Front-page of The Times from 19 October 2015
|Founded||1 January 1785(as The Daily Universal Register)|
|Political alignment||Conservative, centre-right|
|Headquarters||The News Building, London|
|Circulation||359,960 (Print, Feb 2020)|
304,000 (Digital, June 2019)
|Sister newspapers||The Sunday Times|
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times (founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, in turn wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times, which do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, and have only had common ownership since 1966.
The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is often referred to as The London Times, or as The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution.
The Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019; in the same period, The Sunday Times had an average weekly circulation of 712,291. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006. The Times has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning.
1785 to 1890
The Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. At that time, Henry Johnson invented the logography, a new typography that was reputedly faster and more precise (although three years later, it was proved less efficient than advertised). Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce books. The first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register was on 1 January 1785. Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son of the same name. In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for libel printed in The Times, his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news, especially from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers.
The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science, literature, and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were very large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000.
Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson, died and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson (1802–1852). Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights, especially in politics and amongst the City of London. Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, and gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname 'The Thunderer' (from "We thundered out the other day an article on social and political reform."). The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to rapidly growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence.
The Times was one of the first newspapers to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. William Howard Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England.
1890 to 1981
The Times faced financial extinction in 1890 under Arthur Fraser Walter, but it was rescued by an energetic editor, Charles Frederic Moberly Bell. During his tenure (1890–1911), The Times became associated with selling the Encyclopædia Britannica using aggressive American marketing methods introduced by Horace Everett Hooper and his advertising executive, Henry Haxton. Due to legal fights between the Britannica's two owners, Hooper and Walter Montgomery Jackson, The Times severed its connection in 1908 and was bought by pioneering newspaper magnate, Alfred Harmsworth, later Lord Northcliffe.
In editorials published on 29 and 31 July 1914, Wickham Steed, the Times's Chief Editor, argued that the British Empire should enter World War I. On 8 May 1920, also under the editorship of Steed, The Times in an editorial endorsed the anti-Semitic fabrication The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion as a genuine document, and called Jews the world's greatest danger. In the leader entitled "The Jewish Peril, a Disturbing Pamphlet: Call for Inquiry", Steed wrote about The Protocols of the Elders of Zion:
What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment?".
The following year, when Philip Graves, the Constantinople (modern Istanbul) correspondent of The Times, exposed The Protocols as a forgery, The Times retracted the editorial of the previous year.
In 1922, John Jacob Astor, son of the 1st Viscount Astor, bought The Times from the Northcliffe estate. The paper gained a measure of notoriety in the 1930s with its advocacy of German appeasement; editor Geoffrey Dawson was closely allied with those in the government who practised appeasement, most notably Neville Chamberlain. Candid news reports by Norman Ebbut from Berlin that warned of warmongering were rewritten in London to support the appeasement policy.
Kim Philby, a double agent with primary allegiance to the Soviet Union, was a correspondent for the newspaper in Spain during the Spanish Civil War of the late 1930s. Philby was admired for his courage in obtaining high-quality reporting from the front lines of the bloody conflict. He later joined British Military Intelligence (MI6) during World War II, was promoted into senior positions after the war ended, and defected to the Soviet Union when discovery was inevitable in 1963.
Between 1941 and 1946, the left-wing British historian E. H. Carr was assistant editor. Carr was well known for the strongly pro-Soviet tone of his editorials. In December 1944, when fighting broke out in Athens between the Greek Communist ELAS and the British Army, Carr in a Times leader sided with the Communists, leading Winston Churchill to condemn him and the article in a speech to the House of Commons. As a result of Carr's editorial, The Times became popularly known during that stage of World War II as "the threepenny Daily Worker" (the price of the Communist Party's Daily Worker being one penny).
On 3 May 1966, it resumed printing news on the front page – previously the front page had been given over to small advertisements, usually of interest to the moneyed classes in British society. Also in 1966, the Royal Arms, which had been a feature of the newspaper's masthead since its inception, was abandoned. In the same year, members of the Astor family sold the paper to Canadian publishing magnate Roy Thomson. His Thomson Corporation brought it under the same ownership as The Sunday Times to form Times Newspapers Limited.
An industrial dispute prompted the management to shut the paper for nearly a year from 1 December 1978 to 12 November 1979.
The Thomson Corporation management were struggling to run the business due to the 1979 energy crisis and union demands. Management sought a buyer who was in a position to guarantee the survival of both titles, and had the resources and was committed to funding the introduction of modern printing methods.
Several suitors appeared, including Robert Maxwell, Tiny Rowland and Lord Rothermere; however, only one buyer was in a position to meet the full Thomson remit, Australian media magnate Rupert Murdoch. Robert Holmes à Court, another Australian magnate had previously tried to buy The Times in 1980.
In 1981, The Times and The Sunday Times were bought from Thomson by Rupert Murdoch's News International. The acquisition followed three weeks of intensive bargaining with the unions by company negotiators John Collier and Bill O'Neill. Murdoch gave legal undertakings to maintain separate journalism resources for the two titles. The Royal Arms was reintroduced to the masthead at about this time, but whereas previously it had been that of the reigning monarch, it would now be that of the House of Hanover, who were on the throne when the newspaper was founded.
After 14 years as editor, William Rees-Mogg resigned upon completion of the change of ownership. Murdoch began to make his mark on the paper by appointing Harold Evans as his replacement. One of his most important changes was the introduction of new technology and efficiency measures. Between March 1981 and May 1982, following agreement with print unions, the hot-metal Linotype printing process used to print The Times since the 19th century was phased out and replaced by computer input and photo-composition. This allowed print room staff at The Times and The Sunday Times to be reduced by half. However, direct input of text by journalists ("single-stroke" input) was still not achieved, and this was to remain an interim measure until the Wapping dispute of 1986, when The Times moved from New Printing House Square in Gray's Inn Road (near Fleet Street) to new offices in Wapping.
Robert Fisk, seven times British International Journalist of the Year, resigned as foreign correspondent in 1988 over what he saw as "political censorship" of his article on the shooting-down of Iran Air Flight 655 in July 1988. He wrote in detail about his reasons for resigning from the paper due to meddling with his stories, and the paper's pro-Israel stance.
In June 1990, The Times ceased its policy of using courtesy titles ("Mr", "Mrs", or "Miss" prefixes) for living persons before full names on first reference, but it continues to use them before surnames on subsequent references. In 1992, it accepted the use of "Ms" for unmarried women "if they express a preference."
In November 2003, News International began producing the newspaper in both broadsheet and tabloid sizes. Over the next year, the broadsheet edition was withdrawn from Northern Ireland, Scotland, and the West Country. Since 1 November 2004, the paper has been printed solely in tabloid format.
On 6 June 2005, The Times redesigned its Letters page, dropping the practice of printing correspondents' full postal addresses. Published letters were long regarded as one of the paper's key constituents. According to its leading article "From Our Own Correspondents", the reason for removal of full postal addresses was to fit more letters onto the page.
In a 2007 meeting with the House of Lords Select Committee on Communications, which was investigating media ownership and the news, Murdoch stated that the law and the independent board prevented him from exercising editorial control.
In May 2008, printing of The Times switched from Wapping to new plants at Waltham Cross in Hertfordshire, and Merseyside and Glasgow, enabling the paper to be produced with full colour on every page for the first time.
On 26 July 2012, to coincide with the official start of the London 2012 Olympics and the issuing of a series of souvenir front covers, The Times added the suffix "of London" to its masthead.[better source needed]
In March 2016, the paper dropped its rolling digital coverage for a series of 'editions' of the paper at 9am, midday and 5pm on weekdays. The change also saw a redesign for the paper's app for smartphones and tablets.
In April 2018, IPSO upheld a complaint against The Times for its report of a court hearing in a Tower Hamlets fostering case.
In April 2019, Culture secretary Jeremy Wright said he was minded to allow a request by News UK to relax the legal undertakings given in 1981 to maintain separate journalism resources for The Times and The Sunday Times.
In 2019, IPSO upheld complaints against The Times over their article "GPS data shows container visited trafficking hotspot", and for three articles as part of a series on pollution in Britain's waterways – "No river safe for bathing", "Filthy Business" and "Behind the story". IPSO also upheld complaints in 2019 against articles headlined "Funding secret of scientists against hunt trophy ban", and "Britons lose out to rush of foreign medical students"
In 2020, IPSO upheld a complaint against The Times for an article headlined "Seven sex attacks in women's jails by transgender inmates".
The Times features news for the first half of the paper; the Opinion/Comment section begins after the first news section with world news normally following this. The business pages begin on the centre spread, and are followed by The Register, containing obituaries, a Court & Social section, and related material. The sport section is at the end of the main paper. In April 2016, the cover price of The Times became £1.40 on weekdays and £1.50 on Saturdays.
The Times' main supplement, every day, is the times2, featuring various columns. It was discontinued in early March 2010, but reintroduced on 12 October 2010 after discontinuation was criticised. Its regular features include a puzzles section called Mind Games. Its previous incarnation began on 5 September 2005, before which it was called T2 and previously Times 2. The supplement contains arts and lifestyle features, TV and radio listings, and theatre reviews. The newspaper employs Richard Morrison as its classical music critic.
The Game is included in the newspaper on Mondays, and details all the weekend's football activity (Premier League and Football League Championship, League One and League Two.) The Scottish edition of The Game also includes results and analysis from Scottish Premier League games. During the FIFA World Cup and UEFA Euros there is a daily supplement of The Game.
The Saturday edition of The Times contains a variety of supplements. These supplements were relaunched in January 2009 as: Sport, Weekend (including travel and lifestyle features), Saturday Review (arts, books, TV listings and ideas), The Times Magazine (columns on various topics), and Playlist (an entertainment listings guide).
The Times Magazine features columns touching on various subjects such as celebrities, fashion and beauty, food and drink, homes and gardens or simply writers' anecdotes. Notable contributors include Giles Coren, Food and Drink Writer of the Year in 2005 and Nadiya Hussain, winner of The Great British Bake Off.
The Times and The Sunday Times have had an online presence since March 1999, originally at the-times.co.uk and sunday-times.co.uk, and later at timesonline.co.uk. There are now two websites: thetimes.co.uk is aimed at daily readers, and the thesundaytimes.co.uk site at providing weekly magazine-like content. There are also iPad and Android editions of both newspapers. Since July 2010, News UK has required readers who do not subscribe to the print edition to pay £2 per week to read The Times and The Sunday Times online.
Visits to the websites have decreased by 87% since the paywall was introduced, from 21 million unique users per month to 2.7 million. In April 2009, the timesonline site had a readership of 750,000 readers per day. In October 2011, there were around 111,000 subscribers to The Times' digital products.
The Times has had the following eight owners since its foundation in 1785:
- 1785 to 1803 – John Walter
- 1803 to 1847 – John Walter, 2nd
- 1847 to 1894 – John Walter, 3rd
- 1894 to 1908 – Arthur Fraser Walter
- 1908 to 1922 – Lord Northcliffe
- 1922 to 1966 – Astor family
- 1966 to 1981 – Roy Thomson
- 1981 to present – News UK (formerly News International, a wholly owned subsidiary of News Corp, run by Rupert Murdoch)
John Walter, the founder of The Times
At the time of Harold Evans' appointment as editor in 1981, The Times had an average daily sale of 282,000 copies in comparison to the 1.4 million daily sales of its traditional rival The Daily Telegraph. By November 2005, The Times sold an average of 691,283 copies per day, the second-highest of any British "quality" newspaper (after The Daily Telegraph, which had a circulation of 903,405 copies in the period), and the highest in terms of full-rate sales. By March 2014, average daily circulation of The Times had fallen to 394,448 copies, compared to The Daily Telegraph's 523,048, with the two retaining respectively the second-highest and highest circulations among British "quality" newspapers. In contrast The Sun, the highest-selling "tabloid" daily newspaper in the United Kingdom, sold an average of 2,069,809 copies in March 2014, and the Daily Mail, the highest-selling "middle market" British daily newspaper, sold an average of 1,708,006 copies in the period.
The Sunday Times has a significantly higher circulation than The Times, and sometimes outsells The Sunday Telegraph. In January 2019, The Times had a circulation of 417,298 and The Sunday Times 712,291.
The Times is the originator of the widely used Times New Roman typeface, originally developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006, The Times began printing headlines in a new font, Times Modern. The Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet.
[T]he various typefaces used before the introduction (The) Times New Roman [sic] didn't really have a formal name.
They were a suite of types originally made by Miller and Co. (later Miller & Richards) in Edinburgh around 1813, generally referred to as "modern". When The Times began using Monotype (and other hot-metal machines) in 1908, this design was remade by Monotype for its equipment. As near as I can tell, it looks like Monotype Series no. 1 — Modern (which was based on a Miller & Richards typeface) — was what was used up until 1932.— Dan Rhatigan, type director
In 1908, The Times started using the Monotype Modern typeface.
The Times commissioned the serif typeface Times New Roman, created by Victor Lardent at the English branch of Monotype, in 1931. It was commissioned after Stanley Morison had written an article criticizing The Times for being badly printed and typographically antiquated. The font was supervised by Morison and drawn by Victor Lardent, an artist from the advertising department of The Times. Morison used an older font named Plantin as the basis for his design, but made revisions for legibility and economy of space. Times New Roman made its debut in the issue of 3 October 1932. After one year, the design was released for commercial sale. The Times stayed with Times New Roman for 40 years, but new production techniques and the format change from broadsheet to tabloid in 2004 have caused the newspaper to switch font five times since 1972. However, all the new fonts have been variants of the original New Roman font:
- Times Europa was designed by Walter Tracy in 1972 for The Times, as a sturdier alternative to the Times font family, designed for the demands of faster printing presses and cheaper paper. The typeface features more open counter spaces.
- Times Roman replaced Times Europa on 30 August 1982.
- Times Millennium was made in 1991, drawn by Gunnlaugur Briem on the instructions of Aurobind Patel, composing manager of News International.
- Times Classic first appeared in 2001. Designed as an economical face by the British type team of Dave Farey and Richard Dawson, it took advantage of the new PC-based publishing system at the newspaper, while obviating the production shortcomings of its predecessor Times Millennium. The new typeface included 120 letters per font. Initially the family comprised ten fonts, but a condensed version was added in 2004.
- Times Modern was unveiled on 20 November 2006, as the successor of Times Classic. Designed for improving legibility in smaller font sizes, it uses 45-degree angled bracket serifs. The font was published by Elsner + Flake as EF Times Modern; it was designed by Research Studios, led by Ben Preston (deputy editor of The Times) and designer Neville Brody.
Historically, the paper was not overtly pro-Tory or Whig, but has been a long time bastion of the English Establishment and empire. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite:
For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain. Its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street.
The Times adopted a stance described as "peculiarly detached" at the 1945 general election; although it was increasingly critical of the Conservative Party's campaign, it did not advocate a vote for any one party. However, the newspaper reverted to the Tories for the next election five years later. It supported the Conservatives for the subsequent three elections, followed by support for both the Conservatives and the Liberal Party for the next five elections, expressly supporting a Con-Lib coalition in 1974. The paper then backed the Conservatives solidly until 1997, when it declined to make any party endorsement but supported individual (primarily Eurosceptic) candidates.
For the 2001 general election, The Times declared its support for Tony Blair's Labour government, which was re-elected by a landslide (although not as large as in 1997). It supported Labour again in 2005, when Labour achieved a third successive win, though with a reduced majority. In 2004, according to MORI, the voting intentions of its readership were 40% for the Conservative Party, 29% for the Liberal Democrats, and 26% for Labour. For the 2010 general election, the newspaper declared its support for the Conservatives once again; the election ended in the Tories taking the most votes and seats but having to form a coalition with the Liberal Democrats in order to form a government as they had failed to gain an overall majority.
This makes it the most varied newspaper in terms of political support in British history. Some columnists in The Times are connected to the Conservative Party such as Daniel Finkelstein, Tim Montgomerie, Matthew Parris, and Matt Ridley, but there are also columnists connected to the Labour Party such as David Aaronovitch, Philip Collins, and Jenni Russell.
The Times occasionally makes endorsements for foreign elections. In November 2012, it endorsed a second term for Democrat Barack Obama although it also expressed reservations about his foreign policy.
The Times, along with the British Film Institute, sponsors "The Times" bfi London Film Festival. It also sponsors the Cheltenham Literature Festival and the Asia House Festival of Asian Literature at Asia House, London.
|John Walter||1785 to 1803|
|John Walter, Jnr||1803 to 1812|
|Sir John Stoddart||1812 to 1816|
|Thomas Barnes||1817 to 1841|
|John Thadeus Delane||1841 to 1877|
|Thomas Chenery||1877 to 1884|
|George Earle Buckle||1884 to 1912|
|George Geoffrey Dawson||1912 to 1919|
|George Sydney Freeman||1919 (two-month 'inter-regnum')|
|Henry Wickham Steed||1919 to 1922|
|George Geoffrey Dawson||1923 to 1941|
|Robert McGowan Barrington-Ward||1941 to 1948|
|William Francis Casey||1948 to 1952|
|Sir William John Haley||1952 to 1966|
|William Rees-Mogg||1967 to 1981|
|Harold Evans||1981 to 1982|
|Charles Douglas-Home||1982 to 1985|
|Charles Wilson||1985 to 1990|
|Simon Jenkins||1990 to 1992|
|Peter Stothard||1992 to 2002|
|Robert Thomson||2002 to 2007|
|James Harding||2007 to 2012|
An Irish digital edition of the paper was launched in September 2015 at TheTimes.ie. A print edition was launched in June 2017, replacing the international edition previously distributed in Ireland. The Irish edition was set to close in June 2019 with the loss of 20 jobs.
The Times Literary Supplement (TLS) first appeared in 1902 as a supplement to The Times, becoming a separately paid-for weekly literature and society magazine in 1914. The TLS is owned and published by News International and co-operates closely with The Times, with its online version hosted on The Times website, and its editorial offices based in Times House, Pennington Street, London.
Between 1951 and 1966, The Times published a separately paid-for quarterly science review, The Times Science Review. The Times started a new, free, monthly science magazine, Eureka, in October 2009. The magazine closed in October 2012.
Times Atlases have been produced since 1895. They are currently produced by the Collins Bartholomew imprint of HarperCollins Publishers. The flagship product is The Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World.
In the dystopian future world of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, The Times has been transformed into an organ of the totalitarian ruling party. The book's lead character Winston Smith is employed in the task of rewriting past issues of the newspaper for the Ministry of Truth.
- Katherine Rushton "John Witherow named acting editor of The Times as News International eyes merger", telegraph.co.uk, 18 January 2013
- Mark Wallace. "The centre right press delivers a withering verdict on Cameron's EU renegotiation demands | Conservative Home". ConservativeHome. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- "The Times - Data - ABC | Audit Bureau of Circulations". www.abc.org.uk.
- "The Times & The Sunday Times surpass 300,000 digital-only subscribers | News UK". www.news.co.uk.
- "Full History of the Times Newspaper". 13 November 2019.
- "London Times: "Caster Semenya and the middle sex" | OII Australia – Intersex Australia". Oii.org.au. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "London Times posts digital subs rise". AdNews. 4 July 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "Times' editorial page calls for intervention to save Winehouse | Toronto Star". Thestar.com. 26 January 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "National newspaper ABCs". Press Gazette. 14 February 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- Pfanner, Eric (27 May 2006). "Times of London to Print Daily U.S. Edition". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 November 2008.
- "The Times Digital Archive". Gale Cengage Learning. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- Bingham, Adrian. "The Times Digital Archive, 1785–2006 (Gale Cengage)," English Historical Review (2013) 128#533 pp: 1037–1040. doi:10.1093/ehr/cet144
- "The Times". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Lewis, Leo (16 July 2011). "The Times Editors". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- Simkin, John (September 1997). "John Walter". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
- Sloan, W. David; Parcell, Lisa Mullikin (2002). American Journalism: History, Principles, Practices: An Historical Reader for Students and Professionals. McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-7864-1371-9.
Koenig had plans to develop a double-feeding printing machine that would increase production, and the publisher of The Times in London ordered two of the double- feeder machines to be built.
- Briggs, Asa; Burke, Peter (2009). A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-7456-4495-0.
- Bruckner, D. J. R. (20 November 1995). "How the Earlier Media Achieved Critical Mass". The New York Times.
the circulation of The Times rose from 5,000 in 1815 to 50,000 in the 1850s.
- Lomas, Claire. "The Steam Driven Rotary Press, The Times and the Empire Archived 17 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine"
- Knightley, Phillip (5 October 2004). The First Casualty: The War Correspondent as Hero and Myth-Maker from the Crimea to Iraq. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8030-8.
- "War Correspondents". The Edinburgh Review. 183 (375): 129. January 1896.
- "Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, Viscount Northcliffe | British publisher". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Ferguson, Niall (1999). The Pity of War London: Basic Books. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-465-05711-5
- Friedländer, Saul (1997). Nazi Germany and the Jews. New York: HarperCollins. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-06-019042-2
- "Ballylickey Manor House". 1 July 2010. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Gordon Martel, ed. The Times and Appeasement: The Journals of A L Kennedy, 1932–1939 (2000).
- Frank McDonough, "The Times, Norman Ebbut and the Nazis, 1927–37." Journal of Contemporary History 27.3 (1992): 407–424.
- Cave Brown, Anthony (1995). Treason in the blood: H. St. John Philby, Kim Philby, and the spy case of the century. London: Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-5582-2.
- Beloff, Max. "The Dangers of Prophecy" pages 8–10 from History Today, Volume 42, Issue # 9, September 1992 page 9
- Davies, Robert William. "Edward Hallett Carr, 1892–1982" pages 473–511 from Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 69, 1983 page 489
- Haslam, Jonathan. "We Need a Faith: E.H. Carr, 1892–1982" pages 36–39 from History Today, Volume 33, August 1983 page 37
- Hasler, Charles (1980). The Royal Arms — Its Graphic And Decorative Development. Jupiter Books. p. 302. ISBN 978-0904041200.
- Stewart 2005, p. 63.
- "BBC ON THIS DAY – 13 – 1979: Times returns after year-long dispute".
- Stewart, Graham (2005). The History of the Times: The Murdoch years, 1981–2002. HarperCollins. p. 45. ISBN 0-00-718438-7.
- "Murdoch wins preliminary backing to merge his Times titles". BBC News Online. 11 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- Stewart, p. 45
- Stewart, p. 51
- Hamilton, Alan. "The Times bids farewell to old technology". The Times, 1 May 1982, p. 2, col. C.
- Evans, Harold (1984). Good Times, Bad Times. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-297-78295-7.
- Fisk, Robert (2005). The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East. London: Fourth Estate. pp. 329–334. ISBN 1-84115-007-X.
- "Viewpoint: UK war reporter Robert Fisk". BBC News. 3 December 2005. Archived from the original on 8 December 2005.
- Robert Fisk, Why I had to leave The Times, The Independent, 11 July 2011.
- Block, Mervin (1997). Writing Broadcast News: Shorter, Sharper, Stronger. Bonus Books, Inc. ISBN 978-1-56625-084-9.
- Glover, Stephen (29 November 2003). "The Times has gone tabloid: where will the broadsheet revolution end?". The Spectator. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- Snoddy, Raymond (1 November 2004). "Why the Times had to change". The Independent. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- "From our own correspondents". The Times. 6 June 2005. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "Minute of the meeting with Mr Rupert Murdoch, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, News Corporation". Inquiry into Media Ownership and the News. House of Commons Select Committee on Communications. 17 September 2007. p. 10. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007.
- Tryhorn, Chris (8 October 2004). "Fortress Wapping to Waltham Cross as News International moves its presses". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "Every day during London 2012, The Times will be wrapped in a special panoramic cover. LET THE GAMES BEGIN". Facebook. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- Rawlinson, Kevin (30 March 2016). "The Times drops online rolling news for four editions a day". the Guardian. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- "The Times and The Sunday Times launch new website and apps". News UK. 30 March 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- "Ruling". www.ipso.co.uk.
- Wright, Jeremy. "Media Matters:Written statement – HCWS1677". www.parliament.uk. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- "Ruling". www.ipso.co.uk.
- "Ruling". www.ipso.co.uk.
- "Ruling". www.ipso.co.uk.
- Mark Sweney (14 April 2016). "The Times increases cover price by 20p, the first rise in two years". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- McCafferty, Bridgit; Hartsell-Gundy, Arianne (2 September 2015). Literary Research and British Postmodernism: Strategies and Sources. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 117. ISBN 978-1-4422-5417-6.
- Guldberg, Helene (7 May 2009). Reclaming Childhood: Freedom and Play in an Age of Fear. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-135-22626-8.
- Brook, Stephen (17 February 2010). "Times set to axe Times2 supplement as staff await news of job cuts". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Ponsford, Dominic (3 March 2010). "Times2 is axed five years after launch". New Statesman. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Plunkett, John (11 October 2010). "Times revives Times2 supplement". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "BBC – Young Musician of the Year – Competition". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "The Game – The Times | News UK – The Bridge". newscommercial.co.uk. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Carpenter, Louise (14 November 2015). "What Nadiya did next". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "Timesonline.co.uk Site Info". Alexa. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
- "Times and Sunday Times websites to charge from June". BBC News. 26 March 2010.
- "Times and Sunday Times readership falls after paywall". BBC News. 2 November 2010. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
- Hindle, Debbie (6 April 2009). "Times Online travel editor insight". BGB. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "Digital subscribers to The Times and The Sunday Times continue to grow" (Press release). News International. 14 October 2011. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "Walter, John". Academic American Encyclopedia. 20. Grolier. 1985. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-7172-2008-3.
- Marjoribanks, Timothy (2000). News Corporation, Technology and the Workplace: Global Strategies, Local Change. Cambridge University Press. pp. 102. ISBN 978-0-521-77535-9.
- Ponsford, Dominic (30 September 2013). "Times and Sunday Times merger ruled out as directors finally approve appointments of Witherow and Ivens". Press Gazette. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- "National daily newspaper circulation November 2005". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- "Print ABCs: Seven UK national newspapers losing print sales at more than 10 per cent year on year". Press Gazette. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
- "The Daily Telegraph – readership data". News Works. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- "The Sun – readership data". News Works. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- "Daily Mail – readership data". News Works. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- An analysis of The Times reader demographic (based on NMA figures, news agenda and advertising in the paper) can be seen in this study Archived 20 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Ultrasparky: It was never called Times Old Roman".
- Morison (1953). A Tally of Types. Cambridge University Press. p. 15.
- Loxley, Simon (2006). Type: the secret history of letters. I. B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. pp. 130–131. ISBN 1-84511-028-5.
- Carter, H. G. (2004). 'Morison, Stanley Arthur (1889–1967)'. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. rev. David McKitterick. Oxford University Press.
- "TYPOlis: Times New Roman". Typolis.de. 3 October 1932. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- Dawson, Peter (17 December 2019). The Essential Type Directory: A Sourcebook of Over 1,800 Typefaces and Their Histories. Running Press. p. 345. ISBN 978-0-7624-6851-5.
- Driver, David (20 November 2006). "After 221 years, the world's leading newspaper shows off a fresh face". The Times. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
- "Typography of News Bigger, faster, better". Fontshop.com. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "Neville Brody's Research Studios Creates New Font and Design Changes for The Times as Compact Format Continues to Attract Loyal Readership". LONDON: Prnewswire.co.uk. 15 November 2006. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- Allan Nevins, "American Journalism and Its Historical Treatment", Journalism Quarterly (1959) 36#4 pp 411–22
- R. B. McCallum and Alison Readman, "The British General Election of 1945", Oxford University Press, 1947, p. 181–2.
- David Butler and Dennis Kavanagh, "The British General Election of 1997", Macmillan, London, 1997, p. 156.
- Lancaster, Dave (1 October 2009). "Which political parties do the newspapers support?". Supanet. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
- "Voting intention by newspaper readership". Ipsos MORI. 9 March 2005. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
- Stoddard, Katy (4 May 2010). "Newspaper support in UK general elections". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
- Stoddard, Katy (4 May 2010). "Newspaper support in UK general elections". The Guardian. London.
- Smith, Matthew (7 March 2017). "How left or right-wing are the UK's newspapers? | YouGov". YouGov. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- "America Decides". The Times. London. 1 November 2012.
- "The Times view on the next prime minister: Boris Johnson at No 10". The Times. 6 July 2019. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- "The Times's endorsement for the general election: Back to the Future". The Times. 11 December 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- Smith, Neil (17 September 2003). "Female stars lead London festival". BBC News. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "The Times and The Sunday Times Cheltenham Literature Festival". Cheltenham Festivals. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "Power or Influence: Can educational journalists make a difference". Web.archive.org. 1997. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- Roy Greenslade "Witherow and Ivens confirmed as editors of Times and Sunday Times", theguardian, 27 September 2013
- "Irish edition of The Times launched". Marketing.ie. 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- "WATCH: Gavan Reilly gives us an overall update from Midday – #GE16". Today FM.
- "The Ireland edition of The Times available in print". www.news.co.uk. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
- Horgan-Jones, Jack; Slattery, Laura. "Times Ireland to make most editorial staff redundant". The Irish Times.
- "The ultimate review of reviews". London Evening Standard. 6 November 2001. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- Ramsay, Fiona (2 October 2009). "The Times launches science magazine Eureka". Campaign. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- Twitter, William Turvill (1 October 2012). "News International confirms closure of Times science magazine Eureka". Press Gazette. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- "The Times Books – our heritage". Collins. Archived from the original on 29 December 2019. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- Case, Jennifer M.; Huisman, Jeroen (14 October 2015). Researching Higher Education: International perspectives on theory, policy and practice. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-38206-5.
- Shippey, Tom (2016). "Variations on Newspeak: The Open Question of Nineteen Eighty-Four". Hard Reading: Learning from Science Fiction. Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies. Liverpool University Press. p. 233. ISBN 9781781384398.
- Lynskey, Dorian (4 June 2019). The Ministry of Truth: The Biography of George Orwell's 1984. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-385-54406-1.
- Stout, Rex (12 May 2010). Murder by the Book. Random House Publishing Group. pp. vi. ISBN 978-0-307-75606-0.
- Stout, Rex (28 April 2010). Triple Jeopardy. Random House Publishing Group. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-307-75630-5.
- Mullan, John (28 December 2002). "Licence to sell". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 July 2012.