Salmas

ISBN (identifier) Salmas County Persian Empire
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Salmas
Salmas
Revolution Circle
Revolution Circle
Nickname(s): 
Shapur
Salmas is located in Iran
Salmas
Salmas
Coordinates: 38°11′41″N 44°45′53″E / 38.19472°N 44.76472°E / 38.19472; 44.76472
CountryIran
ProvinceWest Azerbaijan
CountySalmas
DistrictCentral
Earliest Recognition224–242 AD
Rebuilt1930
Government
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • BodySalmas
 • MayorN/A
Area
 • Total9.26 sq mi (24.0 km2)
 • Land9.26 sq mi (24.0 km2)
 • Water0 sq mi (0 km2)
 • Metro
4.75 sq mi (12.3 km2)
Elevation
4,532 ft (1,381 m)
Population
 (2016 Census)
 • Total92,811 [1]
 • RankTBA, Iran
Demonym(s)Salmasi
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
ZIP code
58811 58XXX 58991
Area code(s)44

Salmas (Persian: سلماس‎, Azerbaijani: Sālmās; Romanized as Salmās and Salamas, Armenian: Սալմաստ; romanized: Salmast, Syriac: ܣܵܠܵܡܵܣ‎, romanizedSalamas[2]) is the capital of Salmas County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. It is located near the eastern border of Turkey. According to the 2019 census, the city's population is 127,864.[3] The majority of the population is composed of Azerbaijanis and Kurds[4] with some Armenians, Assyrians, Jews,[5] and Persians as minorities.

History

Etymology and Early History

Salmas "Khan Takhti Petroglyph": Ardashir I on horseback while receiving surrender of the Parthian personage

According to Encyclopædia Britannica the earliest historic recognition of Salmas could be found at the time of Ardashir I's reign (224–242 AD) via a petroglyph of him on horseback while receiving surrender of the Parthian personage.[6] In another contribution by Britannica, on an animated political map of Sassanid Empire at the time of Shapur I's reign (240–270 AD), Salmas is markedly acknowledged as one of the renown and apparently important cities of the empire with the same original name as now.[7] There is a speculation that the nickname of the city, Shapur, might be derived from the name of this king (of kings) of Persia.

Salmas was held by the Kurdish Rawadid dynasty and frequented by the Hadhabani tribe in the 10-11th centuries. Al-Maqdisi mentioned that the Kurds had built a wall around the city.[8]

Another Mention of the city was made in 1281, when its Assyrian bishop made the trip to the consecration of the Assyrian Church of the East patriarch Yaballaha in Baghdad.[9]

In the Battle of Salmas on 17–18 September 1429, the Kara Koyunlu were defeated by Shah Rukh who was consolidating Timurid holdings west of Lake Urmia.[10] However, the area was retaken by the Kara Koyunlu in 1447 after the death of Shah Rukh.

Mar Shimun, the Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East was murdered by the Kurdish chieftain Simko Shikak in Salmas in March 1918.[11][12][13]

Around the advent of the 1910s, Imperial Russia started to station infantry and Cossacks in Salmas.[14] The Russians retreated at the time of Enver Pasha's offensive in the Iran-Caucasus region, but returned in early 1916, and stayed up to the wake of the Russian Revolution.[14] Part of the Assyrian Genocide took place in Salmas and the surrounding region at the hands of the Ottoman Army and loyal Kurdish irregulars. This followed initially successful Assyrian military campaigns against the Ottomans and their Kurdish allies.[citation needed]

Geography

Salmas in Early Atlases

The atlases below are some of the earliest maps to have been ever sketched to show the territory and originality of the name of Salmas and are some of the strongest documents providing proofs to some basic facts about the city including its existence and identity.

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, Salmas features a continental climate (Dsa), and is thus the one of the few cities in the Middle East and one of the 6 in the country with this categorization.

Climate data for Salmas (Weather Station Located in Khoy Airport) [1987-2017]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 52 59 82 97 104 113 133 136 135 117 82 72 136
Record high °F (°C) 49
(9)
61
(16)
73
(23)
90
(32)
92
(33)
99
(37)
106
(41)
109
(43)
102
(39)
93
(34)
74
(23)
67
(19)
109
(43)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 48
(9)
52
(11)
64
(18)
72
(22)
77
(25)
84
(29)
97
(36)
88
(31)
90
(32)
75
(24)
93
(34)
54
(12)
97
(36)
Average high °F (°C) 37
(3)
39
(4)
46
(8)
59
(15)
71
(22)
82
(28)
88
(31)
90
(32)
83
(28)
70
(21)
53
(12)
40
(4)
63
(17)
Daily mean °F (°C) 30.4
(−0.9)
37.9
(3.3)
45.7
(7.6)
58.1
(14.5)
69.4
(20.8)
77.5
(25.3)
83.1
(28.4)
82.2
(27.9)
73.2
(22.9)
61.0
(16.1)
46.6
(8.1)
34.7
(1.5)
58.3
(14.6)
Average low °F (°C) 16
(−9)
18
(−8)
25
(−4)
37
(3)
48
(9)
58
(14)
65
(18)
65
(18)
54
(12)
45
(7)
32
(0)
21
(−6)
40
(5)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 7
(−14)
9
(−13)
23
(−5)
34
(1)
54
(12)
61
(16)
63
(17)
61
(16)
55
(13)
37
(3)
28
(−2)
7
(−14)
7
(−14)
Record low °F (°C) −18
(−28)
−21
(−29)
−17
(−27)
−8
(−22)
13
(−11)
40
(4)
52
(11)
47
(8)
37
(3)
20
(−7)
−7
(−22)
−17
(−27)
−21
(−29)
Record low wind chill −27.4 −29.9 −13.4 −14.2 −1.9 0.7 6 5.4 −0.4 −5.4 −14.2 −27.3 −29.9
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.02
(0.52)
0.01
(0.32)
0.02
(0.43)
0.03
(0.8)
0.04
(1.12)
0.03
(0.86)
0.01
(0.26)
0.01
(0.26)
0.01
(0.22)
0.04
(0.94)
0.03
(0.88)
0.03
(0.64)
0.28
(7.25)
Average rainfall inches (mm) 1.22
(31)
1.45
(37)
2.07
(53)
3.54
(90)
6.47
(164)
4.84
(123)
2.44
(62)
1.71
(43)
2.13
(54)
2.2
(56)
1.54
(39)
1.22
(31)
30.83
(783)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 3.45
(8.8)
2.35
(6.0)
2.32
(5.9)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.96
(5.0)
10.08
(25.7)
Average rainy days 7.9 9.1 11.8 12 13.1 8.4 3.9 3.3 5.3 5.9 6.5 7.3 94.5
Average snowy days 2.75 2.25 1.75 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.25 9
Average relative humidity (%) 75.0 64.3 55.8 48.6 43.3 38.4 37.0 36.0 39.8 47.0 52.9 66.4 50.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 147.6 202.8 239.8 311.2 352.6 343.4 356.3 355.6 276.9 202.6 150.8 153.2 3,092.8
Source: "Weather Trends 360".[16] "Weather Underground".[17] "World Weather Online".[18]

Demographics

The majority of people in Salmas speak Azerbaijani and are adherents of Shia Islam.[19] A minority of the population speaks Kurdish and Armenian.[20]

Notable people

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.amar.org.ir/english
  2. ^ "List of all entries". Assyrian Languages. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  3. ^ "2016 Population and Housing Census". Statistical Center of Iran. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ http://thegraduatesocietyla.org/images/author-padia-others.pdf
  6. ^ https://www.britannica.com/place/ancient-Iran/The-Sasanian-period#ref315656
  7. ^ https://www.britannica.com/media/full/851961/2031
  8. ^ Potts, D.T. Nomadism in Iran: From Antiquity to the Modern Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  9. ^ Houtsma, M. Th. et al. (1993 reprint) "Salmas" E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936 Volume 4, E.J. Brill, New York, page 118, ISBN 90-04-09796-1
  10. ^ Houtsma, M. Th. et al. (1993 reprint) "Tabrīz" E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936 Volume 4, E.J. Brill, New York, page 588, ISBN 90-04-09796-1
  11. ^ Houtsma, M. Th. et al. (1993 reprint) "Shakāk" E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936 Volume 4, E.J. Brill, New York, page 290, ISBN 90-04-09796-1
  12. ^ O'Shea, Maria T. (2004) "Trapped Between the Map and Reality: Geography and Perceptions of Kurdistan Routledge, New York, page 100, ISBN 0-415-94766-9
  13. ^ Nisan, Mordechai (2002) Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self-Expression (2nd edition) McFarland, Jefferson, North Carolina, page 187, ISBN 0-7864-1375-1
  14. ^ a b Atabaki 2006, p. 70.
  15. ^ https://www.loc.gov/resource/g7620.ct001334/
  16. ^ "Weather Underground". The Weather Company, LLC © Copyright 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  17. ^ "World Weather Online". Data provided by WorldWeatherOnline.com. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  18. ^ http://www.akairan.com/iranshenasi-irangardi/azarbayjan-gharbi/9933.html
  19. ^ http://westazar.ivo.ir/portal/Home/ShowPage.aspx?Object=GENERALTEXT&CategoryID=8c250388-4e8d-4714-9022-e326fa742db4&WebPartID=e100005b-34be-48e3-b30d-6bc772d38669