Royal Canadian Navy

Enlarge ISBN (identifier) Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Canadian Navy
Marine royale canadienne
RCN Emblem.svg
Badge of the Royal Canadian Navy
Founded4 May 1910; 110 years ago (1910-05-04)
RoleNaval warfare
Size13,000 personnel, 30 ships
Part ofCanadian Armed Forces
HeadquartersNational Defence Headquarters
Motto(s)Latin: Parati vero parati (Ready aye ready)
March"Heart of Oak"
Mascot(s)SONAR (Newfoundland dog)
Commander-in-chiefElizabeth II, Queen of Canada, represented by Governor General, Julie Payette
Commander of the Royal Canadian NavyVice-Admiral Art McDonald CMM MSM CD
Naval ensignNaval Ensign of Canada.svg
Naval jackFlag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Bilingual logoLogo of the Royal Canadian Navy.svg
PennantCanadian Commissioning Pennant.png
Lesser badgeRoyal Canadian Navy badge.svg

The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN; French: Marine royale canadienne) is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2017, the Royal Canadian Navy operates 12 frigates, 4 attack submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels and 8 patrol/training vessels, as well as several auxiliary vessels. The Royal Canadian Navy consists of 8,500 Regular Force and 5,100 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 5,300 civilians.[a 1] Vice-Admiral Art McDonald is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and Chief of the Naval Staff.[a 2]

Founded in 1910 as the Naval Service of Canada and given royal sanction on 29 August 1911,[1] the Royal Canadian Navy was amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Canadian Army to form the unified Canadian Armed Forces in 1968, after which it was known as Maritime Command until 2011.

In 2011, its historical title of "Royal Canadian Navy" was restored. Over the course of its history, the RCN has served in the First and Second World Wars, the Korean War, the Persian Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan and numerous United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations.



Established following the introduction of the Naval Service Act by then Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the Naval Service of Canada (NSC) was intended as a distinct naval force for Canada, that, should the need arise, could be placed under British control. The bill received royal assent on 4 May 1910. Initially equipped with two former Royal Navy vessels, HMCS Niobe and HMCS Rainbow, King George V granted permission for the service to be known as the Royal Canadian Navy on 29 August 1911.[2]

During the first years of the First World War, the RCN's six-vessel naval force patrolled both the North American west and east coasts to deter the German naval threat, with a seventh ship, HMCS Shearwater joining the force in 1915. Just before the end of the war in 1918, the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service was established with the purpose of carrying out anti-submarine operations; however, it was disbanded after the armistice of 11 November.[3]

HMCS Québec, former HMS Uganda was one of many ships commissioned by the Royal Canadian Navy in the Second World War. Expanding substantially during the war, the RCN had become the world's fifth largest navy by 1945.

After the war, the Royal Canadian Navy took over certain responsibilities of the Department of Transport's Marine Service, and slowly started to build its fleet, with the first warships specifically designed for the RCN being commissioned in 1932.[4] At the outbreak of the Second World War, the Navy had 11 combat vessels, 145 officers and 1,674 men.[5] During the Second World War, the Royal Canadian Navy expanded significantly, ultimately gaining responsibility for the entire Northwest Atlantic theatre of war. During the Battle of the Atlantic, the RCN sank 31 U-boats and sank or captured 42 enemy surface vessels, while successfully completing 25,343 merchant crossings. The Navy lost 24 ships and 1,797 sailors in the war.[6]

Four F2H-3 Banshee fly overhead HMCS Bonaventure. Bonaventure was the last aircraft carrier in service with the Royal Canadian Navy.

From 1950 to 1955, during the Korean War, Canadian destroyers maintained a presence off the Korean peninsula, engaging in shore bombardments and maritime interdiction. During the Cold War, the Navy developed an anti-submarine capability to counter the growing Soviet naval threat.[7][8] In the 1960s, the Royal Canadian Navy retired most of its Second World War vessels, and further developed its anti-submarine warfare capabilities by acquiring the Sikorsky CH-124 Sea King, and successfully pioneered the use of large maritime helicopters on small surface vessels. At that time, Canada was also operating an aircraft carrier, HMCS Bonaventure, flying the McDonnell F2H Banshee fighter jet until 1962, as well as various other anti-submarine aircraft.[3]


From 1964 through 1968, under the Liberal government of Lester B. Pearson, the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army were amalgamated to form the unified Canadian Forces. This process was overseen by then–Defence Minister Paul Hellyer. The controversial merger resulted in the abolition of the Royal Canadian Navy as a separate legal entity. All personnel, ships, and aircraft became part of Maritime Command (MARCOM), an element of the Canadian Armed Forces. The traditional naval uniform was eliminated and all naval personnel were required to wear the new Canadian Armed Forces rifle green uniform, adopted also by former Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army personnel.[9] Ship-borne aircraft continued to be under the command of MARCOM, while shore-based patrol aircraft of the former Royal Canadian Air Force were transferred to MARCOM. In 1975 Air Command was formed and all maritime aircraft were transferred to Air Command's Maritime Air Group.[10] The unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968 was the first time that a nation with a modern military combined its formerly separate naval, land and air elements into a single service.[9]

HMCS Athabaskan departing Halifax for the Persian Gulf as part of the Coalition forces. Canada deployed three ships in support of Operation Desert Shield, and later Operation Desert Storm

The 1970s saw the addition of four Iroquois-class destroyers, which were later updated to air defence destroyers, and in the late 1980s and 1990s the construction of twelve Halifax-class frigates and the purchase of the Victoria-class submarines. In 1990, Canada deployed three warships to support Operation Friction. Later in the decade, ships were deployed to patrol the Adriatic Sea during the Yugoslav Wars and the Kosovo War. More recently, Maritime Command provided vessels to serve as a part of Operation Apollo and to combat piracy off the coast of Somalia.[11]

Following the Official Languages Act enshrinement in 1969, MARCOM instituted the French Language Unit, which constituted a francophone unit with the navy. The first was HMCS Ottawa. In the 1980s and 1990s, women were also accepted into the fleet, with the submarine service the last to allow them, beginning in 2001.[12]

Some of the changes that had taken place during the unification of the forces began to be undone. In 1985, MARCOM received new black uniforms, differentiating them from the land-based forces.[10] By 1990, the three senior naval officers of MARCOM had recreated the Naval Board.[12] On 16 August 2011, the government restored the historic names of the Canadian Forces' three environmental services: Maritime Command became the "Royal Canadian Navy", Air Command the "Royal Canadian Air Force," and Land Force Command the "Canadian Army."[13]

As of August 2015, with the loss of area air defence and (temporarily) resupply capabilities, the RCN was then classified as a Rank 5 navy (offshore regional coastal defence) on the Todd-Lindberg classification system of naval strength, dropping from Rank 3 (multiregional power projection) in 2005.[14]


The Royal Canadian Navy is headquartered at National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ) in Ottawa, Ontario. Since 1968, the Royal Canadian Navy has been an environmental command of the Canadian Armed Forces and since 2012 it has been charged with maintaining and generating forces for the Canadian Joint Operations Command.[a 1]

Maritime Forces Atlantic

CFB Halifax serves as the headquarters for Royal Canadian Navy units from Maritime Forces Atlantic.

The Royal Canadian Navy's Atlantic Fleet, known as Canadian Fleet Atlantic is co-located with Maritime Forces Atlantic (MARLANT), with headquarters at CFB Halifax in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It is supported by CFS St. John's in Newfoundland. Attached to MARLANT and CFB Halifax is the Royal Canadian Air Force's 12 Wing Shearwater, based at Shearwater Heliport, which provides shipborne air support for the Atlantic Fleet. The RCAF's 14 Wing Greenwood provides fixed-wing air support for MARLANT through 404 Maritime Patrol and Training Squadron and 405 Maritime Patrol Squadron. Other Atlantic Fleet facilities are CFAD Bedford, an ammunition depot, and two radio stations, Naval Radio Section (NRS) Newport Corner and NRS Mill Cove.[a 3]

The Atlantic Fleet, with 18 warships and a number of auxiliary vessels, is responsible for Canada's exclusive economic zone on the East Coast, as well as Canada's area of responsibility in the Atlantic Ocean and the eastern Arctic Ocean.

Maritime Forces Pacific

CFB Esquimalt serves as the headquarters for Royal Canadian Navy units from Maritime Forces Pacific.

The Royal Canadian Navy's Pacific Fleet, known as Canadian Fleet Pacific is co-located with Maritime Forces Pacific (MARPAC), with headquarters at CFB Esquimalt in British Columbia, in the Greater Victoria region. MARPAC consists of over 4,000 naval personnel and 2,000 civilian personnel.[a 4]

Comprising 15 warships and several auxiliary vessels homeported in Esquimalt, the Pacific Fleet is responsible for Canada's exclusive economic zone on the West Coast and Canada's area of responsibility in the Pacific Ocean and the western Arctic Ocean. Fleet Maintenance Facility Cape Breton provides repair and maintenance services to the Pacific Fleet. The Royal Canadian Air Force's 443 Maritime Helicopter Squadron, based at Patricia Bay Heliport but under the control of 12 Wing Shearwater, provides shipborne helicopter support for the Pacific Fleet, while 19 Wing Comox provides fixed-wing maritime air support for MARPAC through 407 Long Range Patrol Squadron. Other Pacific Fleet facilities are CFAD Rocky Point, an ammunition depot, and Naval Radio Section Aldergrove.

Canadian Forces Naval Reserve

The Canadian Forces Naval Reserve is the Primary Reserve component of the RCN. The primary mission of the NAVRES is to force generate sailors and teams for CAF operations, including: domestic safety operations as well as security and defence missions, while at the same time supporting the Navy's efforts in connecting with Canadians through the maintenance of a broad national presence.[15]

Naval Tactical Operations Group

The Naval Tactical Operations Group (NTOG) is a unit between 85 or 100 personnel (full time and reserve sailors) dedicated to conduct boarding on non-compliant vessels of interest. Training includes precision shooting, hand-to-hand combat, interrogation techniques, advanced medical skills, the planning of missions and identification of improvised explosive devices.

Naval Security Team

The Naval Security Team (NST) is a modular, scalable, flexible, and deployable naval team primarily composed of naval reservists, with Regular Force members rounding out the team when required.[16] Tasked with providing enhanced force protection (FP) and security of deployed RCN ships and personnel at home or overseas, the NST deployed for the first time in 2017 providing force protection for HMCS Winnipeg during her port visit to Busan, South Korea.[17][18] Headquartered at Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Esquimalt the NST reports directly to the Commander Canadian Fleet Pacific



HMCS St. John's, one of 12 Halifax-class multi-role frigates in service with Royal Canadian Navy

The Navy operates twelve frigates, four patrol submarines, twelve coastal-defence vessels and eight unarmed patrol/training vessels. The surface ships, which carry the designation Her Majesty's Canadian Ship (HMCS), consist of twelve Halifax-class multi-role patrol frigates and twelve Kingston-class coastal-defence vessels. In addition to the surface vessels, the RCN operates four Victoria-class submarines that were acquired from the Royal Navy in 1998. These warships carry the designation Her Majesty's Canadian Submarine. The Royal Canadian Navy also maintains and operates HMCS Oriole, a historic sailing ship commissioned in 1952 as a sail-training ship. Oriole is the oldest commissioned ship in the RCN.

On September 19, 2014, the Navy announced the decommissioning of its two Protecteur-class resupply ships, along with two Iroquois-class destroyers. The Naval Tactical Operations Group (NTOG) - (French: Groupe des opérations tactiques maritimes, GOTM) established in 2015 has units based on warships to provide an enhanced naval boarding capability.[19][20]

Auxiliary vessels

The RCN operates auxiliary vessels to support the Canadian Forces. These vessels are not warships and do not carry the HMCS designation. Among the auxiliary ships operated by the navy are eight Orca-class patrol class training tenders, five Ville-class harbour tugs, five Glen-class harbour tugs, and one fireboat of the Fire class. MV Asterix is an interim replenishing vessel serving in the RCN with mixed naval and civilian crew since January 2018 replacing contracted replenishment oilers and until replacements can be commissioned.


A Royal Canadian Air Force CP-140 Aurora. The aircraft is used by the RCAF as a maritime patrol aircraft.
A CH-124 Sea King lowers a crewman onto the deck of USNS Yukon during RIMPAC 2012

Since 1975, all aircraft supporting the RCN are operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force through 1 Canadian Air Division. Since 1995, all CH-124 Sea King helicopters have been operated by squadrons under 12 Wing (from Shearwater Heliport and Patricia Bay Heliport). Similarly, all CP-140 Aurora and CP-140A Arcturus anti-submarine, ship surveillance and maritime patrol aircraft have been operated by squadrons under 14 Wing at CFB Greenwood and 19 Wing at CFB Comox. As of February 2019 the Sea King had been retired and there were 17 interim model CH-148 Cyclone helicopters configured for ship-borne anti-submarine warfare, 18 CP-140 Aurora fixed wing aircraft for land-based anti-submarine warfare and area surveillance (of which 14 are being modernized and retained for active operations), and 1 CP-140A Arcturus for land-based maritime surveillance.

Wings and Squadrons

Future procurement

During the past several years, the following major projects have been announced by the Government of Canada to modernize the Canadian Navy:

Construction of HMCS Harry DeWolf at Halifax Shipyard in May 2018


Commissioned officers

A naval officer's commission with the Canadian Armed Forces

Commissioned officers of the Canadian Armed Forces have ranks ranging from the NATO standard ranks of OF-1 to OF-9. The only OF-9 position in the Canadian Forces is the Chief of the Defence Staff, who can be from any of the service elements. The highest position occupied in the current Royal Canadian Navy structure is OF-8, a vice-admiral who serves as the Commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and Chief of the Naval Staff. OF-6 (commodore) to OF-9 (admiral) are referred to as flag officers, OF-3 (lieutenant-commander) to OF-5 (captain (N)) are referred to as senior officers, while OF-2 (lieutenant (N)) and OF-1 (sub-lieutenant) are referred to as junior officers. Naval cadets are referred to as subordinate officers.[a 9] All except subordinate officers of the Canadian Forces receive a commission from the Queen of Canada as Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces. The commissioning scroll issued in recognition of the commission is signed by the Governor General of Canada as the Queen of Canada's representative, and countersigned by the serving Minister of National Defence. Subordinate officers are promoted to acting sub-lieutenant upon receiving their commissions.

Naval officers are trained at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario, the Royal Military College Saint-Jean in Saint-Jean, Quebec, Naval Officer Training Centre (NOTC) Venture and Naval Fleet School (Pacific) in Esquimalt, British Columbia, and Naval Fleet School (Atlantic) in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Some specialized candidates may be commissioned without attending the Royal Military College; the plan is known as Direct-Entry Officer (DEO) Plan. Senior NCOs may also be offered commissions on the basis that their training and experience gives them a comparable basis of knowledge; this is referred to as the Commission-from-the-Ranks (CFR) Plan. NCOs who are offered such promotions are typically petty officer 1st class or higher, with 20 or more years of service.


The Royal Canadian Navy rank structure is shown below.


Royal Canadian Navy sleeves (Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces).svg
Royal Canadian Navy (Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces).svg
NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
Canada Canada
No equivalent Canada-Navy-OF-9-collected.svg Canada-Navy-OF-8-collected.svg Canada-Navy-OF-7-collected.svg Canada-Navy-OF-6-collected.svg Canadian RCN OF-5.svg Canadian RCN OF-4.svg Canadian RCN OF-3.svg Canadian RCN OF-2.svg Canadian RCN OF-1b.svg Canadian RCN OF-1a.svg Canadian RCN OF (D).svg No equivalent
Admiral Vice-admiral Rear-admiral Commodore Captain(N) Commander Lieutenant-commander Lieutenant(N) Sub-lieutenant Acting sub-lieutenant Naval
Amiral Vice-amiral Contre-amiral Commodore Capitaine de vaisseau Capitaine de frégate Capitaine de corvette Lieutenant de vaisseau Enseigne de vaisseau de 1re classe Enseigne de vaisseau de 2e classe Aspirant de marine

Non-commissioned members

Non-commissioned members of the Royal Canadian Navy have pay grades ranging from OR-1 to OR-9. OR-9 (chief petty officer 1st class), OR-8 (chief petty officers 2nd class) and OR-7 (petty officer 1st class) are known as petty officers, and OR-6 (petty officer 2nd class, referred to as senior non-commissioned officer) form the senior cadre of the non-commissioned (enlisted) members of the military. OR-5 (master sailor) and OR-4 (sailor first class) are referred to as junior non-commissioned officers, while OR-3 (sailor second class) and OR-2 (sailor third class) are referred to as junior ranks.

All Regular Force non-commissioned members of the Canadian Forces undergo basic training at the Canadian Forces Leadership and Recruit School in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu. Recruits then attend occupation-specific training at various locations across Canada.

In August 2020, the term "seaman" was replaced with the gender neutral term "sailor".[36][37][38]

Senior non-commissioned appointments of the Royal Canadian Navy
Canadian Forces Chief Warrant Officer Chief Petty Officer of the Navy/Command, Group, Chief Petty Officer Command, Group, Formation, Fleet, Base Chief Petty Officer
Canadian RCN OR-10.svg Canadian RCN OR-9c.svg Canadian RCN OR-9b.svg
Non-commissioned member rank structure of the Royal Canadian Navy
Chief Petty Officer 1st class Chief Petty Officer 2nd class Petty Officer 1st class Petty Officer 2nd class Master Sailor (previously Master Seaman) Sailor First Class (previously Leading Seaman) Sailor Second Class (previously Able Seaman) Sailor Third Class (previously Ordinary Seaman) Sailor Third Class (Basic) Sailor Third Class (Recruit)
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Canadian RCN OR-9a.svg Canadian RCN OR-8.svg Canadian RCN OR-7.svg Canadian RCN OR-6.svg Canadian RCN OR-5.svg Canadian RCN OR-4.svg Canadian RCN OR-3.svg Canadian RCN OR-2.svg Canadian RCN OR-2.svg Canadian RCN OR-2.svg
CPO1 CPO2 PO1 PO2 MS S1 S2 S3 S3 (B) S3 (R)



The Queen's Colour

The RCN was granted the right to use the King's Colour in 1925 by King George V. The Queen's or King's Colour (also referred to as the sovereign's colour) for the Navy has been consecrated and presented four times: in 1939 by King George VI in Esquimalt, in 1959 by Queen Elizabeth II in Halifax, in 1979 by Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother in Halifax and in 2009 by the Governor General of Canada and Commander-in-Chief Michaëlle Jean in Halifax.[39] The colour used by the RCN between 1927 and 1936 was never actually presented but went straight into service in both the Atlantic and Pacific commands.[40] Two identical colours were presented, one for the Atlantic fleet and one for the Pacific fleet in 1926, 1939 and 1959, but only one colour was presented in 1979 and 2009. This colour is maintained in RCN Headquarters in Ottawa and dispatched anywhere in Canada anytime that it is needed. The current colours consist of a ceremonial standard with the Maple Leaf flag in the top left canton, the Queen's personal Commonwealth cypher (a capital E on a blue background, surrounded by a circlet of gold Tudor roses and laurels, surmounted by a crown) and an anchor and naval crown (from the Canadian Naval Ensign) on the lower right fly. These elements are found on the 1979 and 2009 colours. The colours from 1926, 1939 and 1959 consisted of a White Ensign with the Queen's or King's cypher, surrounded by the Garter and ensigned with the Crown, in the middle.[39]

The Royal Canadian Navy's retired colours are laid up at Beechwood Cemetery in Ottawa, Ontario.[39]


Past versions of the badge used by the Royal Canadian Navy, with the years they were in use listed above

The badge of the Royal Canadian Navy consists of:[41]

Blazon: Badge: Azure, a fouled anchor or. Motto: "PARATI VERO PARATI"


The history of Royal Canadian Navy is preserved and presented at the Maritime Command Museum in Halifax, the Canadian War Museum, the Naval Museum of Alberta, the Naval Museum of Manitoba, the naval museums at Naval Reserve Headquarters in Quebec City and at CFB Esquimalt as well as the Maritime Museum of British Columbia. Several Royal Canadian Navy ships and submarines have been preserved including the destroyer HMCS Haida, the hydrofoil HMCS Bras d'Or and the submarines Ojibwa and Onondaga. The corvette HMCS Sackville serves as Canada's Naval Memorial. The Royal Canadian Navy Monument is located on the banks of the Ottawa River in Ottawa. A monument at Point Pleasant Park in Halifax commemorates members of Royal Canadian Navy who have died in peacetime and there are valour memorials in Halifax, Quebec City and Esquimalt.


See also


  1. ^ a b "Canada's Navy at a Glance". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. 16 August 2011. Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  2. ^ "Commander of the RCN". Royal Canadian Navy. Government of Canada. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  3. ^ Maritime Forces Atlantic, Royal Canadian Navy, archived from the original on 13 June 2011, retrieved 26 March 2012
  4. ^ Rear-Admiral Nigel S. Greenwood, Royal Canadian Navy, archived from the original on 30 September 2011, retrieved 18 August 2011
  5. ^ Canada Begins Joint Support Ships Procurement for the Canadian Forces, National Defence and the Canadian Forces, 14 July 2010, archived from the original on 31 August 2011, retrieved 17 August 2011
  6. ^ Arctic/Offshore Patrol Ships, National Defence and the Canadian Forces, 5 August 2011, archived from the original on 11 November 2011, retrieved 17 August 2011
  7. ^ Halifax-Class Modernization And Life Extension, National Defence and the Canadian Forces, 1 October 2010, archived from the original on 15 August 2011, retrieved 17 August 2011
  8. ^ Maritime Helicopter Project, National Defence and the Canadian Forces, 26 July 2010, archived from the original on 12 November 2011, retrieved 17 August 2011
  9. ^ Royal Canadian Navy Rank and Appointment Insignia, Royal Canadian Navy, 16 August 2011, archived from the original on 28 July 2011, retrieved 16 March 2009


  1. ^ Gilbert Norman Tucker The Naval Service of Canada: Its Official History Ottawa, 1952
  2. ^ Tucker, Gibert Norman. The Naval Service of Canada: Volume I: Origins and Early Years. Ottawa: King's Printer, 1952, p. 137.
  3. ^ a b Kealey, J.D.F. and E.C. Russell. A History of Canadian Naval Aviation, 1918–1962. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1967, pp. 1–10. Retrieved: 6 May 2010.
  4. ^ Milner, Marc. "Walter Hose To The Rescue: Navy, Part 13." Legion Magazine, 1 January 2006. Retrieved: 2 May 2010.
  5. ^ Schull, Joseph. Far Distant Ships: An Official Account of Canadian Naval Operations in World War II. Ottawa: King's Printer, 1952 – reprinted by Stoddart Publishing, Toronto, 1987, p. 1. ISBN 0-7737-2160-6.
  6. ^ Schull, Joseph, p.430-1
  7. ^ Thorgrimsson, Thor and E.C. Russell. Canadian Naval Operations in Korean Waters, 1950–1955. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1965. Retrieved: 9 May 2010.
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  11. ^ Milner, Marc (2010). Canada's Navy: The First Century (Second ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 266, 287, 296–298, 307, 310, 315. ISBN 978-0-8020-9604-3.
  12. ^ a b Milner, Marc (2010). Canada's Navy: The First Century (Second ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 268–269, 308–309. ISBN 978-0-8020-9604-3.
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  16. ^ Government of Canada, National Defence (2013-09-18). "Naval Security Team | Specialized Units | Royal Canadian Navy". Retrieved 2019-11-11.
  17. ^ Leaf, The Maple (2018-04-11). "Naval Security Team safeguards ships in foreign ports – The Maple Leaf". Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  18. ^ Navy, Government of Canada, National Defence, Royal Canadian (2017-05-31). "The Naval Reserve Link: View Article | LINK - April 2017 | What is the Naval Security Team (NST)?". Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  19. ^ "Maritime Tactical Operations Group Information Briefing" (PDF). Naval Association of Canada. Royal Canadian Navy. March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  20. ^ "Ready for the storm (in French)". Royal Canadian Navy. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
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  24. ^ Pugliese, David (12 September 2017). "War of 1812 names for Joint Support Ships are history – Protecteur and Preserver are the new names". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
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  27. ^ "Irving to build two more Arctic patrol ships in Halifax | the Chronicle Herald".
  28. ^ Rosamond, Joe (4 October 2015). "Canada turns to Asterix for stop gap at-sea support". Retrieved 22 November 2015.
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  30. ^ Lavoie, Raphaël (9 October 2015). "Davie : le MS Asterix arrive à Lévis". Le Journal de Lévis (in French). Retrieved 22 November 2015.
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  33. ^ "Davie Shipbuilding unveils the largest naval ship ever delivered from a Canadian shipyard". Retrieved 2017-07-21.
  34. ^ Keddie, Ian (18 October 2017). "Davie launches Resolve-class naval support ship". Jane's IHS. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  35. ^ "Canadian Armed Forces Select UMS SKELDAR V-200 UAS". 8 May 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
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  37. ^ "From 'seaman' to 'sailor': the Royal Canadian Navy adopts gender-neutral titles". Kamloops This Week. The Canadian Press. 27 August 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
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  39. ^ a b c "Queen's Colours (Canada)". Flagspot. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
  40. ^ 1953-, Arbuckle, J. Graeme (1984). Customs and traditions of the Canadian Navy. Halifax, N.S.: Nimbus. p. 75. ISBN 0920852386. OCLC 12692734.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
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  42. ^ "Royal Canadian Naval Association Naval Memorial". Archived from the original on 2013-03-22. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  43. ^ "Public Art Inventory". 25 May 2010.