Rockland County, New York

Enlarge Westchester County, New York New York (state)

Rockland County
View of the Hudson River looking southward from Hook Mountain State Park.
View of the Hudson River looking southward from Hook Mountain State Park.
Flag of Rockland County
Official seal of Rockland County
Map of New York highlighting Rockland County
Location within the U.S. state of New York
Map of the United States highlighting New York
New York's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 41°09′N 74°02′W / 41.15°N 74.03°W / 41.15; -74.03
Country United States
State New York
Named forits rocky terrain
SeatNew City
Largest CDPNew City
 • County ExecutiveEd Day (R)
 • Total199.34 sq mi (516.3 km2)
 • Land173.55 sq mi (449.5 km2)
 • Water25.79 sq mi (66.8 km2)  13%
 • Estimate 
 • Density1,877.21/sq mi (724.79/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Area code845
Congressional district17th
Interactive map of Rockland County, New York

Rockland County is the southernmost county on the west side of the Hudson River in the U.S. state of New York, part of the New York City Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county's population, as of the 2010 United States Census, was 311,687, increasing to a 2019 Census estimate of 325,789,[1] making it the third-most densely populated county outside New York City within New York State (after Nassau and neighboring Westchester counties, respectively). The county seat is New City.[2] Rockland County is a suburb of New York City that borders the boroughs about 9 miles northwest of the city at their closest points, and is accessible via the New York State Thruway, after 10 exits. The name derives from "rocky land", as the area has been aptly described.

Rockland County is the smallest county by area in New York State outside New York City. It comprises five towns and nineteen incorporated villages, with numerous unincorporated villages (sixteen) and hamlets. Rockland County is designated as a Preserve America Community, and nearly a third of the county's area is parkland. The county has the largest Jewish population per capita of any U.S. county, with 31.4%, or 90,000 residents, being Jewish.[3] Rockland also ranked 31st on the list of highest-income counties by median household income in the United States, with a median household income of $82,534 according to the 2010 census.


Henry Hudson's Halve Maen (Half Moon) on the Hudson River
The Carson McCullers House in South Nyack
DeWint House (circa 1700) is the oldest home in Rockland County.
Historic Rockland County Courthouse in New City

The area that would become Rockland County was originally inhabited by Algonquian-speaking native Americans, including Munsees, or Lenni Lenape.

In 1609, Henry Hudson, thinking he had found the legendary "Northwest Passage", sailed on the Half Moon up the river that would one day bear his name and anchored near the area that is now Haverstraw before continuing to disillusionment north of Albany. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle in the area, around 1675.[4] These settlers, eager to escape "city life", moved from Manhattan to Rockland. A number of unique Dutch-style red sandstone houses still stand, and many place names in the county reveal their Dutch origin. When the Duke of York (who became King James II of England) established the first twelve counties of New York in 1683, present-day Rockland County was part of Orange County, known then as "Orange County South of the Mountains". Orangetown was created at the same time under a royal grant, originally encompassing all of modern Rockland County. Around this time, as the English began to colonize Nyack and Tappan, the Native Americans began to leave Rockland in search of undisturbed land further north.[4]

The natural barrier of the Ramapo Mountains and the size of the county made it difficult to carry out governmental activities. At one point there were twin governments, one on each side of the Ramapo Mountains. For this reason, Rockland split off from Orange in 1798 to form its own county. That same year the county seat was transferred from Tappan to New City, where a new courthouse was built.

Haverstraw was separated from Orangetown in 1719 and became a town in 1788; it included the present-day Clarkstown, Ramapo and Stony Point. Clarkstown and Ramapo became towns in 1791, followed by Stony Point in 1865.

The territory of the Lenape in present-day southern New York, New Jersey and eastern sections of Delaware and Pennsylvania

During the American Revolution, when control of the Hudson River was viewed by the British as strategic to dominating the American territories, Rockland saw skirmishes at Haverstraw, Nyack and Piermont, and significant military engagements at the Battle of Stony Point, where General "Mad" Anthony Wayne earned his nickname. George Washington had headquarters for a time at John Suffern's tavern, the later site of the village of Suffern. British Major John André met with American traitor Benedict Arnold near Stony Point to buy the plans for the fortifications at West Point. André was captured with the plans in Tarrytown on his way back to the British lines; he was brought to Tappan for trial in the Tappan church, found guilty, hanged and buried nearby. Still another important chapter in the story of the Revolution was written on May 5, 1783, when General Washington received Sir Guy Carleton at the DeWint House, where they discussed terms of a peace treaty. Two days later Washington visited Sir Guy aboard a British war vessel. On this day the King's Navy fired its first salute to the flag of the United States of America.

In the decades following the Revolution, Rockland became popular for its stone and bricks. These products, however, required quarrying in land that many later believed should be set aside as a preserve. Many unsuccessful efforts were made to turn much of the Hudson Highlands on the northern tip of the county into a forest preserve. However, Union Pacific Railroad president E. H. Harriman donated land as well as large sums of money for the purchase of properties in the area of Bear Mountain. Bear Mountain/Harriman State Park became a reality in 1910 when Harriman's widow donated his lands to the state, and by 1914 it was estimated that more than a million people a year were coming to the park. After World War I, Rockland County became the most important sausage making hub in the state of New York.[5][6][7]

Rockland remained semi-rural until the 1950s when the Palisades Interstate Parkway, Tappan Zee Bridge, and other major arteries were built. The idea of suburbia also helped transform the county. The county's population flourished, from 89,276 in 1950 to 265,475 in 1990.


Ramapo Torne in Harriman State Park, part of the Ramapo Mountains

Rockland County lies just north of the New Jersey-New York border, west of Westchester County (across the Hudson River), and south of Orange County. Its east border is formed by the Tappan Zee portion of the Hudson River.[8] The county's terrain ranges from 1,283' (391m) ASL on Rockhouse Mountain (northwest of Lake Welch)[9] to approaching sea level along the Hudson River. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 199.34 sqmi (516 km2), of which 173.55 sqmi (449.49 km2) is land and 25.79 sqmi (66.80 km2) (13%) is water.[10] It is the state's smallest county outside the five boroughs of New York City.

Approximately 30% of Rockland County is devoted to parkland, belonging to either the five towns, incorporated villages, the state, or the county. These parks provide walking and hiking trails, ballfields, dog runs, historic sites, ponds, streams, salt marshes, and equestrian trails. Some popular state parks include Bear Mountain State Park on the northernmost tip of the county, Harriman State Park also along the county's northern boundary, and Nyack Beach State Park along the Hudson River, with trails connecting to Rockland Lake State Park. The county hosts numerous public and private golf courses, with the towns of Orangetown, Ramapo, Stony Point, and Haverstraw all operating public golf courses within their towns. The Palisades Interstate Park Commission operates two golf courses in Rockland Lake State Park. Notable private courses in the county include Paramount Country Club, Manhattan Woods Golf Course (designed by PGA great Gary Player), and Rockland Country Club (Sparkill).

Adjacent counties



2000 census

As of the 2000 United States Census.[15] there were 286,753 people, 92,675 households, and 70,989 families in the county. The population density was 1,652/sqmi (638/km2). There were 94,973 housing units at an average density of 547/sqmi (211/km2). However, residents live closer together than the census numbers indicate, as 30% of the county is reserved as parkland. 9% of residents reported speaking Spanish at home, 5% Yiddish, 3% French-based creole, 1.5% Italian, 1.3% Tagalog, 1.3% Hebrew, 1.2% French, and 1% Russian. Other languages spoken at home by at least 1000 people include Malayalam, Korean, Chinese, German, and Polish.

Rockland County Demographics
Racial demographics of Rockland according to 2016 US Census Bureau data:[16]
Race Percentage
White (Whites of non-Hispanic origin: 63.0%) 77.5%
Hispanics and Latinos (of any race) 17.6%
Black 13.3%
Asian 6.5%
Multiracial 2.0%
American Indian and Alaska Native persons 0.5%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander persons 0.1%

There were 92,675 households, out of which 38% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63% were married couples living together, 10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23% were non-families. 19% of households were made up of individuals, and 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3 and the average family size was 3.5.

The county population contained 28% under the age of 18, 8% from 18 to 24, 28% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, and 12% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 women there were 95 men. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 91 men.

The median income for a household in the county was $68,000 and the median income for a family was $80,000. Males had a median income of $58,000 versus $39,000 for females. The per capita income for the county was $28,000. The mean, or average, income for a family in Rockland County is $73,500 according to the 2004 census. About 6% of families and 10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14% of those under age 18 and 8% of those age 65 or over.


Blue ribbon School Logo
Cherry Lane Elementary School

The county is home to several Blue Ribbon School of Excellence Award winners, awarded by the U.S. Department of Education:

  • In 2000–2001, Liberty Elementary School in Valley Cottage (semi-finalists in 2004)
  • In 2007, Strawtown Elementary School in West Nyack
  • In 2008 & 2014, Franklin Avenue Elementary School in Pearl River
  • In 2009, George W. Miller Elementary School in Nanuet
  • In 2011, Pearl River Middle School in Pearl River
  • In 2013, Cherry Lane Elementary School in Suffern
  • In 2016, Nanuet Senior High School In Nanuet
  • In 2018, Clarkstown High School South

Colleges and universities

The county is home to several colleges and universities. For more information please visit List of colleges and universities in New York (state)

High schools

School districts


Tappan Zee Bridge

The Tappan Zee Bridge connects South Nyack in Rockland County and Tarrytown in Westchester County across the Hudson River in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York State. The old bridge was replaced with a new span in 2017.[19]

Major highways

The county is served by several major highways, including Interstate 87/287 (the New York Thruway), opening from Suffern to Yonkers in 1955. The Tappan Zee Bridge opened the same year, connecting Rockland and Westchester, allowing Rockland County's population to grow rapidly. The Palisades Interstate Parkway, a project of master planner Robert Moses and built between 1947 and 1958, connects the county directly to the George Washington Bridge due south. The Garden State Parkway opened in 1955, connecting New Jersey to I-87/287.

For further information


Hybrid electric bus operated by Transport of Rockland

The Transport of Rockland operates several local bus routes throughout the county, as well as the express bus Hudson Link routes to city centers and train stations in Tarrytown and White Plains in Westchester County. TOR provides connections to other neighborhood bus operations – Minitrans[20] and connections to private commuter lines, Rockland Coaches and Short Line providing service to northern New Jersey and New York City.

Transportation map


NJ Transit/Metro-North Railroad operates the Port Jervis Line, which stops at the Suffern Railroad Station and Sloatsburg Station, and the Pascack Valley Line, whose stops include Pearl River, Nanuet, and Spring Valley. in their respective hamlets and village of the same name. Connections on this line are available at Secaucus for service to Penn Station in Midtown Manhattan and service to the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford, New Jersey. The southern terminus of both lines is Hoboken Terminal in New Jersey, where connections can be made to several NJ Transit bus lines, ferries, and PATH trains to New York City.

Until 1958, Rockland County's eastern side was served by the New York Central Railroad's passenger service on the West Shore Railroad from Weehawken, New Jersey, opposite Midtown Manhattan up through Tappan, west Nyack, Congers, Haverstraw, on to the West Hudson shore cities of Newburgh, Kingston and Albany. The service ran to West Haverstraw, in the north of the until 1959.[21][22] The Erie Railroad ran train service on the Northern Branch through the southeastern corner of the county to Nyack up to 1966.[23]


NY Waterway operates a ferry service between Haverstraw and Ossining in Westchester County for the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Commuters take the Transport of Rockland's Ferry Express route to the Haverstraw ferry terminal for service to Metro-North's Hudson Line service to Grand Central Terminal. Ferry service is typically suspended in the colder months when the Hudson River freezes over, and commuters must take shuttle buses across the Tappan Zee Bridge.


Nearby airports include:

Law, government and politics

United States House of Representatives

All of Rockland County falls within the 17th Congressional District, along with central and western Westchester County. The district is represented by Congresswoman Nita M. Lowey, a Democrat (as of 2019).

New York State politicians

The county of Rockland is represented in the New York State Senate by David Carlucci (D) of the 38th district and James Skoufis (D) of the 39th district (as of 2019).[24][25]

Rockland County Assembly Members
NYS Assembly
Kenneth Zebrowski, Jr.
96th District
Ellen C. Jaffee
97th District

County politicians

Rockland County government is led by County Executive. Republican Ed Day was first elected in 2013 and re-elected in 2017. The previous county executive was Republican C. Scott Vanderhoef, who was re-elected in 2009 to his fifth four-year term. Day is the third county executive in Rockland history, with Vanderhoef having defeated the incumbent, John T. Grant (D), in 1993. Prior to 1985, Rockland County did not have a county executive. County Executive Day was sworn in for his second term on January 1, 2018.

Rockland County has a county legislature made up of 17 members, elected from single-member districts.[26] The Chairman of the Legislature is Democrat Alden H. Wolfe. In the November 2019 election Republicans gained one seat, reducing the Democratic majority from 10–7 to 9–8. As of January 2020, the legislators are: Legislative District Maps

Rockland County Legislators
District Legislator Party Area Represented
Douglas J. Jobson Republican Stony Point
Michael M. Grant Democrat West Haverstraw
Jay Hood Jr. Majority Leader Democrat Haverstraw
Itamar Yeger Democrat Wesley Hills
Lon M. Hofstein Minority Leader Republican New City
Alden H. Wolfe Chair Democrat Suffern
Philip Soskin Deputy Majority Leader Democrat Monsey
Toney L. Earl Democrat Hillcrest
Christopher J. Carey Republican Bardonia
Harriet D. Cornell Democrat West Nyack
Laurie A. Santulli Republican Congers
Charles J. Falciglia Republican Airmont
Aron B. Wieder Democrat Monsey
Aney Paul Vice Chair Democrat Nanuet
John W. McGowan Republican Pearl River
Vince D. Tyer Deputy Minority Leader Republican Pearl River
James Foley Republican Sparkill

Town governments

The five towns of Rockland County are led by Town Supervisors and Town Boards. The villages encompassed in the towns are led by Mayors and Village Trustees.
As of the November 2019 elections, the town supervisors are:

Rockland County Town Supervisors
George A. Hoehmann
Howard T. Phillips, Jr.
Teresa M. Kenny
Michael Specht
Stony Point
Jim Monaghan

County courts

There are three types of general trial courts in Rockland County: the New York Supreme Court, the County Court and the Justice Courts. The Supreme Court is the trial level court of the New York State Unified Court System, which presents some confusion as the Supreme Court is the highest court of appeals in the federal system as well as in most states (the Court of Appeals is the highest court in New York State). The Supreme Court has broad authority over all categories of cases, both civil and criminal. Generally the Supreme Court in Rockland County hears civil cases involving claims in excess of $25,000. While the Supreme Court has jurisdiction over criminal cases in most counties this is handled by the County Courts. In Rockland however, the Supreme Court does exercise jurisdiction over some criminal cases.

The County Court is inferior to the Supreme Court and is authorized to hear criminal cases that have occurred in the county as well as limited jurisdiction over civil cases. The County Court handles felony cases exclusively and shares jurisdiction with the town and village justice courts on misdemeanor cases and other minor offenses and violations. The County Court's jurisdiction on civil cases is limited to those involving less than $25,000.

Each of the towns and fifteen of the villages have Justice Courts, which mostly hear routine traffic ticket cases, especially from the New York State Thruway and the Palisades Interstate Parkway. They also handle drunk driving charges, lower-level criminal misdemeanor matters, and occasionally perform arraignment on felonies (most felony proceedings are heard in County Court). These courts generally handle the highest volume of cases.

National politics

Like most of the Hudson Valley, Rockland County historically voted Republican. Between 1892 and 1992, Rockland County only voted Democratic three times–Lyndon B. Johnson's landslide victory of 1964, Franklin Delano Roosevelt's landslide victory in 1936 (in which it was the only New York City suburb to vote Democratic), and Woodrow Wilson's first campaign in 1912. Rockland shifted Democratic in 1992, and has since only voted Republican once, in 2004 for George W. Bush. Despite this shift, national elections have remained close in Rockland County as compared to neighboring Westchester County, which has witnessed dependable double-digit Democratic victories since the 1990s.

Presidential election results
Presidential election results[27]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 45.1% 60,911 51.3% 69,342 3.6% 4,834
2012 46.1% 57,428 52.8% 65,793 1.1% 1,424
2008 46.7% 61,752 52.6% 69,543 0.7% 898
2004 49.6% 65,130 48.9% 64,191 1.5% 1,910
2000 39.5% 48,441 56.7% 69,530 3.8% 4,619
1996 36.0% 40,395 56.2% 63,127 7.8% 8,719
1992 40.7% 49,608 46.6% 56,759 12.7% 15,464
1988 56.8% 63,825 42.4% 47,634 0.8% 842
1984 60.9% 70,020 38.9% 44,687 0.3% 311
1980 56.3% 59,068 33.6% 35,277 10.1% 10,648
1976 51.3% 52,087 47.9% 48,673 0.8% 780
1972 64.3% 64,753 35.5% 35,771 0.2% 196
1968 49.1% 40,880 44.4% 36,948 6.6% 5,479
1964 36.2% 26,187 63.7% 46,173 0.1% 82
1960 54.8% 33,107 45.0% 27,178 0.2% 113
1956 71.0% 34,049 29.0% 13,881
1952 64.4% 27,657 35.1% 15,084 0.5% 212
1948 57.8% 20,661 36.6% 13,066 5.6% 2,001
1944 59.0% 19,471 40.7% 13,437 0.3% 91
1940 56.8% 20,040 42.2% 14,897 1.0% 362
1936 48.6% 15,583 49.5% 15,876 2.0% 631
1932 49.9% 13,963 47.7% 13,347 2.4% 672
1928 60.3% 15,732 37.5% 9,769 2.2% 571
1924 60.9% 11,915 28.8% 5,640 10.3% 2,004
1920 66.1% 11,169 29.9% 5,057 4.0% 671
1916 52.2% 5,041 46.3% 4,469 1.5% 149
1912 24.6% 2,221 46.9% 4,241 28.6% 2,586
1908 52.6% 4,857 42.7% 3,937 4.7% 433
1904 49.0% 4,283 48.6% 4,246 2.4% 213
1900 50.2% 4,187 48.2% 4,021 1.7% 139
1896 57.0% 4,336 39.4% 3,002 3.6% 276
1892 41.0% 2,909 53.4% 3,789 5.6% 395
1888 41.8% 3,013 54.7% 3,939 3.5% 251
1884 40.3% 2,593 57.4% 3,697 2.3% 151


Palisades Credit Union Park (former Provident Bank Park), home of New York Boulders



Air quality

According to Scorecard.org, which integrates data from different sources including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in 2002, Rockland County ranked among the worst 10% in the United States in terms of air releases.[28] Recent EPA statistics show that a total of 66 presently active Rockland County facilities are currently regulated.[29] In Scorecard's list of Top 10 polluters from 2002, the Lovett generating station in Tompkins Cove is the top polluter, releasing 1,523,339 pounds of toxic emissions.[30] Studies were released in 2000 and in 2004 by the Clean Air Task Force to study the impacts of power plant emissions in the United States. This data for Rockland County shows that a total of $2,150,800 was paid in compensation for numerous illnesses caused by power plant pollution, including asthma attacks, heart attacks and death.[31] The Lovett generating station was closed and dismantled prior to 2014. From 2015 to 2018, the Haverstraw Quarry owned and managed by CRH Tilcon and Oldcastle Materials was heavily fined for air and water pollution, including over-blasting, over-excavating, non-viable use of its NESCO unhealthy dust suppression systems and lethal dust & water runoffs into protected waterways. In the period from 2017 to 2020, Suez experienced instances of discolored water and odor complaints. [32] [33] Higher cancer rates in Rockland County as compared to Manhattan associate towards drinking water quality, aging drink water infra strucuture/storm drain runoff concerns.</ref>[34][35][36]

2020 coronavirus pandemic

In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic was first discovered in the county. This pandemic caused some confusion in the Rockland County Government. For several weeks after the New York State Governor enacted P.A.U.S.E., the Rockland Conty Government misinterpreted as to who was to enforce the executive order. http://rocklandgov.com/departments/county-executive/press-releases/2020-press-releases/statement-re-enforcement-of-governor-cuomo-s-executive-orders/ this was finally resolved after the State Government enlightened the Rockland County Government, that the health code gave law enforcement the legal authority to enforce the executive order. After the areas of Spring Valley and Monsey were identified as having the highest infection rates, County Executive Ed Day requested that state emergency management declare those areas a closed containment zone.[37] As of July 23, 2020, there are a total of 13,812 COVID-19 cases and 673 deaths. At 4,241 cases per 100,000, Rockland had the greatest density of COVID-19 cases of any New York county.[38]

Solar field

In 2014, Clarkstown created a first-of-its-kind in New York State 2.3-megawatt solar system consisting of about 4,300 panels on top of a closed, highly regulated, flat shadeless 13-acre section of the former garbage landfill in West Nyack. The unit is sized to generate 3 million kilowatt-hours annually – enough power to supply about 200 homes, that provides one-third of the electric needs of the Town of Clarkstown government. The Clarkstown solar field project is at the maximum size that is currently allowed by New York State. The installation was projected to save taxpayers as much as $4 million over 30 years by reducing the amount of the town's annual electric bill – which is about $2 million and produce 10 percent of all the electricity that O&R gets through solar power. The project was installed in summer 2014, coming online in October.[39][40][41]


County map, with town and village boundaries

Paul W. Adler, the chairperson of the Rockland County's Jewish Community Relations Council, said in a 1997 New York Times article that "There are two reasons villages get formed in Rockland. One is to keep the Hasidim out and the other is to keep the Hasidim in."[42]

There are five towns in Rockland County. The most populous is Ramapo at 126,595, while the least populous is Stony Point, at 15,059, according to the 2010 US Census.

There are nineteen incorporated villages in Rockland County, twelve of which are located at least partially in the town of Ramapo, and none of which are in Stony Point. There are seventeen Census-designated places and seven Hamlets within the five towns of Rockland County.



Census-designated places


Defunct communities

Points of interest

Educational and cultural

Commercial and entertainment


See also


  1. ^ a b c "QuickFacts Rockland County, New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Rockland County". New York State. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  4. ^ a b "County of Rockland, New York :: Home". Co.rockland.ny.us. Archived from the original on March 11, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  5. ^ Italian Food Center (accessed 18 July 2019)
  6. ^ Italian Fest Returns to Blauvelt (accessed 18 July 2019)
  7. ^ 9th Annual Blauvelt Sons of Italy Festival (accessed 18 July 2019)
  8. ^ a b Rockland County NY - Google Maps (accessed 10 July 2019)
  9. ^ Rockhouse Mountain, New York (PeakBagger.com) Accessed 10 July 2019
  10. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". US Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on May 19, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  11. ^ "US Decennial Census". US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  12. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  13. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  14. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  15. ^ "U.S. Census website". US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  16. ^ "Rockland County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  17. ^ 2015 Academic Indicators
  18. ^ "Outdoor Education Center - National School Boards Association". www.nsba.org.
  19. ^ Khurram Saeed and Theresa Juva-Brown (December 17, 2012). "It's official: State picks builder for new Tappan Zee Bridge". Copyright © 2012 www.lohud.com. All rights reserved. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
  20. ^ "Minitrans". Town.clarkstown.ny.us. Archived from the original on May 15, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  21. ^ "Comments On The West Shore from James Knecht". Nyc.railfan.net. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  22. ^ "New York Central Railroad, Table 50". Official Guide of the Railways. National Railway Publication Company. 92 (7). December 1959.
  23. ^ "COMMUTERS LOSE BID TO KEEP ERIE TRAINS", The New York Times, p. 58, October 3, 1966, retrieved June 7, 2010
  24. ^ 38th District (accessed 10 July 2019)
  25. ^ 39th District (accessed 10 July 2019)
  26. ^ Elected Officials
  27. ^ Leip, David. "Atlas of US Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  28. ^ "Rockland County's general pollution report card". Scorecard.goodguide.com. October 28, 2003. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  29. ^ "Envirofacts Rockland county data sheet". Oaspub.epa.gov. December 22, 2008. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  30. ^ "Scorecard's Top ten polluters". Scorecard.goodguide.com. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  31. ^ "Clean Air Task Force interactive map". Catf.us. January 1, 1979. Archived from the original on March 3, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  32. ^ http://westchester.news12.com/story/41316609/nys-dept-of-health-visits-rockland-following-suez-water-complaints
  33. ^ https://www.lohud.com/story/tech/science/environment/2015/11/27/dec-cites-tilcon-violations-haverstraw-quarry/76393854/
  34. ^ https://www.lohud.com/story/news/local/rockland/haverstraw/2016/10/13/tilcon-haverstraw-noise-dust/91911218/
  35. ^ https://dailyvoice.com/new-york/northrockland/news/state-dec-issues-violation-against-haverstraw-quarry/607237/
  36. ^ https://www.dec.ny.gov/about/34315.html
  37. ^ https://www.lohud.com/story/news/coronavirus/2020/04/02/ed-day-coronavirus-containment-zone-temporary-hospital/5110736002/
  38. ^ "JHU COVID-19 Dashboard". Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  39. ^ "Clarkstown Turns Old Landfill Into Solar Energy Field". Rockland Times. July 8, 2014. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  40. ^ Supervisor Hoehmann to Discuss Clarkston's Solar Field. Rockland Times (17 March 2017). Accessed 10 July 2019
  41. ^ Supervisor Bio: George Hoehmann (accessed 10 July 2019)
  42. ^ Berger, Joseph. "Growing Pains for a Rural Hasidic Enclave." The New York Times. January 13, 1997.
  43. ^ Rockland Bakery. (n.d.). Our History. Retrieved March 30, 2020, from https://www.rocklandbakery.com/history