List of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names

Western honey bee Juncus Persoonia longifolia

This list of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names is intended to help those unfamiliar with classical languages to understand and remember the scientific names of organisms. The binomial nomenclature used for animals and plants is largely derived from Latin and Greek words, as are some of the names used for higher taxa, such as orders and above. At the time when biologist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) published the books that are now accepted as the starting point of binomial nomenclature, Latin was used in Western Europe as the common language of science, and scientific names were in Latin or Greek: Linnaeus continued this practice.

Although Latin is now largely unused except by classical scholars, or for certain purposes in botany, medicine and the Roman Catholic Church, it can still be found in scientific names. It is helpful to be able to understand the source of scientific names. Although the Latin names do not always correspond to the current English common names, they are often related, and if their meanings are understood, they are easier to recall. The binomial name often reflects limited knowledge or hearsay about a species at the time it was named. For instance Pan troglodytes, the chimpanzee, and Troglodytes troglodytes, the wren, are not necessarily cave-dwellers.

Sometimes a genus name or specific descriptor is simply the Latin or Greek name for the animal (e.g. Canis is Latin for dog). These words may not be included in the table below if they only occur for one or two taxa. Instead, the words listed below are the common adjectives and other modifiers that repeatedly occur in the scientific names of many organisms (in more than one genus).

Adjectives vary according to gender, and in most cases only the lemma form (nominative singular masculine form) is listed here. 1st-and-2nd-declension adjectives end in -us (masculine), -a (feminine) and -um (neuter), whereas 3rd-declension adjectives ending in -is (masculine and feminine) change to -e (neuter). For example, verus is listed without the variants for Aloe vera or Galium verum.

The second part of a binomial is often a person's name in the genitive case, ending -i (masculine) or -ae (feminine), such as Kaempfer's tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus kaempferi. The name may be converted into a Latinised form first, giving -ii and -iae instead.

Words that are very similar to their English forms have been omitted.

Some of the Greek transliterations given are Ancient Greek, and others are Modern Greek.

In the tables, L = Latin, G = Greek, and LG = similar in both languages.


Latin/Greek Language English Example Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
acaulis G, L stemless silver thistle, Carlina acaulis;

dwarf date palm, Phoenix acaulis

acutus L sharpened, pointed American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus;

angled sunbeam (butterfly), Curetis acuta; northern pintail, Anas acuta

aculeatus L prickly short-beaked echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus;

three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; butcher's-broom, Ruscus aculeatus

adustus L singed, burnt side-striped jackal, Canis adustus;
dark onyx cowry, Erronea adusta
africanus L African reed cormorant, Microcarbo africanus;
southern African frilled shark, Chlamydoselachus africana;

African clubhook-squid, Notonykia africanae;
pyjama shark, Poroderma africanum;

lemon basil, Ocimum × africanum

africanusafricana, africanaeafricanum
agrestis L of the field, wild field vole, Microtus agrestis;

green field-speedwell, Veronica agrestis

alatus L āla winged pitcher plant, Nepenthes alata;

sharpwing monkeyflower, Mimulus alatus; winged elm, Ulmus alata;

winged everlasting, Ammobium alatum; winged loosestrife, Lythrum alatum;

winged seahorse, Hippocampus alatus; winged-stem passion flower, Passiflora alata

albiceps L white-headed blow fly, Chrysomya albiceps;

moth, Syngamia albiceps; wood groundling, Parachronistis albiceps;

Mexican golden red rump tarantula, Brachypelma albiceps

albidens L white-toothed white-toothed brush mouse, Coccymys albidens;
see also leucodon
albopictus L painted white Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus;
Moneilema albopictum
albus L white white ibis, Eudocimus albus;
white oak, Quercus alba;
mistletoe, Viscum album
alpinus L alpine; of the Alps alpine aster, Aster alpinus;
alpine bearberry, Arctostaphylos alpina;
alpine feverfew, Parthenium alpinum
ambiguus L uncertain beautiful woolly sunflower, Eriophyllum ambiguum;
doubtful cone, Conus ambiguus;
questionable Stropharia, Stropharia ambigua;

tick bush, Kunzea ambigua

amblys G ἀμβλύς (amblús) blunt, dull marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus amblysAll pages with titles beginning with Ambly
americanus L American American black bear, Ursus americanus;

American hazel nut, Corylus americana; American mastodon, Mammut americanum

amphi- G ἀμφί (amphí) of all kinds, on all sides amphibian; Amphipoda All pages with titles beginning with Amphi
ampulla L bottle, flask northern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus ampullatusampullataampullatumAll pages with titles beginning with Ampulla
amurensis L from the Amur River Amur grape, Vitis amurensis amurensisamurense
angolensis L from Angola African teak, Pterocarpus angolensis angolensisangolense
angustiflorus L narrow-flowered Eastwood's bellflower, Campanula angustiflora;

narrowflower lupine, Lupinus angustiflorus

angustifolius L narrow-leaved narrowleaf cottongrass, Eriophorum angustifolium;

narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia; narrowleaf sunflower, Helianthus angustifolius

angustus L narrow narrow-banded widow, Dingana angusta;
narrowleaf pansy monkeyflower, Mimulus angustatus;
slimleaf bean, Phaseolus angustissimus;
Prairie acacia, Acaciella angustissima;

sea snail, Vexillum angustissimum

antarcticus L of the southern hemisphere chinstrap penguin, Pygoscelis antarcticus;

gummy shark, Mustelus antarcticus;
brown skua, Stercorarius antarcticus

anthos G ἄνθος (ánthos) flower anthozoans, Anthozoa;

golden wattle, Acacia pycnantha;

All pages with titles beginning with Antho
anthropo- G ἄνθρωπος (ánthrōpos) man, human being Paranthropus All pages with titles beginning with Anthropo
apis L bee western honey bee, Apis mellifera;

white sage, Salvia apiana

apianusapianaapianumAll pages with titles beginning with Api
aquaticus L found near water eastern mole, Scalopus aquaticus;
wild rice, Zizania aquatica;

water spinach, Ipomoea aquatica;
parrot's-feather, Myriophyllum aquaticum,

arborescens L tree-like or shrub-like Artemisia arborescens;

Aloe arborescens; Hydrangea arborescens

archaeo- G ἀρχαῖος (arkhaîos) ancient Archaeopteryx All pages with titles beginning with ArchaeoAll pages with titles beginning with Archeo
arctos G ἄρκτος (árktos) bear grizzly bear, Ursus arctos horribilis;

common bearberry, Arctostaphylos

arctosAll pages with titles beginning with Arcto
arena L sand sand iris, Iris arenaria;
sand rock-cress, Arabidopsis arenosa;
sand seatrout, Cynoscion arenarius;
sand-dusted cone, Conus arenatus
arenicolus L sand-dwelling dunes sagebrush lizard, Sceloporus arenicolus;
sand goldenrod, Solidago arenicola;
sanddwelling dewberry, Rubus arenicola;
sandy stargazer, Gillellus arenicola
argentatus L silvery European herring gull, Larus argentatus argentatusargentataargentatum
argenteus L silvery silver buffaloberry, Shepherdia argentea;
silver tree, Leucadendron argenteum;

silvery lupine, Lupinus argenteus; white mulberry, Pipturus argenteus

argentum L silver sea snail, Calliostoma argentum argentum
aromatica G ἄρωμα (árōma) aromatic clove nutmeg, Ravensara aromatica;
Croton aromaticus;
clove, Syzygium aromaticum
arthro- G ἄρθρον (árthron) joint Arthropoda All pages with titles beginning with Arthro
arvensis L in the field skylark, Alauda arvensis;
field horsetail, Equisetum arvense
asiatica L Asian white-winged dove, Zenaida asiatica;
Caspian plover, Charadrius asiaticus, Persian buttercup, Ranunculus asiaticus
astro-, astero- G ἄστρον (ástron) star starfish (class), Asteroidea All pages with titles beginning with AsteroAll pages with titles beginning with Astro
ater L dull black common chuckwalla, Sauromalus ater;
Eurasian coot, Fulica atra;
black swan, Cygnus atratus;
black yarrow, Achillea atrata;
creek chub, Semotilus atromaculatus
see also niger
atropurpureus L deep purple, blackish-purple Acer palmatum 'Atropurpureum'; Berberis thunbergii f. atropurpurea;
purple-flowered cotoneaster, Cotoneaster atropurpureus
aurantius, aurantiacus L orange-colored bitter orange, Citrus aurantium aurantiusaurantiaaurantium; aurantiacusaurantiacaaurantiacum
aureus L golden golden jackal, Canis aureus;
Staphylococcus aureus (bacteria)
see also chrysos
australis L southern southern right whale, Eubalaena australis australisaustrale


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
baccatus L berry-bearing common yew, Taxus baccata; Conus baccatus, a sea snail baccatus - baccata - baccatum
barbatus L barba bearded bearded catasetum, Catasetum barbatum; bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus; black-chinned siskin, Spinus barbata; Bornean bearded pig, Sus barbatus; golden-beard penstemon, Penstemon barbatus barbatusbarbatabarbatum
bicolor L two-colored bicolor angelfish, Centropyge bicolor; bicolor cleanerfish, Labroides bicolor; bicolored moth, Manulea bicolor bicolor
bicoloratus L two-colored bicolored angle, Macaria bicolorata; Kenya two-headed snake, Micrelaps bicoloratus; orchid, Bulbophyllum bicoloratum bicoloratusbicoloratabicoloratum
bicornis L bicorne black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis bicornis
bios G βίος (bíos) life amphibian; biota, all living things bios
blandus L pleasant, smooth, alluring Greek windflower, Anemone blanda; Mallos blandus, a spider blandus - blanda - blandum
borealis L northern northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis borealis - boreale
brachion G βραχίων (brakhíōn) arm Przewalski's gerbil, Brachiones przewalskii; Brachiopoda (phylum); Brachiosaurus All pages with titles beginning with Brachio
brasiliensis L Brazilian Brazilian brown bat Eptesicus brasiliensis All pages with titles containing Brasiliensis
brachy- G βραχύς (brakhús) short Brazilian gold frog, Brachycephalus didactylus All pages with titles beginning with Brachy
brachyphyllus G short-leaved extinct plant genus, Brachyphyllum;
flower, Colchicum brachyphyllum;
leaf-nosed bats, Brachyphylla;
shortleaf baccharis, Baccharis brachyphylla;
see also brevifolius
brady- G βραδύς (bradús) slow pygmy three-toed sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus All pages with titles beginning with Brady
branchia G βράγχιον (bránkhion) gills Lamellibranchia (class, syn. Bivalva); Branchiopoda (class, brine shrimps) All pages with titles beginning with Branchi
brasiliensis L from Brazil Brazilian marsh rat, Holochilus brasiliensis; Brazilian stick mantis, Brunneria brasiliensis; rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis brasiliensisbrasiliense
brevi- L brevis short silvery-cheeked hornbill, Ceratogymna brevis brevis - breve - All pages with titles beginning with Brevi
brevicaudatus L short-tailed bearded leaf chameleon, Rieppeleon brevicaudatus; sea snail, Lophiotoma brevicaudata; short-tailed ceratosoma, Ceratosoma brevicaudatum brevicaudatusbrevicaudatabrevicaudatum
brevicollis L short-necked short-necked oil beetle, Meloe brevicollis brevicollisbrevicolle
brevifolius L short-leaved Joshua tree, Yucca brevifolia;
short-leaved dudleya, Dudleya blochmaniae subsp. brevifolia;
shortleaf sneezeweed, Helenium brevifolium;
zig-zag bog-rush, Schoenus brevifolius;
see also brachyphyllus
brevirostris L short beak pignosed arrowtooth eel, Dysomma brevirostre;
shortnose ponyfish, Leiognathus brevirostris
bulbus G βολβός bulb bulbous buttercup, Ranunculus bulbosus;
onion cone, Conus bulbus


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
caecus L blind blind mole, Talpa caeca; northern eyed hawkmoth, Smerinthus caecus caecus - caeca - caecum
caeruleus L blue Eurasian blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; blue passion flower, Passiflora caerulea caeruleus - caerulea - caeruleum
californicus L California California blue dorid, Felimare californiensis californicus - californica - californiensis
callosus L calloused large vesper mouse, Calomys callosus; tree fern, Cyathea callosa; orchid, Paphiopedilum callosum callosus - callosa - callosum
canadensis L from Canada bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis canadensis - canadense
candidus L brightly white, shining white Madonna lily, Lilium candidum candidus - candida - candidum
canescens L turning grey- or white-haired Geraea canescens (desert sunflower); Atriplex canescens canescens
canis L dog coyote, Canis latrans; Dipylidium caninum (a tapeworm) canis - caninus - canina - caninum
canus L gray (haired), pale gray grey-headed woodpecker, Picus canus; woolly groundsel, Senecio canus canus - cana - canum
caprae L of a goat Staphylococcus caprae caprae - capri
cauda L tail long-tailed tit, Aegithalos caudatus; thintail skate, Dipturus leptocaudus; northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda
caulos G καυλός (kaulós) stem, stalk stemless gentian, Gentiana acaulis acaulis - acaule
cephalo- G κεφαλή (kephalḗ) head Mediterranean gull, Larus melanocephalus; blue-spotted grouper, Cephalopholis argus All pages with titles beginning with Cephal
-ceps L caput head pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps; biceps (two-headed muscle)
ceros L cornū G κέρας (kéras) horn narwal, Monodon monoceros; rhinoceros (nose horn)
cest L cestus G κεστός (kestós) girdle, belt, stitched Cestoda All pages with titles beginning with Cest
chaetes G χαίτη (khaítē) flowing hair, or mane wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou
chilensis L from Chile paradise tanager, Tangara chilensis chilensis - chilense
chinensis L from China China rose, Rosa chinensis;
Chinese onion, Allium chinense;
Chinese sumac, Rhus chinensis;
see also Sinense, below
chloro- G χλωρός (khlōrós) pale green common moorhen, Gallinula chloropus All pages with titles beginning with Chloro
chordatus L spined chordates; Stylephorus chordatus, Tinospora cordifolia chordatuschordatachordatum
chroma G χρῶμα (khrôma) color clown loach, Chromobotia macracanthus All pages with titles beginning with Chrom
chrysos G χρυσός (khrusós) gold Chrysochloridae (golden moles);
golden pheasant, Chrysolophus pictus;
maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus
see also aureus
All pages with titles beginning with Chryso
chrysophyllus G gold-leaved golden chinquapin, Chrysolepis chrysophylla;
golden-leaved Jerusalem sage, Phlomis chrysophylla;
satinleaf, Chrysophyllum oliviforme
cilium L eyelash Ashland thistle, Cirsium ciliolatum;
bristleworm, Polydora ciliata;
eyelash gecko, Correlophus ciliatus;
queen angelfish, Holacanthus ciliaris;
Australian red cedar, Toona ciliata;
sickle-leaved cymodocea, Thalassodendron ciliatum
cinereus L ash, ash-colored masked shrew, Sorex cinereus;
Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea;
gray thrasher, Toxostoma cinereum;
common gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus
cirrhus G κιρρός (kirrhós) orange fringe-lipped bat, Trachops cirrhosus;
mrigal carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus;
silverspotted sculpin, Blepsias cirrhosus
citri L citrus the citrus blossom moth, Prays citri citri
cneme G κνήμη (knḗmē) shin, leg white-legged damselfly, Platycnemis pennipes
-cola L colō dweller Eurasian woodcock, Scolopax rusticola;
northern chequered skipper, Carterocephalus silvicola;
paddyfield warbler, Acrocephalus agricola;
rock thrushes, Monticola sp.
concolor L having uniform color throughout cougar, Puma concolor; white fir, Abies concolor
conno- G κόννος (kónnos) beard wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou All pages with titles beginning with Conno
corax L corvus G κόραξ (kórax) crow, raven common raven, Corvus corax corax
cordatus L heart-shaped cordate (leaf shape);
small-leaved lime, Tilia cordata;
sea potato, Echinocardium cordatum
cordifolius L heart-shaped leaves heartleaf aster, Symphyotrichum cordifolium;
heart-leaved moonseed, Tinospora cordifolia;
Tucson bur ragweed, Ambrosia cordifolia
cornu L cornū horn garden snail, Cornu aspersum;
great ramshorn, Planorbarius corneus
All pages with titles beginning with Cornu
coronatus L crowned crowned lemur, Eulemur coronatus;
crowned turban shell, Lunella coronata
costatus L ribbed ribbed slipper shell, Maoricrypta costata; striped Raphael catfish, Platydoras costatus costatuscostatacostatum
crassus L thick, fat creeping blueberry, Vaccinium crassifolium;
inflated spiny crab, Rochinia crassa;
mouthless crab, Cardisoma crassum
cristatus L crested aardwolf, Proteles cristatus;
blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata;
crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum
crocos G κρόκος (krókos) yellow bicoloured white-toothed shrew, Crocidura leucodon;
saffron, Crocus sativus;
spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta
All pages with titles beginning with croc
crypto- G κρυπτός (kruptós) hidden Cryptococcus; Cryptosporidium All pages with titles beginning with Crypto
curvirostris L curved beak boxer snipe eel, Nemichthys curvirostris;
curve-billed thrasher, Toxostoma curvirostre
cyano- G κυανός (kuanós) blue-green azure-winged magpie, Cyanopica cyanus;
big blue octopus, Octopus cyanea;
blue orchid, Aganisia cyanea
All pages with titles beginning with Cyanocyaneuscyaneacyaneum


Latin/Greek Language English Example Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
dactyl-, dactylo- G δάκτυλος (dáktulos) finger or toe black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla; Pterodactylus All pages with titles beginning with Dactyl
deca-, deka- G δέκα (déka) ten alfonsino, Beryx decadactylus All pages with titles beginning with Deca
decem L ten Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
delphis G δελφύς (delphús) womb Didelphis virginiana
derma G δέρμα (dérma) skin yellow staining mushroom, Agaricus xanthodermus All pages with titles beginning with Derm
di- G δι- (di-) two Christmas orchid, Dipodium punctatum Too common a letter combination for any useful search
diffusus L diffundere diffuse diffuse spineflower, Chorizanthe diffusa;
fly, Paralimnophila diffusior;
rush, Juncus diffusissimus;
spreading groundsmoke, Gayophytum diffusum;
spreading lupine, Lupinus diffusus;
spreading phlox, Phlox diffusa
digitatus L having fingers finger rush Juncus digitatus;
baobab, Adansonia digitata;
dead man's fingers, Alcyonium digitatum
digitatus - digitata - digitatum
dilatatus L dilated, extended dallisgrass, Paspalum dilatatum;
Maianthemum dilatatum
dilatatus - dilatata - dilatatum
dioica L dioicous common nettle, Urtica dioica dioica
dino-, deino- G δεινός (deinós) terrible dinosaur, Deinotherium All pages with titles beginning with Dino
diplo- G διπλός (diplós) double two-eyed orange spider, Diploglena capensis All pages with titles beginning with Diplo
disc, disk G δίσκος (dískos) disc common fungus moth, Metalectra discalis All pages with titles beginning with Disc - discalis - discale
dodeca- G δώδεκα (dṓdeka) twelve Henderson's shootingstar, Dodecatheon hendersonii All pages with titles beginning with Dodeca
dolicho- G δολιχός (dolikhós) elongated, long knight anole, Anolis dolichocephalus All pages with titles beginning with Dolicho
domesticus L of the house or domestic domestic pig, Sus scrofa domestica;
house sparrow, Passer domesticus
domesticus - domestica - domesticum
dorsum L back back-striped weasel, Mustela strigidorsa All pages with titles beginning with Dors
dubius L doubtful see also nomina dubia dubiusdubia
dulcis L sweet almond, Prunus dulcis dulcisdulce


Latin/Greek Language English Example Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
eburneus L eburneus ivory-colored ivory gull, Pagophila eburnea eburneus - eburnea - eburneum
echinatus L prickly, spiny Edisto crayfish, Procambarus echinatus; shortleaf pine, Pinus echinata echinatus - echinata - echinatum
echino- L echīnus G ἐχῖνος (ekhînos) hedgehog, sea-urchin great globe thistle, Echinops sphaerocephalus; diadema urchin, Echinothrix diadema; San Pedro cactus, Echinopsis pachanoi All pages with titles beginning with Echino
edulis L edible common cockle, Cerastoderma edule; king bolete, Boletus edulis; oyster, Ostrea edulis; passion fruit, Passiflora edulis edulis - edule
elatior L taller true oxlip, Primula elatior elatior
electro- G ἤλεκτρον (ḗlektron) amber, amber-colored or

electric (modern usage)

broad-billed motmot, Electron platyrhynchum;
electric eel, Electrophorus electricus
No simple way to distinguish biological from other uses
elegans L elegant crimson rosella, Platycercus elegans ;
Granastyochus elegantissimus;
Iris iberica subsp. elegantissima; false aralia, Plerandra elegantissima;
Caecum elegantissimum
elegans - elegantissimus - elegantissima - elegantissimum
emarginatus L having no edges Phongolo suckermouth, Chiloglanis emarginatus;
Gibraltar sea lavender, Limonium emarginatum;
acerola, Malpighia emarginata; bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata
emarginatus - emarginata - emarginatum
enanti- G ἐναντίος (enantíos) opposite, against Enantiornithes All pages with titles beginning with Enantio
ennea- G ἐννέα (ennéa) nine banded sunfish Enneacanthus obesus; scurvy-grass sorrel, Oxalis enneaphylla All pages with titles beginning with Ennea
ensatus L sword-like California giant salamander, Dicamptodon ensatus ensatus - ensata - ensatum
ensis, ensi- L sword, lance jackknife clam, Ensis minor; swordleaf rush, Juncus ensifolius All pages with titles beginning with Ensi - ensiformis
-ensis L of, from (a place) Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat); Lucy, Australopithecus afarensis
erectus L upright Homo erectus ("upright man"); upright chickweed, Moenchia erecta erectus - erecta - erectum
erio- G ἔριον (érion) wool, woolly common cottongrass, Eriophorum angustifolium All pages with titles beginning with Erio
erosus L indented, jagged, serrated jícama, Pachyrhizus erosus; serrated hinge-back tortoise, Kinixys erosa erosus - erosa - erosum
erythro- G ἐρυθρός (eruthrós) red[1] spotted redshank, Tringa erythropus; dog's-tooth violet, Erythronium dens-canis All pages with titles beginning with Erythro
esculentus L edible edible frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus; Gyromitra esculenta esculentus esculenta esculentum
europaeus L European European hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus; European owl moth, Brahmaea europaea europaeuseuropaeaeuropaeum
excelsus L exalted African teak, Milicia excelsa; excelsior cone, Conus excelsus excelsusexcelsaexcelsum


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
fallax L false false swift, Borbo fallax; green marvel, Acronicta fallax fallax
falx L sickle sickle milkvetch, Astragalus falcatus; sickle-leaved hare's-ear, Bupleurum falcatum; sicklethorn, Asparagus falcatus; wild pear, Persoonia falcata falcatusfalcatafalcatumfalciformisfalx
familiaris L domestic, common, familiar dog, Canis lupus familiaris
felis L cat black-footed cat, Felis nigripes; cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis
felinus L cat-like, feline cat gecko, Aeluroscalabotes felinus; marine otter, Lontra felina felinusfelinafelinum
-fer L -bearing western honey bee, Apis mellifera; coconut, Cocos nucifera
ferus L wild wild horse, Equus ferus; wild Bactrian camel, Camelus ferus ferusferaferum
ferrugo L rust ferruginous swift, Borbo ferruginea;
reddish-brown corky spine fungus, Hydnellum ferrugineum;
rusty bloodwood, Corymbia ferruginea;
rusty parrotfish, Scarus ferrugineus;
rusty pitohui, Pseudorectes ferrugineus
fidelis L faithful faithful sea slug, Goniobranchus fidelis; faithful leafcutting bee, Megachile fidelis; Pacific sideband, Monadenia fidelis fidelis
filum L thread desert fan palm, Washingtonia filifera; thread fern, Blechnum filiforme; thread-leaved sundew, Drosera filiformis filiferfiliferafiliformisfiliforme
flavus L golden yellow, light yellow yellow pitcher plant, Sarracenia flava; yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis flavusflavaflavum
floridus L flowery blue palo verde, Parkinsonia florida; floral banded wobbegong, Orectolobus floridus floridusfloridum
flor- L flos flower southern magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora; great white trillium, Trillium grandiflorum All pages with titles beginning with flori
fodiens L fodere digging burying beetle, Nicrophorus defodiens; burying beetle, Nicrophorus infodiens; Eurasian water shrew, Neomys fodiens; lowland burrowing tree frog, Smilisca fodiens
folium L leaf American beech, Fagus grandifolia; broad-leaved sermountain, Laserpitium latifolium; Chinese elm, Ulmus parvifolia; Joshua tree, Yucca brevifolia; upright snottygobble, Persoonia longifolia
fragilis L frangere breakable brittle bladder-fern, Cystopteris fragilis; brittle willow, Salix fragilis; candy cap, Lactarius fragilis; Dientamoeba fragilis; dead man's fingers, Codium fragile; fragile wart frog, Limnonectes fragilis fragilis
fuligo L soot jet black ant, Lasius fuliginosus; ruby tiger, Phragmatobia fuliginosa; sooty hairstreak, Satyrium fuliginosum; sooty milkcap, Lactarius fuliginosus fuliginosusfuliginosafuliginosum
fulvus L deep yellow, tawny Pacific golden plover, Pluvialis fulva; sulphur leather coral, Rhytisma fulvum; tawny grisette, Amanita fulva; yellow ground squirrel, Spermophilus fulvus fulvusfulvafulvum
furcatus L forked forked viburnum, Viburnum furcatum; forked wormwood, Artemisia furcata; swallow-tailed gull, Creagrus furcatus furcatusfurcatafurcatum
fuscus L dark, dark brown dusky hopping mouse, Notomys fuscus; dusky pitcher-plant, Nepenthes fusca; rusty peat moss, Sphagnum fuscum; sooty tern, Sterna fuscata fuscusfuscafuscum


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
gala, galum G γάλα (gála) milk soap plants, Chlorogalum
gaster, gastro-, gastr- L gaster G γαστήρ (gastḗr) belly common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster; Gastropoda
geo- G γαῖα, γῆ () Earth Conus geographus, geography cone; Geotrichum
giganteus L giganteus giant Chorus giganteus (a sea snail); Aldabra giant tortoise, Aldabrachelys gigantea giganteusgiganteagiganteum
glaber L glaber smooth; hairless[2] naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber; smooth sumac, Rhus glabra; Omphiscola glabra (a snail) glaberglabraglabrum
glandulosus L having kernels Tasmanian laurel, Anopterus glandulosus, Basilan Island caecilian, Ichthyophis glandulosus;
honey mesquite, Prosopis glandulosa, warty jumping-slug, Hemphillia glandulosa;
skunk currant, Ribes glandulosum,
glaucus L glaucus G γλαυκός (glaukós) blue-green, blue-gray, gleaming silvery blue butterfly, Lepidochrysops glauca; Glaucidae, nudibranch family glaucusglaucaglaucum
glutinosus L glutinosus sticky common alder, Alnus glutinosa;
viscid black earth tongue, Glutinoglossum glutinosum;
northern slimy salamander, Plethodon glutinosus
glyco-, glycy-, glyc- G γλυκύς (glukús) sweet liquorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra; soybean, Glycine max
gracilis, gracile L slender, graceful western spotted skunk, Spilogale gracilis; slough darter, Etheostoma gracile; Gracilisuchus gracilisgracile
gracilipes L grăcĭlĭpes[3] slender-footed slender frog, Austrochaperina gracilipes; slender-legged bushfrog, Gracixalus gracilipes; slenderstalk monkeyflower, Mimulus gracilipes; slimfoot century plant, Agave gracilipes gracilipes
graniticus L granite granite claw flower, Calothamnus graniticus;
granite poverty bush, Eremophila granitica;
granite serpentweed, Tonestus graniticus
graveolens L gravis strong-smelling common rue, Ruta graveolens; lippia, Lippia graveolens graveolens
gyrino-, gyrinus G γυρῖνος (gurînos) tadpole spring salamander, Gyrinophilus porphyriticus; e.g. Crassigyrinus, Proterogyrinus


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
haema-, hema- G αἷμα (haîma) blood Haemosporida; Bacteria sp., Haemophilus influenzae
hali-, halio- G ἅλς (háls) of the sea, salt Steller's sea eagle, Haliaeetus pelagicus; grey seal, Halichoerus grypus; black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii
haplo- G ἁπλόος (haplóos) simple, single mountain beaver, Aplodontia rufa; Mongolosaurus haplodon
hedra- G ἕδρα (hédra) seat, facet Chinese ephedra, Ephedra sinica
helio- G ἥλιος (hḗlios) sun sunflower, Helianthus annuus; sun spurge, Euphorbia helioscopia
hemisphaerica G half-sphere sand laurel oak, Quercus hemisphaerica, sulphur rose, Rosa hemisphaerica Hemisphaerica
hetero- G diversely or different melancholy thistle, Cirsium heterophyllum, Leucanthemum heterophyllum, Smith's cress, Lepidium heterophyllum heterophyllum
hexa- G ἕξ (héx) six water primrose, Ludwigia hexapetala
hibridus L hybrid butterbur, Petasites hybridus, brown spider monkey, Ateles hybridus; kelp goose, Chloephaga hybrida; alsike clover, Trifolium hybridum; hibridus - hybridus - hibrida - hybrida - hibridum - hybridum
hippo- G ἵππος (híppos) horse seahorse, Hippocampus; lesser horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros
hirsutus L hairy hairy bittercress, Cardamine hirsuta;
hairy fruit-eating bat, Artibeus hirsutus;
hairy St John's-wort, Hypericum hirsutum
hirsutus - hirsutahirsutum
homo L human, man modern human, Homo sapiens; Neanderthal, Homo neanderthalensis
hortensis L hortus from the garden broad-leaved anemone, Anemone hortensis;
garden orache, Atriplex hortensis;
Mexican longwing, Heliconius hortense;
Orphean warbler, Sylvia hortensis
hydro- G ὕδωρ, ὑδρο- (húdōr, hudro-) water Chinese water deer, Hydropotes inermis; capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
hyper- G ὑπέρ (hupér) over, above St John's wort, Hypericum perforatum
hypo-, hyp- G ὑπό (hupó) under, beneath zebra pleco catfish, Hypancistrus zebra; common cat's-ear, Hypochaeris radicata


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
imbricatus L tiled Mountain owl's-clover, Orthocarpus imbricatus imbricatusimbricataimbricatum
indicus L Indian Malaysian tapir, Tapirus indicus indicusindicaindicum
inaequalis L unequal variable ladybird, Coelophora inaequalis inaequalisinaequale
inedulis L inedible fungus, Caloboletus inedulis inedulisinedule
ingratus L offensive See Ingrata ingrataingratusingratum
innotatus L unmarked unmarked dagger moth, Acronicta innotata innotata
irregularis L unusual or irregular variable burrowing asp, Atractaspis irregularis; viper's bugloss, Hadena irregularis irregularisirregulare
japonicus L Japanese food wrapper plant, Mallotus japonicus; Japanese pagoda tree, Styphnolobium japonicum; Japanese spiraea, Spiraea japonica; see also nipponensis japonicusjaponicajaponicum
kentuckiensis L from Kentucky Kentucky lady's slipper, Cypripedium kentuckiense; Kentucky lichen moth, Cisthene kentuckiensis kentuckiensiskentuckiense


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
lact- L lac milk, sap, milky white Chinese peony, Paeonia lactiflora; milk-caps, Lactifluus; Lactophrys; Aspalathus lactea
laevis L smooth red-eyed assassin bug, Platymeris laevicollis; smooth bedstraw, Cruciata laevipes All pages with titles containing Laevis
lagus G λαγώς (lagṓs) hare European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus; viscachas, Lagidium spp.
lancea L lance sculptured seamoth, Pegasus lancifer; swamp lousewort, Pedicularis lanceolata
lateralis L side black-flanked rock-wallaby, Petrogale lateralis
latus L flank; broad horse-eye jack, Caranx latus; wideleaf waterparsnip, Sium latifolium; wych elm, Ulmus glabra 'Latifolia Aurea'
lepis, lepido- G λεπίς (lepís) scale, rind, husk, flake large-scale mullet, Liza macrolepis; Lepidoptera
lepto-, lepti- G λεπτός (leptós) light Leptictidium auderiense, Leptospira kirschneri
lepus L hare black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus
leuco-, leuc- G λευκός (leukós) white white-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus
leucocephalus G white-headed bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus;
white-crowned pigeon, Patagioenas leucocephala;
white-headed marsh tyrant, Arundinicola leucocephala;
white-headed stilt, Himantopus leucocephalus;
also see albiceps
leucodon G white-toothed bicolored shrew, Crocidura leucodon;
lesser mole-rat, Spalax leucodon;
white-toothed cowry, Cypraea leucodon;
white-toothed woodrat, Neotoma leucodon;
also see albidens
leucurus G white-tailed white-tailed ptarmigan, Lagopus leucura;
white-tailed robin, Cinclidium leucurum;
white-tailed stonechat, Saxicola leucurus
limosus L muddy limosa harlequin frog, Atelopus limosus;
mud amnicola, Amnicola limosus
lineatus L lined or striped thirteen-lined ground squirrel, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus; Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
lobos L lobus G λοβός (lobós) lobe three-lobe buttercup, Ranunculus trilobus
longi- L longus long frog shark, Somniosus longus, galingale, Cyperus longus;
Turmeric, Curcuma longa;
Long pepper, Piper longum,
longuslongalongumAll pages with titles beginning with longi
longicaudatus L long-tailed long-tailed pygmy rice rat, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus; longtail catfish; Olyra longicaudata; longtail tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus longicaudatuslongicaudatalongicaudatum
longicollis L long-necked eastern long-necked turtle, Chelodina longicollis longicollislongicolle
longifolius L long-leaved long-leaf persoonia, Persoonia longifolia;
long-leaf wild buckwheat, Eriogonum longifolium; long-leaved butterwort, Pinguicula longifolia; longleaf bush lupine, Lupinus longifolius; longleaf sunflower, Helianthus longifolius
longirostris L long beak longbeak buttercup, Ranunculus longirostris; longsnout blacksmelt, Dolicholagus longirostris longirostrislongirostre
luctuosus L sorrowful, mournful forget-me-not bug, Sehirus luctuosus; white-shouldered tanager, Tachyphonus luctuosus; four-spotted moth, Tyta luctuosa luctuosusluctuosaluctuosum
luteus L yellow, saffron-colored yellow mariposa lily, Calochortus luteus; yellow vetch, Vicia lutea; red-billed leiothrix, Leiothrix lutea luteuslutealuteum


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
macro- G μακρός (makrós) long, large big-headed mole rat, Tachyoryctes macrocephalus; rock onion, Allium macrum; sea snail, Turbonilla macra macramacrum
macroura G long-tailed hooded skunk, Mephitis macroura macroura
maculatus L spotted tiger quoll, Dasyurus maculatus; spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularius maculatus - maculata - maculatum
madagascariensis L from Madagascar Madagascar day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis madagascariensis; Malagasy ground boa, Acrantophis madagascariensis; Malagasy tree boa, Sanzinia madagascariensis; Madagascar fruit-bat argasid, Ornithodoros madagascariensis madagascariensis
magnus L great, large streaked spiderhunter, Arachnothera magna magnusmagnamagnum
major L greater great tit, Parus major
malabaricus L from Malabar chestnut-tailed starling, Sturnia malabaricus
marginatus L bordered gold edge Japanese euonymus, Euonymus japonicus 'Aureomarginatus' ; marginated tortoise, Testudo marginata marginatus - marginata - marginatum
maritima L of the sea sea beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima;
samphire, Crithmum maritimum, sea holly, Eryngium maritimum;
polar bear, Ursus maritimus, sea rush, Juncus maritimus,
mauro- G μαυρός (maurós) dark, black dark shrew, Crocidura maurisca
maximus L largest royal tern, Sterna maxima
mega- G μέγας (mégas) large, great megalodon shark, Carcharodon megalodon
megacephalus G big-headed Andriyashev large-headed sculpin, Andriashevicottus megacephalus; big-head rush, Juncus megacephalus; big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala; big-headed tiger beetle, Megacephala megacephala; coastal plain hawkweed, Hieracium megacephalum; large-headed rice rat, Hylaeamys megacephalus megacephalusmegacephalamegacephalum
mel L honey black sage, Salvia mellifera; Nephelium melliferum; western honey bee, Apis mellifera
melano- G μελανός (melanós) black black-browed albatross, Thalassarche melanophris melanusmelana
melanocephalus G black-headed black-headed fleabane, Erigeron melanocephalus; black-headed snake, Tantilla melanocephala; ghost ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum melanocephalusmelanocephalamelanocephalum
melanophyllus G black-leaved Melanophylla; Melanophyllum melanophyllusmelanophyllamelanophyllum
melanops G black-eyed, black-faced black-eyed blue, Glaucopsyche melanops; black-fronted dotterel, Elseyornis melanops; gray spiny mouse, Scolomys melanops melanops
mephitis L bad odor striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis; yellow-pigmented bacteria, Luteimonas mephitis
micro- G μικρός (mikrós) small littleleaf pussytoes, Antennaria microphylla
microphyllus G small-leaved baby sage, Salvia microphylla; boxleaf azara, Azara microphylla; littleleaf box, Buxus microphylla; littleleaf mock-orange, Philadelphus microphyllus; small-leaf climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum microphyllusmicrophyllamicrophyllum
minimus L smallest least flycatcher, Empidonax minimus
minor L smaller great frigatebird, Fregata minor
minuta L small dwarf waterclover, Marsilea minuta, little cuckoo, Coccycua minuta;
little gull, Hydrocoloeus minutus, harvest mouse, Micromys minutus;
little willowherb, Epilobium minutum,
minuta - minutus - minutum
monile L necklace Conus monilifer
mono- G μόνος (mónos) single Swinhoe's storm-petrel, Oceanodroma monorhis; Monotreme
monoica L monoicous the sandpaper saucer-berry, Cordia monoica monoica
monospermus L Having a single sperm cell one-seed juniper Juniperus monosperma monospermus - monosperma - monospermum
monspeliensis L from Montpellier Montpellier cistus, Cistus monspeliensis monspeliensis - monspessulanus - monspessulana - monspessulanum
montanus L mons of the mountains mountain bottlebrush, Melaleuca montana; mountain mahogany, Cercocarpus montanus; mountain thistle, Acanthus montanus; tree sparrow, Passer montanus montanus
morpho- G μορφή (morphḗ) shape Menelaus blue morpho, Morpho menelaus
mus, mys L mūs G μῦς (mûs) mouse house mouse, Mus musculus; as rodent, e.g. Phoberomys, Telicomys
mulgere G to milk European nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus Caprimulgus
muralis L growing on the wall annual wall-rocket Diplotaxis muralis, Psammophiliella muralis


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
nanos G νᾶνος (nânos) L nanus dwarf brown-capped woodpecker, Dendrocopos nanus;
dwarf birch, Betula nana;
dwarf shrew, Sorex nanus
niger, nigr- L black black skimmer, Rhrychops niger;
black pine, Pinus nigra;
black softshell turtle, Nilssonia nigricans;
black-footed albatross, Phoebastria nigripes;
black-spined Atlantic tree-rat, Phyllomys nigrispinus
See also: ater
nigra - nigras - nigrus - nigrum - nigrescens
nipponensis L from Japan freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense; Japanese bobtail squid, Sepiolina nipponensis
See also: japonicus
nitidus L nitere shining Baja cape kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula nitida;
Mauritius blue pigeon, Alectroenas nitidissima;
shining pea clam, Pisidium nitidum;
shining tree iguana, Liolaemus nitidus
nix L snow snow buckwheat, Eriogonum niveum;
snow bunting, Plectrophenax nivalis;
snow petrel, Pagodroma nivea;
snow sheep Ovis nivicola;
snowy plover, Charadrius nivosus;
snowy primrose, Primula nivalis;
snowy sunflower, Helianthus niveus;
nonus L ninth honey fungus, Armillaria nabsnona
nothos G νόθος (nóthos) L nothus false, wrong bluefin notho killifish, Nothobranchius rachovii;
New Zealand red beech, Nothofagus fusca
noton G νῶτον (nôton) back black-backed antshrike, Thamnophilus melanonotus
notos G νότος (nótos) southern fawn hopping mouse, Notomys cervinus
novaehollandiae L from New Holland (Australia) emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae
novaeseelandiae L from New Zealand southern boobook, Ninox novaeseelandiae
noveboracensis L from New York (Novum Eboracum) margined carrion beetle, Oiceoptoma noveboracense;
New York fern, Thelypteris noveboracensis;
northern waterthrush, Seiurus noveboracensis
novem L nine nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus;
nine-spotted lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata
nucifera L bearing nuts butter-nut of Guiana, Caryocar nuciferum;
coconut, Cocos nucifera
All pages with titles containing nucifera
nutans L nodding nodding madia, Harmonia nutans;
nodding spurge, Euphorbia nutans


Latin/Greek Language English Example Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
obscurus L dark dark bolo mouse, Necromys obscurus; dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus; obscure morning glory, Ipomoea obscura; rare clubmoss, Lycopodium obscurum obscurusobscuraobscurum
obsoletus L obsolete, degenerate Pantherophis obsoletus; Great Plains skink, Plestiodon obsoletus obsoletusobsoletum
occidentalis L western eastern arborvitae, Thuja occidentalis; western clover, Trifolium occidentale occidentalisoccidentale
ocean G ὠκεανός (ōkeanós) ocean oceanic gecko, Gehyra oceanica;
Mediterranean tapeweed, Posidonia oceanica
octo-, octa- G ὀκτω- ὀκτα- eight common octopus, Octopus vulgaris
-odon, -odus G ὀδών (odṓn), ὀδούς (odoús) tooth Dimetrodon, Rhizodus
oeso- G οἰσέμεν (oisémen), οἰσ- carry Oesophagostomum
officinalis L for the workshop; medicinal ginger, Zingiber officinale;
rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis
oleraceus L used as a vegetable cabbage, broccoli, kale, Brussels sprouts, and so on, Brassica oleracea; common sowthistle, Sonchus oleraceus oleraceusoleraceaoleraceum
oleum, olearis L oil Omphalotus olearius, jack o'lantern mushroom
ophis G ὄφις (óphis) serpent Carphophis vermis, western wormsnake
ops G ὤψ (ṓps) face, eye Triceratops
-opsis G ὄψις (ópsis) resembling Carolina parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis
orientalis L eastern Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis orientalisorientale
ortho- G ὀρθός (orthós) straight Orthoptera
oryza G ὄρυζα (óruza) rice Asian rice, Oryza sativa; rice rats, Oryzomys
ovatus L egg-shaped shagbark hickory, Carya ovata ovatusovataovatum


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
pachy- G παχύς (pakhús) thick, stout Pachycephalosaurus
pallidus L pale Dalmatian iris, Iris pallida palliduspallidapallidum
palustris L paluster of the marsh mugger crocodile, Crocodylus palustris;
marsh marigold, Caltha palustris
pan- panto- G πᾶν (pân) all Pancratium (a flower); Pangaea
parviflorus L small-flowered small-flowered mallow, Malva parviflora;
thimbleberry, Rubus parviflorus
parvifolius L small-leaved Chinese elm, Ulmus parvifolia;
littleleaf ceanothus, Ceanothus parvifolius;
small-leaved lomatium, Lomatium parvifolium
parvus L small dwarf catshark, Asymbolus parvus;
mountain pygmy possum, Burramys parvus;
small onion, Allium parvum
pecten L comb Venus comb murex, Murex pecten
ped L pēs foot showy lady slipper, Cypripedium reginae
pelagicus L, G πελαγικός of the open sea pelagic cormorant, Phalacrocorax pelagicus pelagicuspelagicapelagicum
penn- L penna feather, wing Darwin's rhea, Rhea pennata;
great auk, Pinguinus impennis
penta- G πέντε (pénte) five five-fingered skink, Chalcides pentadactylus
petro- G πέτρα (pétra), L petra rock, stone Roberts's flat-headed bat, Sauromys petrophilus;
rock daisy, Erigeron petrophilus
phago- G ἔφαγον eat African scat (fish), Scatophagus tetracanthus;
Ichthyophaga, the ("fish-eating") sea eagle
phenolicus L able to degrade phenol Pseudoalteromonas phenolica phenolicusphenolicaphenolicum
philippinensis L from the Philippines katmon tree, Dillenia philippinensis;
Philippine cobra, Naja philippinensis
pholis G φολῐ́ς (pholís) horny scale bluespotted grouper, Cephalopholis argus
phyllo- G φύλλον (phúllon) leaf garden lupin, Lupinus polyphyllus
physi- G φύσις (phúsis) nature Symphysia ("naturally joined") (a plant)[4]
phyto- G φυτόν (phutón) plant Astrophytum, Astrophytum myriostigma (a cactus); epiphyte
pictus L painted Pimelodus pictus, a catfish;
painted skipper, Hesperilla picta;
painted tunicate, Clavelina picta;
Abutilon pictum, a shrub
platy- G πλατύς (platús) flat and broad flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus; platypus
plumosum L feathered big tarweed, Blepharizonia plumosa; buzzer midge, Chironomus plumosus plumosusplumosaplumosum
pod- G πούς (poús) foot, leg, stem red-footed spikesedge, Eleocharis erythropoda; Arthropoda; Gastropoda
poliocephalus G grey-headed ashy-headed goose, Chloephaga poliocephala;
grey-crowned flatbill, Tolmomyias poliocephalus;
grey-headed flying fox, Pteropus poliocephalus;
grey-headed goshawk, Accipiter poliocephalus;
hoary-headed grebe, Poliocephalus poliocephalus;
white-headed langur, Trachypithecus poliocephalus;
yellow-lored tody-flycatcher, Todirostrum poliocephalum
poly- G πολύς (polús) many, much common knotgrass, Polygonum aviculare
pomum L fruit apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella;
apple murex, Phyllonotus pomum;
codling moth, Cydia pomonella;
emu apple, Kunzea pomifera;
Osage orange, Maclura pomifera
ponticus G Πόντος (Póntos) Pontic; from Pontus, Turkey Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus;
Pontic adder, Vipera pontica;
Pontic rhododendron, Rhododendron ponticum;
Roman wormwood, Artemisia pontica
praecox L early early onion, Allium praecox;
neon rainbow, Melanotaenia praecox;
wintersweet, Chimonanthus praecox
praestans L excelling Kamchatka bilberry, Vaccinium praestans;
goliath webcap mushroom, Cortinarius praestans;
(a butterfly), Ypthima praestans;
(a ground beetle), Lesticus praestans;
Tulipa praestans
prātum L meadow Inyo meadow lupine, Lupinus pratensis;
meadow foxtail, Alopecurus pratensis;
meadow sedge, Carex praticola;
meadow waxcap, Cuphophyllus pratensis
proto- G πρῶτος (prôtos) first Protozoa
pruriens L itching velvet bean, Mucuna pruriens pruriens
pseudo- L G ψευδής (pseudḗs) false or fake Brazilian false rice rat, Pseudoryzomys simplex;
pastel flower, Pseuderanthemum variabile
psychrophilus G ψυχρός (psukhrós) cold-loving bacterial rod, Flavobacterium psychrophilum;
bacterium, Geobacter psychrophilus;
whip-lash squid, Mastigoteuthis psychrophila
pterus, -pter G πτερόν (pterón) wing, feather white-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus;
Pteranodon (winged toothless);
Pterodactylus (winged finger);
Pteridophyta; Diptera;
pubescens L downy downy oak, Quercus pubescens pubescens
pugil L pugil a boxer fighting conch, Strombus pugilis pugilis
pulchellus L pretty little[5] beautiful sunbird, Cinnyris pulchella;
green pygmy goose, Nettapus pulchellus
pumilus L dwarf Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum;
dwarf cuckoo, Coccycua pumila;
dwarf mouse-ear, Cerastium pumilum;
eastern forest bat, Vespadelus pumilus;
shaggy fleabane, Erigeron pumilus;
Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila
punctatus L spotted, marked with punctures dotted thyme-moss, Rhizomnium punctatum;
thirteen-spotted lady beetle, Hippodamia tredecimpunctata
pungens L pungens pungent blue spruce, Picea pungens;
pungent slippery jack, Suillus pungens
purpurascens L somewhat purple veiled purple hygrophorus, Hygrophorus purpurascens purpurascens
purpureus L purpureus purple purple amole, Chlorogalum purpureum;
purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea;
purple finch, Haemorhous purpureus
pygo- G πυγή (pugḗ) tail, rump chinstrap penguin, Pygoscelis antarcticus


Latin/Greek Language English Example Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
quadri- L quattuor four, square burr grass, Festuca quadriflora (four-flowered);
four-coloured bushshrike, Telophorus quadricolor;
fourspot butterflyfish, Chaetodon quadrimaculatus;
whorled loosestrife, Lysimachia quadrifolia (four-leaved)
All pages with titles beginning with Quadri


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
radix L root or radish taproot fleabane, Erigeron radicatus radixradicansradicatusradicis
rāmus L branch branched draba, Draba ramosissima;
branched murex, Chicoreus ramosus
regalis L royal Synalpheus regalis;
regal moth, Citheronia regalis;
royal lily, Lilium regale
repandus L repandus curved upwards, turned up dragon's tongue, Hemigraphis repanda;
hedgehog mushroom, Hydnum repandum;
Peruvian apple cactus, Cereus repandus
repens L creeping, crawling (rēpēns) creeping buttercup, Ranunculus repens
repens L unexpected (rĕpēns) white clover, Trifolium repens
reptans, rept- L creeping, crawling bugle, Ajuga reptans;
creeping cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans; Reptilia
reticulata L reticulated mandarin orange, Citrus reticulata reticulatusreticulatareticulatum
rhino- G ῥίς (rhís) nose orange leaf-nosed bat, Rhinonicteris aurantia; rhinoceros
rhiza G ῥίζα (rhíza) root bushy seedbox, Ludwigia helminthorrhiza; Rhizobium (nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria)
rhynchos G ῥύγχος (rhúnkhos) beak or snout mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; Rhamphorhynchus
rhytis G ῥῠτίς (rhutís) wrinkled, folded shaggy moss, Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus; Rhytidodon (syn. Rutiodon)
rigidus L rigid, stiff big galleta, Hilaria rigida rigidusrigidarigidum
rostr- L rōstrum beak, bill, snout common crossbill, Loxia curvirostra
rostralis L with a beak buttoned snout moth, Hypena rostralis rostralisrostrale
rostratus L rōstrātus having a beak beaked sedge, Carex rostrata;
beaked yucca, Yucca rostrata;
Caribbean sharp-nose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata;
longnose surgeonfish, Zebrasoma rostratum
ruber, rubr- L ruber red red maple, Acer rubrum;
red valerian, Centranthus ruber;
ruby bolete, Hortiboletus rubellus;
summer tanager, Piranga rubra
ruder- L rūdus, rūderis rubbish Cannabis ruderalis;
Porophyllum ruderale;
ruderal bumblebee, Bombus ruderatus
rudis, rud- L rough, rude coarse chameleon, Trioceros rudis;
pied kingfisher Ceryle rudis;
rough gecko, Naultinus rudis;
rough mabuya, Eutropis rudis
rufus, ruf- L red, reddish red wolf, Canis rufus;
rufous rubber cup, Galiella rufa


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
sanctus L sacred See sanctus (species) sanctus
sanguis L blood bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis sanguinis
sapiens L wise recent subspecies of humans: Homo sapiens sapiens ("wise wise man")
saponaria L soapy[6][7] soapworts (Saponaria spp.), soapbark (Quillaja saponaria), Ramaria flavosaponaria saponaria
sarawakensis Malaysian from Sarawak Sarawak pygmy swellshark Cephaloscyllium sarawakensis sarawakensis
sativus L sown, cultivated oat, Avena sativa;
pea, Pisum sativum;
rice, Oryza sativa
saura, -saur G σαῦρος (saûros) lizard, reptile lancetfish, Alepisaurus; Maiasaura (dinosaur)
sculptus L sculpted reed-stemmed orchid, Epidendrum sculptum;
sculpted lanternshark, Etmopterus sculptus;
sculpted puffball, Calvatia sculpta
septem L seven seven-spot ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata
septentrionalis L northern (cf. borealis) northern spleenwort, Asplenium septentrionale septentrionalisseptentrionale
setosus L bristly or shaggy hairy Atlantic spiny rat, Trinomys setosus;
artic iris Iris setosa,
Diadema setosum
silvestris, sylvestris L from woodland or forest; wild wildcat, Felis silvestris;
snowdrop anemone, Anemone sylvestris
silvestris, sylvestrissilvestre, sylvestre
similis L similar Callinectes similis similis
simplex L simple see List of species named simplex simplex
sinensis L from China tea, Camellia sinensis sinensissinense
speciosus L showy queen's crape-myrtle, Lagerstroemia speciosa;
Japanese lily, Lilium speciosum
sperma G σπέρμα (spérma) seed African daisies, Osteospermum
sphen-, spheno- G σφήν (sphḗn) wedge tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus
squamatus l with scales scaly francolin, Pternistis squamatus, scaled woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes squamatus
stoma G στόμα (stóma) mouth, opening stomate, Gnathostomata
striatus L striped African striped skink, Trachylepis striata;
striated heron, Butorides striatus;
striped Barbados lily, Hippeastrum striatum
strictus L straight, narrow, erect chocolate lily, Dichopogon strictus;
Oxalis stricta; Babiana stricta; Nardus stricta,
bog haircap moss, Polytrichum strictum
strix, strig- L or G owl kakapo or owl parrot, Strigops habroptilus;
tawny frogmouth, Podargus strigoides;
tawny owl, Strix aluco
suber L cork cork oak, Quercus suber
suchos, -suchus G σοῦχος (soûkhos) crocodile (from Egyptian) Eusuchia;
sulcatus L furrowed furrowed wakerobin, Trillium sulcatum;
grooved helmet-orchid, Nematoceras sulcatum
syriacus L Syrian common milkweed, Asclepias syriacus syriacussyriacasyriacum


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
tardus, tardi- L slow, late great bustard, Otis tarda;
Chisos Mountains oak, Quercus tardifolia
tele-, tel- G τῆλε (têle) far, distant New South Wales waratah, Telopea speciosissima
tenax L clinging, tenacious bear grass, Xerophyllum tenax;
tough bully, Sideroxylon tenax;
tough-leaved iris, Iris tenax
tenuis L thin, slender, fine slender rush, Juncus tenuis;
plealeaf knotweed, Polygonum tenue
tetra- G τετρα- four four-leaved allseed, Polycarpon tetraphyllum; Tetrapoda
therium, ther- G θηρίον (thēríon), θήρ (thḗr) beast, wild animal giant ground sloth, Megatherium americanum;
stinkpot turtle, Sternotherus odoratus;
gelada, Theropithicus gelada
tinctorius L for dyeing woad, Isatis tinctoria tinctoriustinctoriatinctorium
tomentosus L furry bristle-tail filefish, Acreichthys tomentosus;
fuzzy mock-orange, Philadelphus tomentosus;
woollyleaf ceanothus, Ceanothus tomentosus
tri-, tris- L tri-, G τρι- (tri-) three black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla;
three-cornered garlic, Allium triquetrum
tricho-, -thrix G θρίξ (thríx), τριχ- (trikh-) hair cloud ear fungus, Auricularia polytricha
tripartitus L three-part threepart violet, Viola tripartita;
threetip sagebrush, Artemisia tripartita
tristis L sad, disagreeable, bitter, foul Ever-flowering gladiolus, Gladiolus tristis
American goldfinch, Carduelis tristis
Mupli beetle, Luprops tristis
troglodytes L G τρωγλοδύτης (trōglodútēs) cave-dweller chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes;
wren, Troglodytes troglodytes
tropicalis L tropical Candida tropicalis (yeast);
Rostraureum tropicale (fungus)


Latin/Greek Language English Example Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
ulmus L elm American elm, Ulmus americana; elmleaf goldenrod, Solidago ulmifolia; Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila; Ulmus
ulos G οὖλος (oûlos) woolly Uloborus; Ulotrichi; Ulotrichopus All pages with titles beginning with Ulo
unus L one Monotropa uniflora; unicolor woolly lemur, Avahi unicolor
ura G οὐρά (ourá) of the tail mourning dove, Zenaida macroura; coral snake, Micrurus corallinus


Latin/Greek Language English Examples Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
variabilis L variable grey bunting, Emberiza variabilis variabilisvariabile
variegatus L variegated variegated laughingthrush, Garrulax variegatus; croton, Codiaeum variegatum variegatusvariegatavariegatum
velox, velocis L swift swift fox, Vulpes velox; Velociraptor velox
ventralis L ventral, of the belly Hispaniolan parrot, Amazona ventralis;
southern dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion ventrale
vernicosa L varnished varnished maxillaria, Maxillaria vernicosa vernicosusvernicosavernicosum
vernus, vernalis L spring spring gentian, Gentiana verna;
spring pheasant's eye, Adonis vernalis;
spring sneezeweed, Helenium vernale
verrucosus L rough-skinned Javan warty pig, Sus verrucosus; reef stonefish, Synanceia verrucosa verrucosusverrucosaverrucosum
versicolor L many-colored varied honeyeater, Lichenostomus versicolor; Vietnam mouse-deer, Tragulus versicolor versicolor
verticillata L whorled spaghetti bryozoan, Zoobotryon verticillatum; whorled plectranthus, Plectranthus verticillatus verticillatusverticillataverticillatum
verus L true, genuine true aloe, Aloe vera; lady's bedstraw, Galium verum verusverum
victoriae L Victorian Victoria's bar, Cigaritis victoriae victoriae
villosus L[8] hairy, shaggy hairy nightshade, Solanum villosum;
hairy stonecrop, Sedum villosum;
hairy vetch, Vicia villosa;
hairy woodpecker, Picoides villosus;
shaggy hawkweed, Hieracium villosum;
villous deadly carrot, Thapsia villosa
virginiana L Virginia Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana; Rosa virginiana, the Virginia rose virginianavirginianum
viridis L green frog orchid, Coeloglossum viride;
green alder, Alnus viridis;
green wrasse, Labrus viridis
virosus L poisonous cowbane, Cicuta virosa; poisonous lettuce, Lactuca virosa virosus - virosa
L grape vine inhabitant or cultivator Phomopsis viticola; Plasmopara viticola; Schizomyia viticola viticola
volans L flying flying dragon, Draco volans; southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans volans
vulgaris L common common octopus, Octopus vulgaris; common privet, Ligustrum vulgare vulgarisvulgare


Latin/Greek Language English Example Search for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
xanthos G ξανθός yellow yellow staining mushroom, Agaricus xanthodermus All pages with titles beginning with Xanth
zoster G ζωστήρ (zōstḗr) belt, girdle white-eyes, Zosterops; Zosterophyllum; Zosterocarpus abyssicola All pages with titles beginning with Zoster
zygos G ζυγός joined Zygophyllum; Zygoptera All pages with titles beginning with Zygo

See also


  1. ^ Chuck Griffith. "Dictionary of Botanical Epithets".
  2. ^ "Rhus glabra L." Northern Arizona University. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
  3. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, G, Gracchus, grăcĭlĭpes". Retrieved 2016-01-17.
  4. ^ Umberto Quattrocchi (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. CRC Press. p. 2610. ISBN 978-0-8493-2673-8.
  5. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short (1879). "pulchellus". A Latin Dictionary.
  6. ^ Saponaria. Flora of North America.
  7. ^ Griffith, Chuck (2005). "Dictionary of Botanical Epithets". Dictionary of Botanical Epithets. Retrieved 16 July 2018. saponarius saponaria saponarium soapy sapo sapon noun/m soap (from German) arius ari adj adjective suffix for nouns or numbers: connected to or possessed by
  8. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, villōsus". Retrieved 2016-01-17.