Ruthenian language

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Ruthenian
Old Ruthenian
руска(я) мова[1][2]
ruska(ja) mova
Native toPolish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (influenced Church Slavonic - language of administration of Grand Duchy of Lithuania until 1699)
ExtinctDeveloped into Belarusian, Ukrainian and Rusyn.
Language codes
ISO 639-3
orv-olr
GlottologNone

Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (also see other names) was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The written form is also called Chancery Slavonic by Lithuanian and Western European linguists.[3]

Scholars do not agree whether Ruthenian was a separate language, or a Western dialect or set of dialects of Old East Slavic, but it is agreed that Ruthenian has a close genetic relationship with it. Old East Slavic was the colloquial language used in Kievan Rus' (10th–13th centuries).[4] Dialects of Ruthenian slowly developed into modern Belarusian, Rusyn and Ukrainian languages.

Nomenclature

A fragment from the 1588 codification of Lithuanian law, which regulated the official use of the "ruskiy" language[5]
Ruthenian Language Grammar, by Stepan Smal-Stotsky and Theodor Gartner
Ruthenian Bible Printed by Dr.Francysk Skaryna from the Glorious City of Polatsk

In modern texts, the language in question is sometimes called "Old Ukrainian" or "Old Belarusian" (Ukrainian: Староукраїнська мова) and (Belarusian: Старабеларуская мова).[citation needed] As Ruthenian was always in a kind of diglossic opposition to Church Slavonic, this vernacular language was and still is often called prosta(ja) mova (Cyrillic проста(я) мова), literally "simple speech".

Names in contemporary use

Names in modern use

East Slavic languages in 1389. Areas with different spoken dialects are shown in different colors. Territories using different written languages are delineated by dashed lines: the green line for the Ruthenian ("западнорусский") and the orange line for the Old-Russian ("старорусский").
Linguistic, ethnographic, and political map of Eastern Europe by Casimir Delamarre, 1868
  Ruthenians and Ruthenian language

See also

References

  1. ^ Ж. Некрашевич-Короткая. Лингвонимы восточнославянского культурного региона (историчесикий обзор) // Исследование славянских языков и литератур в высшей школе: достижения и перспективы: Информационные материалы и тезисы докладов международной научной конференции / Под ред. В. П. Гудкова, А. Г. Машковой, С. С. Скорвида. — М., 2003. — С. 150 — 317 с.
  2. ^ Начальный этап формирования русского национального языка, Ленинград 1962, p. 221
  3. ^ e.g., Elana Goldberg Shohamy and Monica Barni, Linguistic Landscape in the City (Multilingual Matters, 2010: ISBN 1847692974), p. 139: "[The Grand Duchy of Lithuania] adopted as its official language the literary version of Ruthenian, written in Cyrillic and also known as Chancery Slavonic"; Virgil Krapauskas, Nationalism and Historiography: The Case of Nineteenth-Century Lithuanian Historicism (East European Monographs, 2000: ISBN 0880334576), p. 26: "By the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Chancery Slavonic dominated the written state language in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania"; Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction Of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999 (Yale University Press, 2004: ISBN 030010586X), p. 18: "Local recensions of Church Slavonic, introduced by Orthodox churchmen from more southerly lands, provided the basis for Chancery Slavonic, the court language of the Grand Duchy."
  4. ^ "Ukrainian Langage".
  5. ^ "Statut Velikogo knyazhestva Litovskogo" Статут Великого княжества Литовского [Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Section 4 Article 1)]. История Беларуси IX-XVIII веков. Первоисточники.. 1588. Archived from the original on 2018-06-29. Retrieved 2019-10-25. А писаръ земъский маеть по-руску литерами и словы рускими вси листы, выписы и позвы писати, а не иншимъ езыкомъ и словы.
  6. ^ Cited in Улащик Н. Введение в белорусско-литовское летописание. — М., 1980.
  7. ^ Zinkevičius, Zigmas. "LIETUVOS DIDŽIOSIOS KUNIGAIKŠTYSTĖS KANCELIARINĖS SLAVŲ KALBOS TERMINO NUSAKYMO PROBLEMA". viduramziu.istorija.net (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  8. ^ Davies, Norman (2011). Vanished Kingdoms: The History of Half-Forgotten Europe (reprint ed.). Penguin UK. p. lxxvii. ISBN 9780141960487. Retrieved 2019-10-25. The principal languages employed are ruski (Old Belarusian), Latin and Polish.