Summits of the Americas

United States Canada Argentina

The Summits of the Americas (SOA) are a series of international summit meetings bringing together the leaders of countries in the Organization of American States (OAS). All countries have sent representatives to all meetings except for Cuba, who was expelled from the OAS under US pressure after the Cuban Revolution of 1959. Cuba participated in the 7th Summit held in Panama in 2015 and sent its foreign minister to the subsequent 2018 summit.[1][2] In the early 1990s, what were formerly ad hoc summits came to be institutionalized into a regular "Summit of the Americas" based on the principles of democracy and free trade.[3] The meetings, organized by a number of multilateral bodies led by the Organization of American States, provide an opportunity for discussions about a variety of issues and topics.

List of summits

Summit Dates Host Country Host City Host leader
1st December 9–11, 1994  United States[4] Miami Bill Clinton
2nd April 18–19, 1998  Chile[5] Santiago Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
3rd April 20–22, 2001  Canada[6] Quebec City Jean Chrétien
4th November 4–5, 2005  Argentina[7] Mar del Plata Néstor Kirchner
5th April 17–19, 2009  Trinidad and Tobago[8] Port-of-Spain Patrick Manning
6th April 14–15, 2012  Colombia[9] Cartagena Juan Manuel Santos Calderón
7th April 10–11, 2015  Panama[10] Panama City Juan Carlos Varela
8th April 13–14, 2018  Peru[11] Lima Martín Vizcarra

The summits that garnered most general public and media attention were the Quebec City and Mar del Plata events, both of which provoked very large anti-globalization and anti–Free Trade Area of the Americas protests and attendant police response.

OAS member states

All 35 independent nations of the Americas are members of the OAS.

Nation Capital HDI
2019 est.
for 2018
[12]
Official
language
 Antigua and Barbuda St. John's 0.776 English
 Argentina Buenos Aires 0.830 Spanish
 Bahamas Nassau 0.805 English
 Barbados Bridgetown 0.813 English
 Belize Belmopan 0.720 English
 Bolivia Sucre 0.703 Spanish
 Brazil Brasília 0.761 Portuguese
 Canada Ottawa 0.922 English, French
 Chile Santiago 0.847 Spanish
 Colombia Bogota 0.761 Spanish
 Costa Rica San José 0.794 Spanish
 Cuba Havana 0.778 Spanish
 Dominica Roseau 0.724 English
 Dominican Republic Santo Domingo 0.745 Spanish
 Ecuador Quito 0.758 Spanish
 El Salvador San Salvador 0.667 Spanish
 Grenada St. George's 0.763 English
 Guatemala Guatemala City 0.651 Spanish
 Guyana Georgetown 0.670 English
 Haiti Port-au-Prince 0.503 French, Haitian Creole
 Honduras Tegucigalpa 0.623 Spanish
 Jamaica Kingston 0.726 English
 Mexico Mexico City 0.767 Spanish
 Nicaragua Managua 0.651 Spanish
 Panama Panama City 0.795 Spanish
 Paraguay Asuncion 0.724 Spanish, Guarani
 Peru Lima 0.759 Spanish
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre 0.777 English
 Saint Lucia Castries 0.745 English
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown 0.728 English
 Suriname Paramaribo 0.724 Dutch
 Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain 0.799 English
 United States Washington D.C. 0.920 English (De Facto)
 Uruguay Montevideo 0.808 Spanish
 Venezuela Caracas 0.726 Spanish

Non-members

The following jurisdictions are not members of the OAS as they are dependencies of other nations. They are grouped under the nation that has sovereignty over them.

 Denmark

 France

 Netherlands

 United Kingdom

 United States

References

  1. ^ Prieto, Alfredo. "Everybody But Cuba," Havana Times. April 15, 2009.
  2. ^ http://www.staradvertiser.com/2018/04/13/business/business-breaking/cubas-raul-castro-skips-summit-of-the-americas/
  3. ^ Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World, p. 382.
  4. ^ Summit Americas: I summit (1st)
  5. ^ Summit Americas: II summit (2nd)
  6. ^ Summit Americas: III summit (3rd)
  7. ^ Summit Americas: IV summit (4th)
  8. ^ Summit Americas: V summit (5th)
  9. ^ Summit Americas: VI summit (6th)
  10. ^ Summit Americas: VII summit (7th)
  11. ^ Summit Americas: VIII summit (8th)
  12. ^ Human Development Report 2019 (PDF). New York: United Nations Development Programme. 2019. pp. 300–303. ISBN 978-92-1-126439-5. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  13. ^ https://keywest.floridaweekly.com/articles/conch-republic-days-2/