|руска(я) мова |
|Native to||Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (influenced Church Slavonic - language of administration of Grand Duchy of Lithuania until 1699)|
|Extinct||Developed into Belarusian, Ukrainian and Rusyn.|
Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (also see other names) was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The written form is also called Chancery Slavonic by Lithuanian and Western European linguists.
Scholars do not agree whether Ruthenian was a separate language, or a Western dialect or set of dialects of Old East Slavic, but it is agreed that Ruthenian has a close genetic relationship with it. Old East Slavic was the colloquial language used in Kievan Rus' (10th–13th centuries). Dialects of Ruthenian slowly developed into modern Belarusian, Rusyn and Ukrainian languages.
In modern texts, the language in question is sometimes called "Old Ukrainian" or "Old Belarusian" (Ukrainian: Староукраїнська мова) and (Belarusian: Старабеларуская мова). As Ruthenian was always in a kind of diglossic opposition to Church Slavonic, this vernacular language was and still is often called prosta(ja) mova (Cyrillic проста(я) мова), literally "simple speech".
Names in contemporary use
- Ruthenian/Rusian (Old Belarusian: руски езыкъ) – by the contemporaries, but, generally, not in contemporary Russia.
- (variant) Simple Ruthenian or simple talk (Old Belarusian: простый руский (язык) or простая молва, про́ста мова) – publisher Grigoriy Khodkevich (16th century).
- Lithuanian (Russian: Литовский язык) – possibly, exclusive reference to it in the contemporary Russia. Also by Zizaniy (end of the 16th century), Pamva Berynda (1653).
Names in modern use
- (Old) Ruthenian – modern collective name, covering both Old Belarusian and Old Ukrainian languages, predominantly used by the 20th-century Lithuanian, also many Polish and English researchers.
- (Old) West Russian, language or dialect (Russian: (Древний) западнорусский язык, Russian: (Древнее) западнорусское наречие) – chiefly by the supporters of the concept of the Proto-Russian phase, especially since the end of the 19th century, e.g., by Karskiy, Shakhmatov. Russian Wikipedia uses the term West Russian written language (Западнорусский письменный язык).
- (Old) Belarusian (language) – rarely in contemporary Russia. Also Kryzhanich. The denotation Belarusian (language) (Russian: белорусский (язык)) when referring both to the 19th-century language and to the Medieval language had been used in works of the 19th-century Russian researchers Fyodor Buslayev, Ogonovskiy, Zhitetskiy, Sobolevskiy, Nedeshev, Vladimirov and Belarusian researchers, such as Karskiy.
- Lithuanian-Russian (Russian: литовско-русский) – by 19th-century Russian researchers Keppen, archbishop Filaret, Sakharov, Karatayev.
- Lithuanian-Slavonic (Russian: литово-славянский) – by 19th-century Russian researcher Baranovskiy.
- Old Ukrainian or staroukrajinska mova (Ukrainian: Староукраїнська мова).
- Chancery Slavonic – for the written form of Old Church Slavonic, influenced by various Ruthenian dialects and used in the chancery of Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
- ruski – used by Norman Davies in Vanished Kingdoms: The History of Half-Forgotten Europe (2011).
- Ж. Некрашевич-Короткая. Лингвонимы восточнославянского культурного региона (историчесикий обзор) // Исследование славянских языков и литератур в высшей школе: достижения и перспективы: Информационные материалы и тезисы докладов международной научной конференции / Под ред. В. П. Гудкова, А. Г. Машковой, С. С. Скорвида. — М., 2003. — С. 150 — 317 с.
- Начальный этап формирования русского национального языка, Ленинград 1962, p. 221
- e.g., Elana Goldberg Shohamy and Monica Barni, Linguistic Landscape in the City (Multilingual Matters, 2010: ISBN 1847692974), p. 139: "[The Grand Duchy of Lithuania] adopted as its official language the literary version of Ruthenian, written in Cyrillic and also known as Chancery Slavonic"; Virgil Krapauskas, Nationalism and Historiography: The Case of Nineteenth-Century Lithuanian Historicism (East European Monographs, 2000: ISBN 0880334576), p. 26: "By the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Chancery Slavonic dominated the written state language in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania"; Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction Of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999 (Yale University Press, 2004: ISBN 030010586X), p. 18: "Local recensions of Church Slavonic, introduced by Orthodox churchmen from more southerly lands, provided the basis for Chancery Slavonic, the court language of the Grand Duchy."
- "Ukrainian Langage".
"Statut Velikogo knyazhestva Litovskogo" Статут Великого княжества Литовского [Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Section 4 Article 1)]. История Беларуси IX-XVIII веков. Первоисточники.. 1588. Archived from the original on 2018-06-29. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
А писаръ земъский маеть по-руску литерами и словы рускими вси листы, выписы и позвы писати, а не иншимъ езыкомъ и словы.
- Cited in Улащик Н. Введение в белорусско-литовское летописание. — М., 1980.
- Zinkevičius, Zigmas. "LIETUVOS DIDŽIOSIOS KUNIGAIKŠTYSTĖS KANCELIARINĖS SLAVŲ KALBOS TERMINO NUSAKYMO PROBLEMA". viduramziu.istorija.net (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 2 August 2018.
Davies, Norman (2011). Vanished Kingdoms: The History of Half-Forgotten Europe (reprint ed.). Penguin UK. p. lxxvii. ISBN 9780141960487. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
The principal languages employed are ruski (Old Belarusian), Latin and Polish.