Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish and shellfish. Shellfish include various species of molluscs (e.g. bivalve molluscs such as clams, oysters, and mussels and cephalopods such as octopus and squid), crustaceans (e.g. shrimp, crabs, and lobster), and echinoderms (e.g. sea cucumbers and sea urchins). Historically, marine mammals such as cetaceans (whales and dolphins) as well as seals have been eaten as food, though that happens to a lesser extent in modern times. Edible sea plants such as some seaweeds and microalgae are widely eaten as sea vegetables around the world, especially in Asia. In the United States, although not generally in the United Kingdom, the term "seafood" is extended to fresh water organisms eaten by humans, so all edible aquatic life may be referred to as "seafood".
The harvesting of wild seafood is usually known as fishing or hunting, while the cultivation and farming of seafood is known as aquaculture or fish farming (in the case of fish). Seafood is often colloquially distinguished from meat, although it is still animal in nature and is excluded from a vegetarian diet, as decided by groups like the Vegetarian Society after confusion surrounding pescetarianism. Seafood is an important source of (animal) protein in many diets around the world, especially in coastal areas.
Most of the seafood harvest is consumed by humans, but a significant proportion is used as fish food to farm other fish or rear farm animals. Some seafoods (i.e. kelp) are used as food for other plants (a fertilizer). In these ways, seafoods are used to produce further food for human consumption. Also, products such as fish oil and spirulina tablets are extracted from seafoods. Some seafood is fed to aquarium fish, or used to feed domestic pets such as cats. A small proportion is used in medicine, or is used industrially for nonfood purposes (e.g. leather).
The harvesting, processing, and consuming of seafoods are ancient practices with archaeological evidence dating back well into the Paleolithic. Findings in a sea cave at Pinnacle Point in South Africa indicate Homo sapiens (modern humans) harvested marine life as early as 165,000 years ago, while the Neanderthals, an extinct human species contemporary with early Homo sapiens, appear to have been eating seafood at sites along the Mediterranean coast beginning around the same time. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old anatomically modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he regularly consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity, constantly on the move. However, early examples of permanent settlements (though not necessarily permanently occupied), such as those at Lepenski Vir, were almost always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The ancient river Nile was full of fish; fresh and dried fish were a staple food for much of the population. The Egyptians had implements and methods for fishing and these are illustrated in tomb scenes, drawings, and papyrus documents. Some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime.
Fishing scenes are rarely represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of the low social status of fishing. However, Oppian of Corycus, a Greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika, composed between 177 and 180. This is the earliest such work to have survived to the modern day. The consumption of fish varied in accordance with the wealth and location of the household. In the Greek islands and on the coast, fresh fish and seafood (squid, octopus, and shellfish) were common. They were eaten locally but more often transported inland. Sardines and anchovies were regular fare for the citizens of Athens. They were sometimes sold fresh, but more frequently salted. A stele of the late 3rd century BCE from the small Boeotian city of Akraiphia, on Lake Copais, provides us with a list of fish prices. The cheapest was skaren (probably parrotfish) whereas Atlantic bluefin tuna was three times as expensive. Common salt water fish were yellowfin tuna, red mullet, ray, swordfish or sturgeon, a delicacy which was eaten salted. Lake Copais itself was famous in all Greece for its eels, celebrated by the hero of The Acharnians. Other fresh water fish were pike-fish, carp and the less appreciated catfish.
Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics. At a certain time the goatfish was considered the epitome of luxury, above all because its scales exhibit a bright red color when it dies out of water. For this reason these fish were occasionally allowed to die slowly at the table. There even was a recipe where this would take place in garo, in the sauce. At the beginning of the Imperial era, however, this custom suddenly came to an end, which is why mullus in the feast of Trimalchio (see the Satyricon) could be shown as a characteristic of the parvenu, who bores his guests with an unfashionable display of dying fish.
In medieval times, seafood was less prestigious than other animal meats, and often seen as merely an alternative to meat on fast days. Still, seafood was the mainstay of many coastal populations. Kippers made from herring caught in the North Sea could be found in markets as far away as Constantinople. While large quantities of fish were eaten fresh, a large proportion was salted, dried, and, to a lesser extent, smoked. Stockfish, cod that was split down the middle, fixed to a pole and dried, was very common, though preparation could be time-consuming, and meant beating the dried fish with a mallet before soaking it in water. A wide range of mollusks including oysters, mussels and scallops were eaten by coastal and river-dwelling populations, and freshwater crayfish were seen as a desirable alternative to meat during fish days. Compared to meat, fish was much more expensive for inland populations, especially in Central Europe, and therefore not an option for most.
Modern knowledge of the reproductive cycles of aquatic species has led to the development of hatcheries and improved techniques of fish farming and aquaculture. Better understanding of the hazards of eating raw and undercooked fish and shellfish has led to improved preservation methods and processing.
Types of seafood
The following table is based on the ISSCAAP classification (International Standard Statistical Classification of Aquatic Animals and Plants) used by the FAO for the purposes of collecting and compiling fishery statistics. The production figures have been extracted from the FAO FishStat database, and include both capture from wild fisheries and aquaculture production.
|fish||Fish are aquatic vertebrates which lack limbs with digits, use gills to breathe, and have heads protected by hard bone or cartilage skulls. See: Fish (food). Total for fish:||106,639|
|Pelagic fish live and feed near the surface or in the water column of the sea, but not on the bottom of the sea. The main seafood groups can be divided into larger predator fish (sharks, tuna, billfish, mahi-mahi, mackerel, salmon) and smaller forage fish (herring, sardines, sprats, anchovies, menhaden). The smaller forage fish feed on plankton, and can accumulate toxins to a degree. The larger predator fish feed on the forage fish, and accumulate toxins to a much higher degree than the forage fish.|
|Demersal fish live and feed on or near the bottom of the sea. Some seafood groups are cod, flatfish, grouper and stingrays. Demersal fish feed mainly on crustaceans they find on the sea floor, and are more sedentary than the pelagic fish. Pelagic fish usually have the red flesh characteristic of the powerful swimming muscles they need, while demersal fish usually have white flesh.|
|diadromous||Diadromous fish are fishes which migrate between the sea and fresh water. Some seafood groups are salmon, shad, eels and lampreys. See: Salmon run.|
|freshwater||Freshwater fish live in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and ponds. Some seafood groups are carp, tilapia, catfish, bass, and trout. Generally, freshwater fish lend themselves to fish farming more readily than the ocean fish, and the larger part of the tonnage reported here refers to farmed fish.|
|molluscs||Molluscs (from the Latin molluscus, meaning soft ) are invertebrates with soft bodies that are not segmented like crustaceans. Bivalves and gastropods are protected by a calcareous shell which grows as the mollusc grows. Cephalopods are not protected by a shell. Total for molluscs:|
|bivalves||Bivalves, sometimes referred to as clams, have a protective shell in two hinged parts. A valve is the name used for the protective shell of a bivalve, so bivalve literally means two shells. Important seafood bivalves include oysters, scallops, mussels and cockles. Most of these are filter feeders which bury themselves in sediment on the seabed where they are safe from predation. Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces. Some, such as scallops, can swim. Bivalves have long been a part of the diet of coastal communities. Oysters were cultured in ponds by the Romans and mariculture has more recently become an important source of bivalves for food.||12,585|
|gastropods||Aquatic gastropods, also known as sea snails, are univalves which means they have a protective shell that is in a single piece. Gastropod literally means stomach-foot, because they appear to crawl on their stomachs. Common seafood groups are abalone, conch, limpets, whelks and periwinkles.||526|
|cephalopods||Cephalopods are not protected with a shell. Cephalopod literally means head-foots, because they have limbs which appear to issue from their head. They have excellent vision and high intelligence. Cephalopods propel themselves with a water jet and lay down "smoke screens" with ink. Examples are octopus, squid and cuttlefish. They are eaten in many cultures. Depending on the species, the arms and sometimes other body parts are prepared in various ways. Octopus must be boiled properly to rid it of slime, smell, and residual ink. Squid are popular in Japan. In Mediterranean countries and in Britain squid are often referred to as calamari. Cuttlefish is less eaten than squid, though it is popular in Italy and dried, shredded cuttlefish is a snack food in East Asia. See: Squid (food) Octopus (food).||3,653|
|other||Molluscs not included above||4,033|
|crustaceans||Crustaceans (from Latin crusta, meaning crust ) are invertebrates with segmented bodies protected by hard crusts (shells or exoskeletons), usually made of chitin and structured somewhat like a knight's armour. The shells do not grow, and must periodically be shed or moulted. Usually two legs or limbs issue from each segment. Most commercial crustaceans are decapods, that is they have ten legs, and have compound eyes set on stalks. Their shell turns pink or red when cooked.Total for crustaceans:||11,827|
|shrimps||Shrimp and prawns, are small, slender, stalk-eyed ten-legged crustaceans with long spiny rostrums. They are widespread, and can be found near the seafloor of most coasts and estuaries, as well as in rivers and lakes. They play important roles in the food chain. There are numerous species, and usually there is a species adapted to any particular habitat. Any small crustacean which resembles a shrimp tends to be called one. See: shrimp (food), shrimp fishery, shrimp farming, freshwater prawn farming.||6,917|
|crabs||Crabs are stalk-eyed ten-legged crustaceans, usually walk sideways, and have grasping claws as their front pair of limbs. They have small abdomens, short antennae, and a short carapace that is wide and flat. See: crab fisheries.||1,679|
|lobsters||Clawed lobsters and spiny lobsters are stalk-eyed ten-legged crustaceans with long abdomens. The clawed lobster has large asymmetrical claws for its front pair of limbs, one for crushing and one for cutting (pictured). The spiny lobster lacks the large claws, but has a long, spiny antennae and a spiny carapace. Lobsters are larger than most shrimp or crabs. See: lobster fishing.||281|
|krill||Krill are like baby shrimps, except they have external gills and more than ten legs (swimming plus feeding and grooming legs). They are found in oceans around the world where they filter feed in huge pelagic swarms. Like shrimp, they are an important part of the marine food chain, converting phytoplankton into a form larger animals can consume. Each year, larger animals eat half the estimated biomass of krill (about 600 million tonnes). Humans consume krill in Japan and Russia, but most of the krill harvest is used to make fish feed and for extracting oil. Krill oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, similarly to fish oil. See: Krill fishery.||215|
|other||Crustaceans not included above||1,359|
|other aquatic animals||Total for other aquatic animals:||1409+|
|aquatic mammals||Marine mammals form a diverse group of 128 species that rely on the ocean for their existence. Whale meat is still harvested from legal, non-commercial hunts. About one thousand long-finned pilot whales are still killed annually. Japan has resumed hunting for whales, which they call "research whaling". In modern Japan, two cuts of whale meat are usually distinguished: the belly meat and the more valued tail or fluke meat. Fluke meat can sell for $200 per kilogram, three times the price of belly meat. Fin whales are particularly desired because they are thought to yield the best quality fluke meat. In Taiji in Japan and parts of Scandinavia such as the Faroe Islands, dolphins are traditionally considered food, and are killed in harpoon or drive hunts. Ringed seals are still an important food source for the people of Nunavut and are also hunted and eaten in Alaska. The meat of sea mammals can be high in mercury, and may pose health dangers to humans when consumed. The FAO record only the reported numbers of aquatic mammals harvested, and not the tonnage. In 2010, they reported 2500 whales, 12,000 dolphins and 182,000 seals. See: marine mammals as food, whale meat, seal hunting.||?|
|aquatic reptiles||Sea turtles have long been valued as food in many parts of the world. Fifth century BC Chinese texts describe sea turtles as exotic delicacies. Sea turtles are caught worldwide, although in many countries it is illegal to hunt most species. Many coastal communities around the world depend on sea turtles as a source of protein, often gathering sea turtle eggs, and keeping captured sea turtles alive on their backs until needed for consumption. Most species of sea turtle are now endangered, and some are critically endangered. The FAO reports 1,418,975 crocodiles were harvested in 2010, but they do not record the tonnage.||296+|
|echinoderms||Echinoderms are headless invertebrates, found on the seafloor in all oceans and at all depths. They are not found in fresh water. They usually have a five-pointed radial symmetry, and move, breathe and perceive with their retractable tube feet. They are covered with a calcareous and spiky test or skin. The name echinoderm comes from the Greek ekhinos meaning hedgehog, and dermatos meaning skin. Echinoderms used for seafood include sea cucumbers, sea urchins, and occasionally starfish. Wild sea cucumbers are caught by divers and in China they are farmed commercially in artificial ponds. The gonads of both male and female sea urchins, usually called sea urchin roe or corals, are delicacies in many parts of the world. See: sea cucumber (food).||373|
|jellyfish||Jellyfish are soft and gelatinous, with a body shaped like an umbrella or bell which pulsates for locomotion. They have long, trailing tentacles with stings for capturing prey. They are found free-swimming in the water column in all oceans, and are occasionally found in freshwater. Jellyfish must be dried within hours to prevent spoiling. In Japan they are regarded as a delicacy. Traditional processing methods are carried out by a jellyfish master. This involve a 20 to 40-day multi-phase procedure which starts with removing the gonads and mucous membranes. The umbrella and oral arms are then treated with a mixture of table salt and alum, and compressed. Processing reduces liquefaction, odor, the growth of spoilage organisms, and makes the jellyfish drier and more acidic, producing a crisp and crunchy texture. Only scyphozoan jellyfish belonging to the order Rhizostomeae are harvested for food; about 12 of the approximately 85 species. Most of the harvest takes place in southeast Asia.|
|other||Aquatic animals not included above, such as ducks, sea squirts (pictured), spoon worms, lancelets and frogs.||336|
|aquatic plants and microphytes||Total for aquatic plants and microphytes:||19,893|
|seaweed||Seaweed is a loose colloquial term which lacks a formal definition. Broadly, the term is applied to the larger, macroscopic forms of algae, as opposed to microalga. Examples of seaweed groups are the multicellular red, brown and green algae. Edible seaweeds usually contain high amounts of fibre and, in contrast to terrestrial plants, contain a complete protein. Seaweeds are used extensively as food in coastal cuisines around the world. Seaweed has been a part of diets in China, Japan, and Korea since prehistoric times. Seaweed is also consumed in many traditional European societies, in Iceland and western Norway, the Atlantic coast of France, northern and western Ireland, Wales and some coastal parts of South West England, as well as Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. See: edible seaweed, seaweed farming, aquaculture of giant kelp, laverbread.|
|microphytes||Microphytes are microscopic organisms, and can be algal, bacterial or fungal. Microalgae are another type of aquatic plant, and includes species that can be consumed by humans and animals. Some species of aquatic bacteria can also be used as seafood, such as spirulina (pictured), a type of cyanobacteria. See: culture of microalgae in hatcheries.|
|Total production (thousand tonnes)||168,447|
Live food fish are often transported in tanks at high expense for an international market that prefers its seafood killed immediately before it is cooked. Delivery of live fish without water is also being explored. While some seafood restaurants keep live fish in aquaria for display purposes or for cultural beliefs, the majority of live fish are kept for dining customers. The live food fish trade in Hong Kong, for example, is estimated to have driven imports of live food fish to more than 15,000 tonnes in 2000. Worldwide sales that year were estimated at US$400 million, according to the World Resources Institute.
If the cool chain has not been adhered to correctly, food products generally decay and become harmful before the validity date printed on the package. As the potential harm for a consumer when eating rotten fish is much larger than for example with dairy products, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has introduced regulation in the USA requiring the use of a time temperature indicator on certain fresh chilled seafood products.
Fresh fish is a highly perishable food product, so it must be eaten promptly or discarded; it can be kept for only a short time. In many countries, fresh fish are filleted and displayed for sale on a bed of crushed ice or refrigerated. Fresh fish is most commonly found near bodies of water, but the advent of refrigerated train and truck transportation has made fresh fish more widely available inland.
Long term preservation of fish is accomplished in a variety of ways. The oldest and still most widely used techniques are drying and salting. Desiccation (complete drying) is commonly used to preserve fish such as cod. Partial drying and salting is popular for the preservation of fish like herring and mackerel. Fish such as salmon, tuna, and herring are cooked and canned. Most fish are filleted prior to canning, but some small fish (e.g. sardines) are only decapitated and gutted prior to canning.
Seafood is consumed all over the world; it provides the world's prime source of high-quality protein: 14–16% of the animal protein consumed worldwide; over one billion people rely on seafood as their primary source of animal protein. Fish is among the most common food allergens.
The UK Food Standards Agency recommends that at least two portions of seafood should be consumed each week, one of which should be oil-rich. There are over 100 different types of seafood available around the coast of the UK.
Oil-rich fish such as mackerel or herring are rich in long chain Omega-3 oils. These oils are found in every cell of the human body, and are required for human biological functions such as brain functionality.
Whitefish such as haddock and cod are very low in fat and calories which, combined with oily fish rich in Omega-3 such as mackerel, sardines, fresh tuna, salmon and trout, can help to protect against coronary heart disease, as well as helping to develop strong bones and teeth.
Texture and taste
Over 33,000 species of fish and many more marine invertebrate species have been described. Bromophenols, which are produced by marine algae, gives marine animals an odor and taste that is absent from freshwater fish and invertebrates. Also, a chemical substance called dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) that is found in red and green algae is transferred to animals in the marine food chain. When broken down, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is produced, and is often released during food preparation when fresh fish and shellfish are heated. In small quantities it creates a specific smell one associates with the ocean, but which in larger quantities gives the impression of rotten seaweed and old fish. Another molecule known as TMAO occurs in fishes and give them a distinct smell. It also exists in freshwater species, but becomes more numerous in the cells of an animal the deeper it lives, so that fish from the deeper parts of the ocean has a stronger taste than species who lives in shallow water. Eggs from seaweed contains sex pheromones called dictyopterenes, which are meant to attract the sperm. These pheromones are also found in edible seaweeds, which contributes to their aroma. However, only a small number of species are commonly eaten by humans.
There is broad scientific consensus that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) found in seafood are beneficial to neurodevelopment and cognition, especially at young ages. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization has described fish as "nature's super food." Seafood consumption is associated with improved neurologic development during gestation and early childhood and more tenuously linked to reduced mortality from coronary heart disease.
The parts of fish containing essential fats and micronutrients, often cited as primary health benefits for eating seafood, are frequently discarded in the developed world. Micronutrients including calcium, potassium, selenium, zinc, and iodine are found in their highest concentrations in the head, intestines, bones, and scales.
There is some debate over the particular health benefits of fish, especially regarding the relationship between seafood consumption and cardiovascular health. However, government recommendations promoting limited seafood consumption are relatively unified. The US Food and Drug Administration recommends moderate (4 oz for children and 8 - 12 oz for adults, weekly) consumption of fish as part of a healthy and balanced diet. The UK National Health Service gives similar advice, recommending at least 2 portions (about 10 oz) of fish weekly. The Chinese National Health Commission recommends slightly more, advising 10 - 20 oz of fish weekly.
There are numerous factors to consider when evaluating health hazards in seafood. These concerns include marine toxins, microbes, foodborne illness, radionuclide contamination, and man-made pollutants. Shellfish are among the more common food allergens. Most of these dangers can be mitigated or avoided with accurate knowledge of when and where seafood is caught. However, consumers have limited access to relevant and actionable information in this regard and the seafood industry's systemic problems with mislabelling make decisions about what is safe even more fraught.
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an illness resulting from consuming toxins produced by dinoflagellates which bioaccumulate in the liver, roe, head, and intestines of reef fish. It is the most common disease associated with seafood consumption and poses the greatest risk to consumers. The population of plankton which produces these toxins varies significantly over time and location, as seen in red tides. Evaluating the risk of ciguatera in any given fish requires specific knowledge of its origin and life history, information which is often inaccurate or unavailable. While ciguatera is relatively widespread compared to other seafood-related health hazards (up to 50,000 people suffer from ciguatera every year), mortality is very low.
Fish and shellfish have a natural tendency to concentrate inorganic and organic toxins and pollutants in their bodies, including methylmercury, a highly toxic organic compound of mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and microplastics. Species of fish that are high on the food chain, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, albacore tuna, and tilefish contain higher concentrations of these bioaccumulants. This is because bioaccumulants are stored in the muscle tissues of fish, and when a predatory fish eats another fish, it assumes the entire body burden of bioaccumulants in the consumed fish. Thus species that are high on the food chain amass body burdens of bioaccumulants that can be ten times higher than the species they consume. This process is called biomagnification.
Man-made disasters can cause localized hazards in seafood which may spread widely via piscine food chains. The first occurrence of widespread mercury poisoning in humans occurred this way in the 1950s in Minamata, Japan. Wastewater from a nearby chemical factory released methylmercury that accumulated in fish which were consumed by humans. Severe mercury poisoning is now known as Minamata disease. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster and 1947 - 1991 Marshall Islands nuclear bomb testing led to dangerous radionuclide contamination of local sea life which, in the latter case, remained as of 2008.
A widely cited study in JAMA which synthesized government and MEDLINE reports, and meta-analyses to evaluate risks from methylmercury, dioxins, and polychlorinated biphenyls to cardiovascular health and links between fish consumption and neurologic outcomes concluded that:
"The benefits of modest fish consumption (1-2 servings/wk) outweigh the risks among adults and, excepting a few selected fish species, among women of childbearing age. Avoidance of modest fish consumption due to confusion regarding risks and benefits could result in thousands of excess CHD [congenital heart disease] deaths annually and suboptimal neurodevelopment in children."
Due to the wide array of options in the seafood marketplace, seafood is far more susceptible to mislabeling than terrestrial food. There are more than 1,700 species of seafood in the United States' consumer marketplace, 80 - 90% of which are imported and less than 1% of which is tested for fraud. Estimates of mislabelled seafood in the United States range from 33% in general up to 86% for particular species.
Byzantine supply chains, frequent bycatch, brand naming, species substitution, and inaccurate ecolabels all contribute to confusion for the consumer. A 2013 study by Oceana found that one third of seafood sampled from the United States was incorrectly labelled. Snapper and tuna were particularly susceptible to mislabelling, and seafood substitution was the most common type of fraud. Another type of mislabelling is short-weighting, where practices such as overglazing or soaking can misleadingly increase the apparent weight of the fish. For supermarket shoppers, many seafood products are unrecognizable fillets. Without sophisticated DNA testing, there is no foolproof method to identify a fish species without their head, skin, and fins. This creates easy opportunities to substitute cheap products for expensive ones, a form of economic fraud.
Beyond financial concerns, significant health risks arise from hidden pollutants and marine toxins in an already fraught marketplace. Seafood fraud has led to widespread keriorrhea due to mislabeled escolar, mercury poisoning from products marketed as safe for pregnant women, and hospitalization and neurological damage due to mislabeled pufferfish. For example, a 2014 study published in PLOS One found that 15% of MSC certified Patagonian toothfish originated from uncertified and mercury polluted fisheries. These fishery-stock substitutions had 100% more mercury than their genuine counterparts, "vastly exceeding" limits in Canada, New Zealand, and Australia.
Research into population trends of various species of seafood is pointing to a global collapse of seafood species by 2048. Such a collapse would occur due to pollution and overfishing, threatening oceanic ecosystems, according to some researchers.
A major international scientific study released in November 2006 in the journal Science found that about one-third of all fishing stocks worldwide have collapsed (with a collapse being defined as a decline to less than 10% of their maximum observed abundance), and that if current trends continue all fish stocks worldwide will collapse within fifty years. In July 2009, Boris Worm of Dalhousie University, the author of the November 2006 study in Science, co-authored an update on the state of the world's fisheries with one of the original study's critics, Ray Hilborn of the University of Washington at Seattle. The new study found that through good fisheries management techniques even depleted fish stocks can be revived and made commercially viable again. An analysis published in August 2020 indicates that seafood could theoretically increase sustainably by 36–74% by 2050 compared to current yields and that whether or not these production potentials are realized sustainably depends on a number of factors "such as policy reforms, technological innovation and the extent of future shifts in demand".
The FAO State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2004 report estimates that in 2003, of the main fish stocks or groups of resources for which assessment information is available, "approximately one-quarter were overexploited, depleted or recovering from depletion (16%, 7% and 1% respectively) and needed rebuilding."
The National Fisheries Institute, a trade advocacy group representing the United States seafood industry, disagree. They claim that currently observed declines in fish population are due to natural fluctuations and that enhanced technologies will eventually alleviate whatever impact humanity is having on oceanic life.
For the most part Islamic dietary laws allow the eating of seafood, though the Hanbali forbid eels, the Shafi forbid frogs and crocodiles, and the Hanafi forbid bottom feeders such as shellfish and carp. The Jewish laws of Kashrut forbid the eating of shellfish and eels. In the Old Testament, the Mosaic Covenant allowed the Israelites to eat finfish, but shellfish and eels were an abomination and not allowed. In ancient and medieval times, the Catholic Church forbade the practice of eating meat, eggs and dairy products during Lent. Thomas Aquinas argued that these "afford greater pleasure as food [than fish], and greater nourishment to the human body, so that from their consumption there results a greater surplus available for seminal matter, which when abundant becomes a great incentive to lust." In the United States, the Catholic practice of abstaining from meat on Fridays during Lent has popularized the Friday fish fry, and parishes often sponsor a fish fry during Lent. In predominantly Roman Catholic areas, restaurants may adjust their menus during Lent by adding seafood items to the menu.
- Cold chain
- Culinary name
- Fish as food
- Fish processing
- Fish market
- Friend of the Sea
- Got Mercury?
- Jellyfish as food
- List of fish dishes
- List of foods
- List of harvested aquatic animals by weight
- List of seafood companies
- List of seafood dishes
- List of seafood restaurants
- Oyster bar
- Raw bar
- Safe Harbor Certified Seafood
- Seafood Watch, sustainable consumer guide (USA)
- Shark meat
- Inman, Mason (17 October 2007). "African Cave Yields Earliest Proof of Beach Living". National Geographic News.
- African Bone Tools Dispute Key Idea About Human Evolution National Geographic News article.
- "Neanderthals ate shellfish 150,000 years ago: study". Phys.org. 15 September 2011.
- Yaowu Hu, Y; Hong Shang, H; Haowen Tong, H; Olaf Nehlich, O; Wu Liu, W; Zhao, C; Yu, J; Wang, C; Trinkaus, E; Richards, M (2009). "Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (27): 10971–10974. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10610971H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904826106. PMC 2706269. PMID 19581579.
- First direct evidence of substantial fish consumption by early modern humans in China PhysOrg.com, 6 July 2009.
- Coastal Shell Middens and Agricultural Origins in Atlantic Europe.
- "Fisheries history: Gift of the Nile" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2006.
- Based on data extracted from the FAO FishStat database 22 July 2012.
- Dalby, p.67.
- Image of fishing illustrated in a Roman mosaic Archived 17 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Adamson (2002), p. 11.
- Adamson (2004), pp. 45–39.
- "ASFIS List of Species for Fishery Statistics Purposes". Fishery Fact Sheets. Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- Total production, both wild and aquaculture, of seafood species groups in thousand tonnes, sourced from the data reported in the FAO FishStat database
- Walrond C Carl . "Coastal fish – Fish of the open sea floor" Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Updated 2 March 2009
- "Definition of calamari". Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary.
- * Rudloe, Jack and Rudloe, Anne (2009) Shrimp: The Endless Quest for Pink Gold FT Press. ISBN 9780137009725.
- Includes crabs, sea spiders, king crabs and squat lobsters
- Includes lobsters, spiny-rock lobsters
- Steven Nicol & Yoshinari Endo (1997). Krill Fisheries of the World. Fisheries Technical Paper. 367. Food and Agriculture Organization. ISBN 978-92-5-104012-6.
- Pompa, S.; Ehrlich, P. R.; Ceballos, G. (2011). "Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals". PNAS. 108 (33): 13600–13605. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10813600P. doi:10.1073/pnas.1101525108. PMC 3158205. PMID 21808012.
- "Native Alaskans say oil drilling threatens way of life". BBC News. 20 July 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- Nguyen, Vi (26 November 2010). "Warning over contaminated whale meat as Faroe Islands' killing continues". The Ecologist.
- "Greenpeace: Stores, eateries less inclined to offer whale". The Japan Times Online. 8 March 2008. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- Palmer, Brian (11 March 2010). "What Does Whale Taste Like?". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- Kershaw 1988 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFKershaw1988 (help), p.67
- Matsutani, Minoru (23 September 2009). "Details on how Japan's dolphin catches work". Japan Times. p. 3.
- "Eskimo Art, Inuit Art, Canadian Native Artwork, Canadian Aboriginal Artwork". Inuitarteskimoart.com. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2009.
- "Seal Hunt Facts". Sea Shepherd. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- Johnston, Eric (23 September 2009). "Mercury danger in dolphin meat". Japan Times. p. 3.
- Schafer, Edward H. (1962). "Eating Turtles in Ancient China". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 82 (1): 73–74. doi:10.2307/595986. JSTOR 595986.
- CITES (14 June 2006). "Appendices". Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna. Archived from the original (SHTML) on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 5 February 2007.
- Settle, Sam (1995). "Status of Nesting Populations of Sea Turtles in Thailand and Their Conservation". Marine Turtle Newsletter. 68: 8–13.
- International Union for the Conservation of Nature. "IUCN Red List of Endangered Species". Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Ess, Charlie. "Wild product's versatility could push price beyond $2 for Alaska dive fleet". National Fisherman. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2008.
- Rogers-Bennett, Laura, "The Ecology of Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus" in John M. Lawrence, Edible sea urchins: biology and ecology, p. 410
- Alan Davidson, Oxford Companion to Food, s.v. sea urchin
- Lawrence, John M., "Sea Urchin Roe Cuisine" in John M. Lawrence, Edible sea urchins: biology and ecology
- Omori M, Nakano E (2001). "Jellyfish fisheries in southeast Asia". Hydrobiologia. 451: 19–26. doi:10.1023/A:1011879821323. S2CID 6518460.
- Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Leong, F-M; Rudloe, J (2001). "Jellyfish as food". Hydrobiologia. 451 (1–3): 11–17. doi:10.1023/A:1011875720415. S2CID 20719121.
- Li, Jian-rong; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P (2004). "Traditional Chinese food technology and cuisine" (PDF). Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr. 13 (2): 147–155. PMID 15228981.
- Smith, G.M. 1944. Marine Algae of the Monterey Peninsula, California. Stanford Univ., 2nd Edition.
- K.H. Wong; Peter C.K. Cheung (2000). "Nutritional evaluation of some subtropical red and green seaweeds: Part I – proximate composition, amino acid profiles and some physico-chemical properties". Food Chemistry. 71 (4): 475–482. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00175-8.
- "Seaweed as Human Food". Michael Guiry's Seaweed Site. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Spotlight presenters in a lather over laver". BBC. 25 May 2005. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- N. Narain and Nunes, M.L. Marine Animal and Plant Products. In: Handbook of Meat, Poultry and Seafood Quality, L.M.L. Nollet and T. Boylston, eds. Blackwell Publishing 2007, p 247.
- "WIPO". Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
- The World Resources Institute, The live reef fish trade Archived 7 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "La Rosa Logistics Inc 14-Jan-03". Fda.gov. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
- World Health Organization .
- Tidwell, James H.; Allan, Geoff L. (2001). "Fish as food: aquaculture's contribution Ecological and economic impacts and contributions of fish farming and capture fisheries". EMBO Reports. 2 (11): 958–963. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve236. PMC 1084135. PMID 11713181.
- Slovenko R (2001) "Aphrodisiacs-Then and Now" Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 29: 103f.
- Patrick McMurray (2007). Consider the Oyster: A Shucker's Field Guide. St. Martin's Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-312-37736-6.
- FishBase: October 2017 update. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- The Science of Seaweeds | American Scientist
- BBC – Earth – What does it take to live at the bottom of the ocean?
- Why Does The Sea Smell Like The Sea? | Popular Science
- Peterson, James and editors of Seafood Business (2009) Seafood Handbook: The Comprehensive Guide to Sourcing, Buying and Preparation John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470404164.
- Bradbury, Joanne (10 May 2011). "Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain". Nutrients. 3 (5): 529–554. doi:10.3390/nu3050529. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC 3257695. PMID 22254110.
- Harris, W S; Baack, M L (30 October 2014). "Beyond building better brains: bridging the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) gap of prematurity". Journal of Perinatology. 35 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1038/jp.2014.195. ISSN 0743-8346. PMC 4281288. PMID 25357095.
- Hüppi, Petra S (1 March 2008). "Nutrition for the Brain: Commentary on the article by Isaacs et al. on page 308". Pediatric Research. 63 (3): 229–231. doi:10.1203/pdr.0b013e318168c6d1. ISSN 0031-3998. PMID 18287959. S2CID 6564743.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2016b. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: Contributing to Food Security and Nutrition for AIL Rome: FAO.
- Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M; Steer, Colin; Emmett, Pauline; Rogers, Imogen; Williams, Cathy; Golding, Jean (February 2007). "Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort study". The Lancet. 369 (9561): 578–585. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(07)60277-3. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 17307104. S2CID 35798591.
- Fewtrell, Mary S; Abbott, Rebecca A; Kennedy, Kathy; Singhal, Atul; Morley, Ruth; Caine, Eleanor; Jamieson, Cherry; Cockburn, Forrester; Lucas, Alan (April 2004). "Randomized, double-blind trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation with fish oil and borage oil in preterm infants". The Journal of Pediatrics. 144 (4): 471–479. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.01.034. ISSN 0022-3476. PMID 15069395.
- Daniels, Julie L.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Rowland, Andrew S.; Golding, Jean (July 2004). "Fish Intake During Pregnancy and Early Cognitive Development of Offspring". Epidemiology. 15 (4): 394–402. doi:10.1097/01.ede.0000129514.46451.ce. ISSN 1044-3983. PMID 15232398. S2CID 22517733.
- Mozaffarian, Dariush; Rimm, Eric B. (18 October 2006). "Fish Intake, Contaminants, and Human Health". JAMA. 296 (15): 1885–99. doi:10.1001/jama.296.15.1885. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 17047219.
- Hamada, Shingo; Wilk, Richard (2019). Seafood: Ocean to the Plate. 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017: Routledge. pp. 2, 8, 5–7, 9, 5, 9, 115 (in order of parenthetical appearance). ISBN 9781138191860.CS1 maint: location (link)
- "Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption" (PDF). FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report. 978: 25–29. January 2010. eISSN 2070-6987.
- Abdelhamid, Asmaa S; Brown, Tracey J; Brainard, Julii S; Biswas, Priti; Thorpe, Gabrielle C; Moore, Helen J; Deane, Katherine HO; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Worthington, Helen V; Song, Fujian; Hooper, Lee (29 February 2020). Cochrane Heart Group (ed.). "Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3: CD003177. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003177.pub5. PMC 7049091. PMID 32114706.
- "Advice About Eating Fish" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. July 2019. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- "Fish and shellfish". nhs.uk. 27 April 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
- "《中国居民膳食指南（2016）》核心推荐_中国居民膳食指南". dg.cnsoc.org. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
- "Common Food Allergens". Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2007.
- Ansdell, Vernon (2019), "Seafood Poisoning", Travel Medicine, Elsevier, pp. 449–456, doi:10.1016/b978-0-323-54696-6.00049-5, ISBN 978-0-323-54696-6
- Brand, Larry E.; Campbell, Lisa; Bresnan, Eileen (February 2012). "Karenia: The biology and ecology of a toxic genus". Harmful Algae. 14: 156–178. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2011.10.020. ISSN 1568-9883.
- "Ciguatera Fish Poisoning—New York City, 2010-2011". JAMA. 309 (11): 1102. 20 March 2013. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.1523. ISSN 0098-7484.
- Osiander, A. (1 October 2002). "Minamata: Pollution and the Struggle for Democracy in Postwar Japan, by Timothy S. George. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 2001, xxi + 385 pp., $45.00 (hardcover ISBN 0-674-00364-0), $25.00 (paperback ISBN 0-674-00785-9)". Social Science Japan Journal. 5 (2): 273–275. doi:10.1093/ssjj/05.2.273. ISSN 1369-1465.
- Johnston, Barbara Rose; Barker, Holly M. (26 March 2020). Consequential Damages of Nuclear War. doi:10.1201/9781315431819. ISBN 9781315431819.
- Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (U.S.). The bad bug book : foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins handbook (PDF). U.S. Food & Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. p. 237. LCCN 2004616584. OCLC 49526684.
- Kimberly Warner; Walker Timme; Beth Lowell; Michael Hirschfield (2013). Oceana study reveals seafood fraud nationwide. Oceana. OCLC 828208760.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Willette, Demian A.; Simmonds, Sara E.; Cheng, Samantha H.; Esteves, Sofia; Kane, Tonya L.; Nuetzel, Hayley; Pilaud, Nicholas; Rachmawati, Rita; Barber, Paul H. (10 May 2017). "Using DNA barcoding to track seafood mislabeling in Los Angeles restaurants". Conservation Biology. 31 (5): 1076–1085. doi:10.1111/cobi.12888. ISSN 0888-8892. PMID 28075039.
- Jacquet, Jennifer L.; Pauly, Daniel (May 2008). "Trade secrets: Renaming and mislabeling of seafood". Marine Policy. 32 (3): 309–318. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.182.1143. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2007.06.007. ISSN 0308-597X.
- "FishWatch – Fraud". Retrieved 21 December 2018.
- Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied (3 November 2018). "Seafood Species Substitution and Economic Fraud". FDA.
- Marko, Peter B.; Nance, Holly A.; van den Hurk, Peter (5 August 2014). "Seafood Substitutions Obscure Patterns of Mercury Contamination in Patagonian Toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) or "Chilean Sea Bass"". PLOS ONE. 9 (8): e104140. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104140. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4122487. PMID 25093736.
- World Seafood Supply Could Run Out by 2048 Researchers Warn boston.com. Retrieved 6 February 2007
- "'Only 50 years left' for sea fish", BBC News. 2 November 2006.
- Study Finds Hope in Saving Saltwater Fish The New York Times. Retrieved 4 August 2009
- "Food from the sea: Sustainably managed fisheries and the future". phys.org. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
- Costello, Christopher; Cao, Ling; Gelcich, Stefan; Cisneros-Mata, Miguel Á; Free, Christopher M.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Golden, Christopher D.; Ishimura, Gakushi; Maier, Jason; Macadam-Somer, Ilan; Mangin, Tracey; Melnychuk, Michael C.; Miyahara, Masanori; de Moor, Carryn L.; Naylor, Rosamond; Nøstbakken, Linda; Ojea, Elena; O’Reilly, Erin; Parma, Ana M.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Thilsted, Shakuntala H.; Lubchenco, Jane (19 August 2020). "The future of food from the sea". Nature: 1–6. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2616-y. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 32814903. S2CID 221179212. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
- "The Status of the Fishing Fleet". The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: 2004. Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on 19 January 2018.
- Seafood Could Collapse by 2050, Experts Warn, NBC News. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
- Is seafood Haram or Halal? Questions on Islam. Updated 23 December 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Yoreh De'ah – Shulchan-Aruch Archived 3 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine Chapter 1, torah.org. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- "All that are in the waters: all that... hath not fins and scales ye may not eat" (Deuteronomy 14:9–10) and are "an abomination" (Leviticus 11:9–12).
- "Summa Theologica Q147a8". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- Walkup, Carolyn (8 December 2003). "You can take the girl out of Wisconsin, but the lure of its food remains". Nation's Restaurant News. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2009.
- Connie Mabin (2 March 2007). "For Lent, Parishes Lighten Up Fish Fry". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 February 2009.
- Carlino, Bill (19 February 1990). "Seafood promos aimed to 'lure' Lenten observers". Nation's Restaurant News. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2009.