizzazione politica dell'antiproibizionismo" (in Italian). 1 July 1991. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Gabriele Maestri (19 May 2016). "In memoria di Marco Pannella: una storia, tanti simboli" (in Italian). Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Lensi, Massimo (2016). Oltre Chiasso (in Italian). Firenze: Nardini Editore. ISBN 9788840400587.
The Transnational Radical Party is one of Marco Pannella's most interesting insights. Born in 1989 in Budapest, after a few years of intense activity and unexpected successes, a long decline begins that will lead him to the suspension of congress activities, but not to cease producing ideas and initiatives. Massimo Lensi describes this parable through his personal experience
- Lorenzo Strik-Lievers; Olivier Dupuis (1–5 September 1989). "Appunti sulle prospettive del partito radicale nell'europa comunista". Documento Preparatorio per Il Consiglio Federale di Roma.CS1 maint: date format (link)
- "IL PARTITO TRASNAZIONALE: DEMOCRAZIA E DIRITTO ALL'INFORMAZIONE - LE DIMISSIONI DA DEPUTATO DI MARCO PANNELLA - LE MANIFESTAZIONI DI MOSCA, VARSAVIA, PRAGA, BUDAPEST PER IL DIRITTO ALL'INFORMAZIONE NEI PAESI OCCIDENTALI - LO SCIOPERO DELLA FAME AD OLTRANZA DI MARCO PANNELLA, GIOVANNI NEGRI E LUIGI DEL GATTO - L'ACCETTAZIONE DELLE DIMISSIONI DI MARCO PANNELLA". 31 October 1989. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Cicciomessere Roberto (4 September 1992). "Descrizione del Sistema Telematico Multilingue - STM". Seminario del Partito Radicale (in Italian). Sabaudia.
- Caravita Giuseppe (26 November 1993). "Agorà, rete non solo politica". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Marino Busdachin (21 June 1995). "Onu/riconoscimento ngo del partito radicale". Appunto di Marino Busdachin per la Conferenza Segreteria e per Marco Pannella (in Italian). Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Caterina Caravaggi (25 October 1991). "La pena di morte a fronte del diritto internazionale vigente" (in Italian). Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Stanzani Sergio (1 February 1989). "Droga: Il Partito radicale e l'iniziativa contro il traffico clandestino delle droghe". "I Costi del Proibizionismo Sulle Droghe" - Atti del Colloquio Internazionale Sull'antiproibizionismo, Bruxelles 28 September - 1 October 1988 (in Italian). Ed. Partito Radicale. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Leonardo Sciascia; Alessandro Galante Garrone (25 February 1985). "Giustizia: l'appello del "comitato per una giustizia giusta"". Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Quando la religione diventa barbarie". Il Quotidiano Radicale (in Italian). 28 October 1993. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Dalai Lama (25 March 1989). "Tibet: E' il tempo dell'interdipendenza". Notizie Radicali (in Italian) (66). Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- Radio radicale turkestan orientale (24 July 1997). "Colloquio con Erkin Alptekin, leader degli Ujguri del Turkestan orientale" (in Italian).
- Gerolamo Fazzini (13 April 2005). "I montagnard: una persecuzione nell'indifferenza". Avvenire (in Italian). Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Eugenij Pashchenko (12–18 August 1993). "Radical voices of rome tribune". Visti Z Ukraini. 33 (1790).CS1 maint: date format (link)
- Luca Frassineti (20 August 1992). "DEMOCRATIE POUR CUBA" (in French).
D’importantes adhésions à l’appel, promu par le Parti radical à travers le septième numéro du “Parti Nouveau” et “Lettre Radicale 23” et adressé aux autorités cubaines, continuent à parvenir. Ci-après le texte de l’appel et les signatures des députés et des personnalités recueillies à ce jour. »Nous soussignés, membres des Gouvernements et des Parlements démocratiques, demandons aux autorités cubaines la libération des citoyens cubains Luis Alberto Pita Santos et Daniel Azpillaga, emprisonnés pour avoir organisé des manifestations populaires non violentes en faveur des réformes démocratiques à Cuba. Nous demandons aussi qu’il soit permis à Mario Chanes de Armas, prisonnier politique pendant trente ans et remis en liberté récemment, de quitter Cuba et de se réunir à sa famille en exilMissing or empty
- "MOSCA: L'ADOZIONE DEL MEMORANDUM COLLETTIVO SULLA CECENIA; IL PARTITO RADICALE ADERISCE A QUESTO MEMORANDUM" (in Italian). 4 May 1995. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- "LA RUSSIA VUOLE SOFFOCARE OGNI VOCE CECENA ALL'ONU". Le Monde (in Italian): 4. 21 July 2000. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Luca Gelmini (1 November 2006). "Radicali, scontro Pannella-Capezzone". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- Paolo Falliro (2013-10-29). "Pannella e Staderini, quanto si amano (e si odiano) i Radicali italiani" (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-03-20.
- "Pannella caccia la Bonino, lei replica: "Siete scemi?"". 28 July 2015. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- "Centro d'Ascolto dell'Informazione Radiotelevisiva" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 21 June 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- "IL CASO ITALIA: (1) Introduzione - LO STATO DELLA GIUSTIZIA IN EUROPA - I· CONVEGNO" (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-03-20.
- Marco Pannella (10 October 1989). "Diritti democratici nella "Democrazia reale"". Il Giornale d'Italia (in Italian). Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- Gruppo di Iniziativa di Satyagraha 2009 per lo Stato di diritto e la Democrazia cancellati in Italia. "La Peste Italiana" (PDF). Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "MOZIONE GENERALE DEL 40ESIMO CONGRESSO STRAORDINARIO DEL PARTITO RADICALE NONVIOLENTO, TRANSNAZIONALE E TRANSPARTITO". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "I furbetti del partitino (consulenza per i compagni espulsi o in via di espulsione)". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Radicali, al congresso vincono gli 'ortodossi'. Turco: "Tremila tesserati nel 2017 o il partito va in liquidazione"". 3 September 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Congresso Partito radicale, vincono gli ultrà pannelliani". 3 September 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-04. Retrieved 2016-11-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Cosa si è detto davvero al congresso dei Radicali Italiani - Formiche.net". 2 November 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "I mezzi prefigurano i fini. Alle iscritte ed iscritti, a chi è già stato iscritto e a chi si iscriverà al Partito Radicale Nonviolento Transnazionale Transpartito del 2017". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- Trocino, Alessandro. "Radicali, la rottura definitiva Bonino e Magi cacciati dalla sede". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Lite con sfratto tra Radicali, Bonino: "Resta casa mia". Contesa economica dietro le divergenze". 12 February 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "I radicali sfrattano Bonino, l'ultima faida del dopo Pannella". 11 February 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Il Partito radicale sfratta l'associazione di Emma Bonino: via dalla sede del partito". 11 February 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Mozione generale approvata dal XVI Congresso di Radicali Italiani - Radicali Italiani". 1 November 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Raggiunti i 3.000 iscritti al Partito Radicale". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "I radicali alle elezioni da soli: la nuova lista si chiamerà "+ Europa"". 23 November 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Pd-Radicali, aperta la trattativa per un'intesa elettorale. Il segretario Magi: "Percorso avviato"". 13 November 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Organi statutari". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- servizi.radicalparty.org http://nrptt.org/. Retrieved 2017-12-03. Missing or empty
- "I 50 membri del Consiglio Generale del Partito Radicale Nonviolento, Transnazionale e Transpartito". servizi.radicalparty.org (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2017-12-03.