|12th President of Italy|
|Assumed office |
3 February 2015
|Prime Minister||Matteo Renzi|
|Preceded by||Giorgio Napolitano|
|Judge of the Constitutional Court|
11 October 2011 – 2 February 2015
|Appointed by||Italian Parliament|
|Minister of Defence|
22 December 1999 – 11 June 2001
|Prime Minister||Massimo D'Alema|
|Preceded by||Carlo Scognamiglio|
|Succeeded by||Antonio Martino|
|Deputy Prime Minister of Italy|
21 October 1998 – 22 December 1999
|Prime Minister||Massimo D'Alema|
|Preceded by||Walter Veltroni|
|Succeeded by||Gianfranco Fini|
|Minister of Public Education|
22 July 1989 – 27 July 1990
|Prime Minister||Giulio Andreotti|
|Preceded by||Giovanni Galloni|
|Succeeded by||Gerardo Bianco|
|Minister for Parliamentary Relations|
28 July 1987 – 22 July 1989
|Prime Minister||Giovanni Goria|
Ciriaco De Mita
|Preceded by||Gaetano Gifuni|
|Succeeded by||Egidio Sterpa|
|Member of the Chamber of Deputies|
12 July 1983 – 28 April 2008
|Constituency||Sicily (1983–2001; 2006–08)|
Trentino-Alto Adige (2001–06)
|Born||23 July 1941|
Palermo, Kingdom of Italy
|Political party||DC (Before 1994)|
(m. 1966; died 2012)
|Children||3 (Laura, Bernardo Giorgio, and Francesco)|
|Alma mater||Sapienza University|
Sergio Mattarella OMRI OMCA (Italian pronunciation: [ˈsɛrdʒo mattaˈrɛlla]; born 23 July 1941) is an Italian politician, jurist, academic and lawyer, who is serving as the 12th and current President of Italy since February 2015.
Mattarella was previously Minister for Parliamentary Relations from 1987 to 1989, Minister of Public Education from 1989 to 1990, Deputy Prime Minister of Italy from 1998 to 1999 and Minister of Defence from 1999 to 2001. In 2011, he became an elected judge on the Constitutional Court. On 31 January 2015, he was elected by the Italian Parliament to serve as President of the Italian Republic.
Sergio Mattarella was born in Palermo, in a prominent Sicilian family. His father, Bernardo Mattarella, was an anti-fascist who, alongside Alcide De Gasperi and other prominent Catholic politicians, founded the Christian Democracy (DC), which dominated the Italian political scene for almost fifty years, with Bernardo serving as a minister several times; while his mother, Maria Buccellato, came from an higher middle class family of Trapani.
During his youth, Mattarella moved to Rome, due to his father's commitments to politics. In Rome, he became a member of Catholic Action (AC), a large Catholic lay association, of which he became the regional chairman for Lazio from 1961 to 1964.
After attending the classical lyceum San Leone Magno in Rome, he studied law at the Sapienza University of Rome, where he joined the Catholic Federation of University Students (FUCI). In 1964 he graduated with merit with the thesis The function of political direction.
In 1967, he became a lawyer in Palermo, becoming particularly involved in administrative law. After a few years, Mattarella started teaching parliamentary procedure at the University of Palermo, where he remained until 1983. His academic activity and publications had mainly concerned constitutional law topics, the intervention of the Sicilian Region in economy, bicameralism, legislative procedure, expropriation allowance, evolution of the Sicilian regional administration and controls on local authorities.
On 6 January 1980, his older brother, Piersanti Mattarella, who was also a Christian Democratic politician and President of Sicily since 1978, was killed by the Sicilian Mafia in Palermo. This event deeply changed Mattarella's life, in fact he left his academic career to enter politics.
Mattarella's parliamentary career began in 1983, when he was elected a member of the Chamber of Deputies in left-leaning faction of the DC that had supported an agreement with the Italian Communist Party (PCI) led by Enrico Berlinguer, the so-called Historic Compromise. The following year he was entrusted by the Secretary of the Christian Democrat, Ciriaco De Mita, to "clean up" the Sicilian faction of the party from Mafia control, at a time when men of honour of Cosa Nostra like Salvo Lima and Vito Ciancimino were powerful political figures. In 1985 Mattarella helped the young lawyer Leoluca Orlando, who had worked alongside his brother Piersanti during his governorship of Sicily, to become the new Mayor of Palermo.
Mattarella was appointed Minister for Parliamentary Affairs in the governments led by Christian Democratic Prime Ministers Giovanni Goria and Ciriaco De Mita, and in 1989 he became Minister of Public Education in the sixth cabinet of Giulio Andreotti. Mattarella stood down from his position, together with other ministers, in 1990 upon parliament's passing of the Mammì Act, liberalising the media sector in Italy, which they saw as a favour to the media magnate Silvio Berlusconi.
In 1990 Mattarella was appointed Vice-Secretary of Christian Democracy. He left the post two years later to become director of Il Popolo, the official newspaper of the party. Following the Italian referendum of 1993 he drafted the new electoral law nicknamed Mattarellum. In 1994, when Christian Democracy was dissolved in the wake of the Tangentopoli corruption scandal, he helped found the Italian People's Party (PPI), along with its first leader Mino Martinazzoli and other former Christian Democrats. In the ensuing 1994 general election (in which the newly founded PPI fared poorly) Martinazzoli was again elected to the Chamber of Deputies. He soon found himself engaged in an internal dispute after the election of a new party leader, Rocco Buttiglione, who wished to steer the Italian People's Party towards an electoral alliance with Berlusconi's Forza Italia. Following Buttiglione's appointment, Mattarella resigned as director of Il Popolo in opposition to this policy.
Mattarella was one of the first supporters of the economist Romano Prodi at the head of the centre-left coalition known as The Olive Tree (L'Ulivo) in the 1996 general election. After the electoral victory of the centre-left, Mattarella served as President of the PPI's parliamentary group. Two years later, when Prodi's first government fell, Mattarella was appointed Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence in the government of Massimo D'Alema, then-leader of the Democrats of the Left (DS). As Minister of Defence he supported the NATO Intervention in Yugoslavia against the Serbian President Slobodan Milošević; he also approved a reform of the Italian Armed Forces which abolished conscription. After the resignation of D'Alema in 2000, Mattarella kept his position as Minister of Defence in the government of Giuliano Amato.
In October 2000 the PPI joined with other centrist parties to form an alliance called The Daisy (DL), later to merge into a single party in March 2002. Mattarella was re-elected to the Italian Parliament in the 2001 and 2006 general elections, standing as a candidate for The Daisy in two successive centre-left coalitions – The Olive Tree and The Union (L'Unione).
In 2007 he was one of the founders of the Democratic Party (PD), a big tent centre-left party formed from a merger of left-wing and centrist parties which had been part of The Olive Tree, including The Daisy and the Democrats of the Left (heirs of the Italian Communist Party).
On 5 October 2011 he was elected by the Italian Parliament with 572 votes to be a judge of the Constitutional Court. He was sworn in on 11 October 2011. He served until he was sworn in as President of the Italian Republic.
President of Italy
On 31 January 2015 Mattarella was elected President of the Italian Republic at the fourth ballot with 665 votes out of 1,009, with support from the Democratic Party (PD), New Centre-Right (NCD), Civic Choice (SC), Union of the Centre (UDC) and Left Ecology Freedom (SEL).
Mattarella was officially endorsed by the Democratic Party after his name was put forward by the Prime Minister Matteo Renzi. Mattarella replaced Giorgio Napolitano, who had served for nine years, the longest presidency in the history of the Italian Republic. However, since Napolitano had resigned on 14 January, Senate President Pietro Grasso was the Acting President at the time of Mattarella's inauguration on 3 February. Mattarella's first statement as new President was: "My thoughts go first and especially to the difficulties and hopes of our fellow citizens".
His first presidential visit was on the day of his election, when he visited the Fosse Ardeatine where, in 1944 during World War II, the Nazi occupation troops killed 335 people as a reprisal for a partisan attack. Mattarella stated that "Europe and the world must be united to defeat whoever wants to drag us into a new age of terror".
On 6 May 2015 Mattarella signed the new Italian electoral law, known as Italicum, which provides for a two-round system based on party-list proportional representation, corrected by a majority bonus and a 3% election threshold. Candidates run for election in 100 multi-member constituencies with open lists, except for a single candidate chosen by each party who is the first to be elected.
2016 political crisis
On Sunday 4 December 2016, a constitutional referendum was held in Italy. Voters were asked whether they approve a constitutional law that amends the Italian Constitution to reform the composition and powers of the Parliament of Italy, as well as the division of powers between the State, the regions, and administrative entities.
The bill, put forward by then- Prime Minister of Italy, Matteo Renzi, and his centre-left Democratic Party, was first introduced by the government in the Senate on 8 April 2014. After several amendments were made to the proposed law by both the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, the bill received its first approval on 13 October 2015 (Senate) and 11 January 2016 (Chamber), and, eventually, its second and final approval on 20 January 2016 (Senate) and 12 April 2016 (Chamber).
In accordance with Article 138 of the Constitution, a referendum was called after the formal request of more than one fifth of the members of both the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, since the constitutional law had not been approved by a qualified majority of two-thirds in each house of parliament in the second vote. 59.11% of voters voted against the constitutional reform, meaning it did not come into effect. This was the third constitutional referendum in the history of the Italian Republic; the other two were in 2001 (in which the amending law was approved) and in 2006 (in which it was rejected).
The constitutional reform was rejected with almost 60% of votes, and on 7 December 2016, Prime Minister Renzi announced his resignation. On 11 December Mattarella appointed the incumbent Minister of Foreign Affairs Paolo Gentiloni as new head of the government.
2018 general election
The March 2018 election resulted in a hung parliament, with no coalitions able to form a majority of seats in both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic. The election was seen as a backlash against the establishment with the Five Star Movement (M5S) and the League becoming the two largest parties in the Parliament.
After the election's results were known, Luigi Di Maio, leader of the M5S, and Matteo Salvini, secretary of the League, each urged that Mattarella should give him the task of forming a new cabinet because he led the largest party or coalition, respectively. On 5 March, Matteo Renzi announced that the PD would be in the opposition during this legislature and that he would resign as party leader when a new cabinet was formed. On 6 March, Salvini repeated his campaign message that his party would refuse any coalition with the Five Star Movement. On 14 March, Salvini nonetheless offered to govern with the M5S, imposing the condition that League ally Forza Italia, led by former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, must also take part in any coalition. Di Maio rejected this proposal on the grounds that Salvini was "choosing restoration instead of revolution" because "Berlusconi represents the past". Moreover, a Five Star leader, Alessandro Di Battista, denied any possibility of an alliance with Forza Italia, describing Berlusconi as the "pure evil of our country".
The consultations between Mattarella and the political parties on 4 and 5 April failed to result in a candidate for Prime Minister, forcing Mattarella to hold another round of consultation between 11 and 12 April 2018.
On 18 April 2018 Mattarella tasked the President of the Senate, Elisabetta Casellati, with trying to reconcile the issues between the centre-right and the Five Star Movement, in order to break the post-election political deadlock and form a fully functional new government. However she failed to find a solution to the conflicts between the two groups, especially between the M5S and Forza Italia.  On 23 April 2018, after Casellati's failure, Mattarella gave an exploratory mandate to the President of the Chamber of Deputies, Roberto Fico, to try to create a political agreement between the Five Star Movement and the Democratic Party. However, on 30 April, following an interview of the PD's former leader Matteo Renzi in which he expressed his strong opposition to an alliance with the M5S, Di Maio called for new elections.
On 7 May, Mattarella held a third round of government formation talks, after which he formally confirmed the lack of any possible majority (M5S rejecting an alliance with the whole centre-right coalition, PD rejecting an alliance with both M5S and the centre-right coalition, and the League's Matteo Salvini refusing to form a government with M5S unless it included Berlusconi's Forza Italia party, whose presence in the government was explicitly vetoed by M5S's leader Luigi Di Maio); as a result, he announced his intention to soon appoint a "neutral government" (ignoring M5S and the League's refusal to support such an option) to take over from the Gentiloni Cabinet which was considered unable to lead Italy into a second consecutive election as it represented a majority from a past legislature, and suggested an early election in July (which would be the very first summer general election in Italy) as an option in light of the ongoing deadlock. The Lega and M5S agreed to hold new elections on 8 July, an option that was however rejected by all other parties.
On 9 May, after a day of rumours, M5S and the League officially asked Mattarella to give them 24 more hours to strike a coalition agreement between the two parties. Later the same day, in the evening, Silvio Berlusconi publicly announced that Forza Italia would not support an M5S-League government on a vote of confidence, but would nevertheless maintain the centre-right alliance, thus opening the door to a possible majority government between the two parties. On 13 May, the Five Star Movement and League reached an agreement in principle on a government program, likely clearing the way for the formation of a governing coalition between the two parties, but they could not agree regarding the members of a government cabinet, most importantly the prime minister. M5S and League leaders met with Mattarella on 14 May to guide the formation of a new government. At their meeting with Mattarella, both parties asked for an additional week of negotiations to agree on a detailed government program, as well as a prime minister to lead the joint government. Both M5S and the League announced their intention to ask their respective members to vote on the government agreement by the weekend.
On 21 May 2018, a private law professor, Giuseppe Conte, was proposed by Di Maio and Salvini for the role of Prime Minister in the 2018 Italian government. Despite reports in the Italian press suggesting that Mattarella still had significant reservations about the direction of the new government, Conte was invited to the Quirinal Palace on 23 May 2018 to receive the presidential mandate to form a new cabinet. In the traditional statement after the appointment, Conte said that he would be the "defense lawyer of Italian people".
However, on 27 May, Conte renounced his mandate, due to conflicts between Salvini and Mattarella. Salvini had proposed university professor Paolo Savona as Finance Minister, but Mattarella strongly opposed the appointment, considering Savona too Eurosceptic and anti-German. In his speech after Conte's resignation, Mattarella declared that the two parties wanted to bring Italy out of the Eurozone and that, as the guarantor of the Italian Constitution and the country's interest and stability, he could not allow this. Mattarella subsequently gave economist Carlo Cottarelli the presidential mandate to form a new government
Mattarella's decision prompted furious reactions from the Five Star Movement, who called for Mattarella's impeachment, a move also supported by opposition party Brothers of Italy. The League did not support this action.
Calls for impeachment were strongly criticized by Italian and international press: Luciano Fontana (editor of Corriere della Sera) defended Mattarella and said that "Di Maio and Salvini are responsible of this crisis", Mario Calabresi (editor of la Repubblica) dismissed impeachment proposals as "delirious" while La Stampa called Di Maio and Meloni's proposal "extremely irresponsible". HuffPost editor Lucia Annunziata dismissed Di Maio and Salvini as "liars", newsmagazine L'Espresso called them "subversive", while Le Monde praised Mattarella as an "intransigent guardian of the Constitution". The president was also defended by The Guardian, Libération and Der Spiegel; German business newspaper Handelsblatt even titled "Forza Mattarella!" ("Go Mattarella!") Marco Travaglio and Maurizio Belpietro (editors of Il Fatto Quotidiano and La Verità) criticized Mattarella's move as an abuse, but recognized that it was not sufficient to start an impeachment procedure.
On 31 May Giuseppe Conte received again the presidential mandate to form the new cabinet. The new government was sworn in on 1 June.
2019 political crisis
In August 2019, deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini announced a motion of no confidence against Conte, after growing tensions within the majority. Many political analysts believe the no-confidence motion was an attempt to force early elections to improve Lega's standing in Parliament, ensuring that Salvini would become the next prime minister. On 20 August, following the parliamentary debate in which Conte harshly accused Salvini of being a political opportunist who "had triggered the political crisis only to serve his personal interest", the prime minister resigned his post to President Mattarella. On the following day, Mattarella started the consultations with parliamentary groups.
During the round of the so-called consultations between Mattarella and the parliamentary groups, a possible new majority emerged, between the Five Star Movement and the Democratic Party. On 28 August, PD's leader Nicola Zingaretti announced at the Quirinal Palace his favorable position on keeping Giuseppe Conte at the head of the new government, and on following day, Mattarella received Conte to give him the task of forming a new cabinet. On 4 September, Conte announced the composition of his new cabinet, which was sworn in at the Quirinal Palace on the following day. On 9 September 2019, the Chamber of Deputies granted the confidence to the government with 343 votes in favour, 263 against and 3 abstentions. On 10 September 2019, in the second vote of confidence in the Senate, 169 lawmakers voted in favour of the new government and 133 voted against.
During Mattarella's presidency, Italy was hit by a major outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In February 2020, Italy became one of the countries with the highest number of confirmed cases of COVID-19. As of August 2020, more than 255,000 coronavirus cases and 35,000 deaths were confirmed, affecting mainly the regions of Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto and Piedmont.
On 22 February, the Council of Ministers announced a bill to contain the COVID-19 outbreak, quarantining more than 50,000 people from 11 different municipalities in Northern Italy. After few days, schools and universities closed in the whole country. On 8 March 2020, the Italian government extended the quarantine to the entire region of Lombardy and 14 other northern provinces, putting more than a quarter of the national population under lockdown. On the following day, the government extended the quarantine measures previously applied only in the so-called "red zones" to the whole country, putting de facto 60 million people in lockdown. At the time of its application, this measure was described as the largest lockdown in human history. On 18 May, the lockdown officially ended and the government allowed the re-openings of bars, restaurants, barbers and gyms. The possibility to travel between different regions was restored on 3 June.
He was married to Marisa Chiazzese, daughter of Lauro Chiazzese, a professor of Roman law and rector of the University of Palermo. His wife died in 2012. He has three children: Bernardo Giorgio (born 1968), Laura (1968) and Francesco (1973).
His brother, Piersanti Mattarella, was murdered in 1980 in Sicily by Cosa Nostra while serving as President of the Regional Government of Sicily. Another brother, Antonio Mattarella, has been appointed Managing Director of the Investment Banking division of Goldman Sachs from 2005 to 2017.
His daughter, Laura, acted as de facto First Lady, accompanying her father in the official trips outside Italy.
|1983||Chamber of Deputies||Palermo–Trapani–Agrigento–Caltanissetta||DC||119,969||Elected|
|1987||Chamber of Deputies||Palermo–Trapani–Agrigento–Caltanissetta||DC||143,935||Elected|
|1992||Chamber of Deputies||Palermo–Trapani–Agrigento–Caltanissetta||DC||50,280||Elected|
|1994||Chamber of Deputies||Sicily 1||PPI||–[a]||Elected|
|1996||Chamber of Deputies||Sicily 1||PPI||–[a]||Elected|
|2001||Chamber of Deputies||Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol||DL||–[a]||Elected|
|2006||Chamber of Deputies||Sicily 1||Ulivo||–[a]||Elected|
- Elected in a closed list proportional representation system.
|2015 presidential election (4th ballot)|
|Sergio Mattarella||Centre-left coalition||665||65.9|
|Ferdinando Imposimato||Five Star Movement||127||12.6|
|Others / Invalid votes||217||21.5|
- Italy: Head and Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (3 February 2015)
- Italy: Head of the Military Order of Italy (3 February 2015)
- Italy: Head of the Order of Merit for Labour (3 February 2015)
- Italy: Head of the Order of the Star of Italy (3 February 2015)
- Italy: Recipient of the Italian Order of Merit for Culture and Art (27 December 1991)
- Argentina: Collar of the Order of the Liberator General San Martin (8 May 2017) 
- Armenia: Grand Cross of the Order of Glory (30 July 2018) 
- Austria: Grand Star of the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (1 July 2019)
- Azerbaijan: Heydar Aliyev Order (18 July 2018) 
- Bulgaria: Grand Cross of the Order of the Stara Planina (12 September 2016)
- Cameroon: Grand Cross of the Cameroon Order of Valour (11 March 2016) 
- Estonia: Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana (2 July 2018) 
- Finland: Grand cross with Collar of the Order of the White Rose (27 September 2017)
- Germany: Grand Cross Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (19 September 2019)
- Greece: Grand cross of the Order of the Redeemer (26 November 2015) 
- Latvia: Commander Grand Cross with Chain of the Order of the Three Stars (29 June 2018)
- Lithuania: Grand Cross with Golden Chain of the Order of Vytautas the Great (5 July 2018) 
- Malta: Honorary Companions of Honour with Collar of the National Order of Merit (13 September 2017) 
- Mexico: Collar of the Order of the Aztec Eagle (4 July 2016) 
- Netherlands: Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion (20 June 2017) 
- Norway: Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Olav (6 April 2016) 
- Portugal: Grand Collar of the Order of Liberty (6 December 2017) 
- Romania: Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania (11 June 2016) 
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Collar of the Order pro Merito Melitensi (27 October 2016) 
- Sweden: Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim (13 November 2018) 
- United Kingdom: Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (as Minister of Defence) (16 October 2000)
- Vatican: Collar of the Order of Pope Pius IX (17 April 2015) 
- Gigante Lorenzo. "Personaggi Trapanesi - Bernardo Mattarella". trapaninostra.it.
- La saga dei Mattarella
- Bernardo Mattarella: biografia politica di un cattolico siciliano, Giovanni Bolignani
- Il MSAC durante il concilio, Azione Cattolica
- Dagli ex popolari agli amici del San Leone il mondo riservato del giudice costituzionale, la Repubblica
- Sergio Mattarella – Enciclopedia Treccani, www.treccani.it
- Discorso di benvenuto del Presidente Alfonso Quaranta al Prof. Sergio Mattarella, Giudice costituzionale, Corte Costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana
- Ppi e dalemiani vorrebbero Mattarella alla Corte Costituzionale
- La biografia del Presidente Sergio Mattarella, www.quirinale.it
- Marisa Chiazzese: chi era la moglie di Sergio Mattarella
- "The Andreotti Affair: Supergrasses target Andreotti", The Independent, April 16, 1993.
- L’omicidio di Piersanti Mattarella spartiacque nella storia italiana, il manifesto
- Messina, Sebastiano (29 January 2015). "Sergio Mattarella: dalla morte di Piersanti al no sulla Mammì, una carriera con la schiena dritta". Repubblica.it.
- Cedrone, Giovanni (30 January 2015). "Sergio Mattarella, 35 anni di politica all'insegna della riservatezza". La Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "È il Mattarellum il piano B del governo - Corriere.it". Corriere della Sera.
- "Sergio Mattarella chi è?". Il Post (in Italian). 29 January 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Credazzi, Guido (2 August 1994). "Mancino: non saro' capogruppo, e Mattarella lascia il 'Popolo'". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "The Constitutional Court: Composition of the Court". Constitutional Court of Italy. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Scacchioli, Michela (31 January 2015). "Mattarella eletto al Quirinale con 665 voti. "Pensiero a difficoltà e speranze dei cittadini"". Repubblica.it.
- Walker, Keith (31 January 2015). "73-year-old Sicilian Sergio Mattarella is Italy's new president". Euronews. Reuters. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "PM backs anti-mafia figure for Italy President". Yahoo News UK. 29 January 2015.
- "Mattarella: "Il pensiero va alle difficoltà e alle speranze dei nostri concittadini"". Video Corriere.
- "Italy MPs elect judge Sergio Mattarella as president". BBC News. 1 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "Italy Elects President, While Mulling a Change in Role". New York Times. 1 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- Saviano, Carmine (31 January 2015). "Mattarella, davanti alla tv con i figli. Poi in Panda e, a sorpresa, va alle Fosse Ardeatine". Repubblica.it.
- "Italiani al voto per il referendum costituzionale". Ministero dell'interno. 2016-11-18.
- "Scheda / La nuova Costituzione e il nuovo Senato (versione solo testo)". 12 October 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- "Camera.it – XVII Legislatura – Lavori – Progetti di legge – Scheda del progetto di legge". Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- "Referendum riforme, depositate le firme di maggioranza e opposizione". Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- "Constitution of the Italian Republic" (PDF). Senate of the Republic. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- "Referendum [Scrutini] (In complesso) - Referendum costituzionale del 4 dicembre 2016 - Ministero dell'Interno". Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- @lex_sala. "Referendum costituzionale 2016 Il No al 60%, la riforma non passa Renzi: «Ho perso io, mi dimetto". Corriere.it. Retrieved 2016-12-05.
- "Paolo Gentiloni, Italian foreign minister, appointed PM". BBC News. 11 December 2016.
- "Populists vie for power after Italy vote". BBC News. 5 March 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- "La possibile alleanza - Governo, verso l'intesa M5S-Lega: ambasciatori a lavoro, ma sulla Camera è impasse".
- "Salvini: "La Lega guiderà governo". Di Maio: "Inizia Terza Repubblica"".
- "Renzi: "Lascerò dopo nuovo governo. Pd all'opposizione". Ma è scontro nel partito: "Via subito"". 5 March 2018.
- "Was die Populisten wirklich wollen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 6 March 2018.
- "Italy's Salvini open to coalition with 5Stars". POLITICO. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- "Di Battista: "Berlusconi è il male assoluto del nostro Paese". Forza Italia: "Ignobile, M5s lo condanni"". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 11 April 2018.
- @chedisagio, Marco Castelnuovo. "Cosa sappiamo dopo il primo giro di consultazioni".
- "Casellati set for 'exploratory' mandate". ANSA. 18 April 2018.
- "Italy president taps Berlusconi ally to try to break impasse". AP NEWS. 18 April 2018.
- Casellati: "Ci sono spunti". Ma l'ultimo tentativo fallisce
- "Italian president makes fresh push to form government". The Financial Times. 18 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- "Mandato a Fico per governo Pd-M5s. Mattarella: "Ho atteso, ma novità Lega-5 Stelle non sono venute"". Repubblica.it. 23 April 2018.
- Online, Redazione (23 April 2018). "Mattarella affida a Fico un mandato esplorativo mirato". Corriere della Sera.
- "Italy Picks New Mediator in Search for Government Majority". Bllomberg. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- "Fünf-Sterne-Bewegung fordert Neuwahlen". Zeit. 30 April 2018.
- "Fünf-Sterne-Bewegung verlangt Neuwahlen". Spiegel Online. 30 April 2018.
- "Ratlosigkeit in Rom: Sind Neuwahlen nötig?". OÖNachrichten. 2 May 2018.
- "Italian president says 'neutral' government should lead until end of year". The Guardian. 7 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "Staatspräsident erklärt Regierungsbildung für gescheitert". DIE ZEIT. 7 May 2018.
- "Regierungsbildung ist gescheitert – Italien steht vor Neuwahlen". Handelsblatt. 7 May 2018.
- Giorgio, Massimiliano Di. "Italy repeat election looms in July as parties still far apart". U.K. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
- "Italy's populist parties given 24 hours to avert fresh elections". Financial Times. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "Governo M5S-Lega, Berlusconi: nessun veto all'intesa ma no alla fiducia". Repubblica.it (in Italian). La Repubblica. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "Italy's populist 5 Star, League parties reach deal on government program". MarketWatch. 13 May 2018.
- "Chi è Giuseppe Conte, scelto da Luigi Di Maio per la possibile squadra di governo". formiche.net (in Italian). 28 February 2018.
- "Italy populist government pact: Candidate for prime minister named". BBC News. 21 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
- "Italian president in talks as populist parties put forward novice for PM". The Guardian.
- "Italy's Populists Move Closer to Power, With Little-Known Pick for Prime Minister". The New York Times.
- "The Latest: Populists' premier gets presidential mandate".
- "Di Battista all'attacco di Mattarella: "Non si opponga agli italiani". La lunga giornata del Colle". Repubblica.it. 23 May 2018.
- "Governo, Conte incaricato da Mattarella: "Sarò lʼavvocato difensore degli italiani"". Tgcom24.
- "Governo, il giorno della rinuncia di Conte. Ecco come è fallita la trattativa su Savona". Repubblica.it. 27 May 2018.
- "L'ora più buia di Mattarella: la scelta obbligata di difendere l'interesse nazionale dopo il no dei partiti alla soluzione Giorgetti per l'Economia". L'HuffPost. 27 May 2018.
- "Governo, firme e tweet di solidarietà a Mattarella. Ma spuntano anche minacce di morte". Repubblica.it. 27 May 2018.
- "Governo, Cottarelli accetta l'incarico: "Senza fiducia, il Paese al voto dopo agosto"". Repubblica.it (in Italian). 2018-05-28. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- Romano, Luca. "Meloni (FdI) e i grillini: "Ora impeachment per Mattarella"". ilGiornale.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- "Salvini avvia la campagna elettorale ma senza impeachment: conta il fattore Berlusconi (di A. Mauro)". L’Huffington Post (in Italian). 2018-05-27. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- "I giornali di oggi / Attacco al Colle. M5S e FdI chiedono l'impeachment". Democratica (in Italian). Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- "Bugiardi (di L. Annunziata)". L’Huffington Post (in Italian). 2018-05-27. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- "Italie : Sergio Mattarella, le président qui a dit non" (in French). 2018-05-28. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- "Mattarella sui giornali esteri". Lettera43 (in Italian). 2018-05-29. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- Romano, Luca. "La Germania fa il tifo: "Forza Sergio Mattarella!"". ilGiornale.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- Belpietro vs Damilano: 'Mattarella ha commesso delle sciocchezze clamorose' (in Italian), retrieved 2019-04-17
- "Travaglio vs. Mattarella: "Cose da pazzi: chi vince non deve governare"". L’Huffington Post (in Italian). 2018-05-28. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- "Nasce il governo Conte. Presentata la lista dei ministri. Di Maio e Salvini vicepremier". rainews.
- La Lega presenta al Senato una mozione di sfiducia a Conte. M5S attacca Salvini: "Giullare"
- Italy's League files no confidence motion in prime minister in bid to trigger election
- Italian PM resigns with attack on 'opportunist' Salvini
- Italy’s Prime Minister, Giuseppe Conte, Resigns, Turning Chaos Into Uncertainty
- Horowitz, Jason (August 20, 2019). "Italy's Government Collapses, Turning Chaos Into Crisis" – via NYTimes.com.
- "Grasso, possibile intesa M5s-Pd-Leu - Ultima Ora". Agenzia ANSA. August 19, 2019.
- "Conte wins crucial support for new Italian govt coalition". Washington Post.
- "C'è l'accordo tra M5s e Pd. Governo giallorosso ai nastri di partenza". Agi.
- "Governo, Conte e i ministri hanno giurato. Gentiloni in pole per successione a Moscovici". Repubblica.it. 5 September 2019.
- "La Camera vota la fiducia con 343 sì, il premier replica alla Camera fra le proteste. Alzata anche una sedia". Repubblica.it (in Italian). 9 September 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- "Resoconto stenografico dell'Assemblea Seduta n. 222 di lunedì 9 settembre 2019". camera.it. Camera dei Deputati. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- "Italy's new pro-EU govt wins vote, now faces 2020 budget". The Public's Radio. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- "Coronavirus, Italia prima in Europa per numero di contagi: è caccia ai focolai". Archived from the original on 23 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- online, Simona Ravizza e redazione (2020-02-22). "Coronavirus, due casi a Milano". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Archived from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 2020-02-22.
- "Sospensione precauzionale delle attività didattiche | Università degli studi di Bergamo". www.unibg.it. Retrieved 2020-02-23.
- "Coronavirus: Northern Italy quarantines 16 million people". BBC. 8 March 2020. Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
- "All of Italy is in lockdown as coronavirus cases rise". Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
- "Coronavirus: Italian PM extends lockdown to entire country". Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
- "On Day 1 of Broad Lockdown, a Debate Arises: Can Italians Follow the Rules?". Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
- Lyons, Kim (7 March 2020). "Italy locks down northern region in response to coronavirus outbreak". The Verge. Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
- Horowitz, Jason (7 March 2020). "Italy Locks Down Much of the Country's North Over the Coronavirus". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
- To contain coronavirus, Italy will restrict movement across much of its northern region, including the city of Milan Archived 9 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Washington Post, Chico Harlan and Stefano Pitrelli, 7 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
- La Fase 2: ecco come l'Italia ripartirà il 18 maggio, Rai News
- Sarzanini, Fiorenza; Guerzoni, Monica (29 May 2020). "Mercoledì cadono i confini delle regioni: si potrà circolare ovunque". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 1 September 2020.
- "Sergio Mattarella: profilo privato di un uomo misurato" (in Italian). Panorama. January 30, 2015. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- "Prof. Bernardo Giorgio Mattarella, ordinario dell'Università Luiss". IRPA - Istituto di Ricerche sulla Pubblica Amministrazione. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- Lillo, Marco (February 1, 2015). "Nino Mattarella, il fratello del presidente e i prestiti dall'usuraio Enrico Nicoletti" (in Italian). Archived from the original on June 6, 2020. and professional profile.
- "Oggi Goldman Sachs non ha più bisogno dei Prodi, Monti, Letta, che la introducano ai tavoli che tavoli che contano. La partita si è fatta più europea" (in Italian). June 12, 2013. Archived from the original on June 6, 2020.
- Casa Rosada - República Argentina (8 May 2017). "Declaración conjunta de los presidentes Mauricio Macri y Sergio Mattarella" – via YouTube.
- "Meeting of the Presidents of Armenia and Italy took place at the Presidential Palace - Press releases - Updates - The President of the Republic of Armenia". www.president.am.
- "Official web-site of President of Azerbaijan Republic". en.president.az.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Il Presidente Sergio Mattarella accolto dal Presidente della Repubblica del Camerun, Paul Biya". Quirinale.
- "Vabariigi President". www.president.ee.
- "Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun ritarikunnan suurristin ketjuineen ulkomaalaiset saajat". www.ritarikunnat.fi.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Il Presidente della Repubblica Sergio Mattarella in Visita di Stato accolto dal Presidente della Repubblica di Finlandia, Sauli Niinistö". Quirinale.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Il Presidente Sergio Mattarella accoglie al Quirinale il Presidente della Repubblica Ellenica, Prokopios Pavlopoulos". Quirinale.
- vestnesis.lv. "Par Triju Zvaigžņu ordeņa piešķiršanu - Latvijas Vēstnesis". www.vestnesis.lv.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Cerimonia di benvenuto al Castello di Riga". Quirinale.
- "Lithuania and Italy stand united against challenges". www.lrp.lt.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Il Presidente della Repubblica Sergio Mattarella in visita di Stato a Malta accolto dal Presidente della Repubblica, Marie Louise Coleiro Preca". Quirinale.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Il Presidente della Repubblica Italiana, Sergio Mattarella, accolto dal Presidente degli Stati Uniti Messicani, Enrique Peña Nieto, a Palacio Nacional". Quirinale.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Il Presidente della Repubblica Sergio Mattarella accoglie al Quirinale le Loro Maestà il Re Willem Alexander e la Regina Máxima dei Paesi Bassi in Visita di Stato in Italia". Quirinale.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Arrivo delle LL.MM. il Re Harald V e la Regina Sonja di Norvegia in Visita di Stato". Quirinale.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Il Presidente Sergio Mattarella accolto a Praça do Império dal Presidente della Repubblica Portoghese Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa". Quirinale.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Il Presidente Sergio Mattarella al suo arrivo a Bucarest per la visita ufficiale in Romania". Quirinale.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Il Presidente Sergio Mattarella accoglie S.A.E. il Principe e Gran Maestro del Sovrano Militare Ordine di Malta Frà Robert Matthew Festing, in visita ufficiale". Quirinale.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Pranzo di Stato al Palazzo Reale". Quirinale.
- informatici, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi. "Il Presidente Sergio Mattarella con S.E. Rev.ma Mons. Giovanni Angelo Becciu, Sostituto per gli Affari Generali della Segreteria di Stato, in occasione della consegna del Gran Collare". Quirinale.