Right-wing terrorism

ISBN (identifier) Category:CS1 maint: ref=harv Christchurch mosque shootings

Right-wing terrorism or far-right terrorism is terrorism that is motivated by a variety of different right-wing and far-right ideologies, most prominently by neo-Nazism, neo-fascism, ecofascism, white nationalism, white separatism, ethnonationalism, religious nationalism, and anti-government patriot/sovereign citizen beliefs and occasionally by anti-abortion and tax resistance.[1] Modern right-wing terrorism largely emerged in Western Europe in the 1970s, and following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, it emerged in Eastern Europe.[2]

Right-wing terrorists aim to overthrow governments and replace them with nationalist and/or fascist regimes.[1] They believe their actions will set in motion events that will ultimately create these authoritarian governments.[3] Although they often take inspiration from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany with some exceptions, right-wing terrorist groups frequently lack a rigid ideology.[4] Right-wing terrorists tend to target those they deem to be members of an alien community, though they may also target political opponents, such as left-wing groups and individuals. The attacks of right-wing terrorists are not indiscriminate attacks seeking to simply kill people; their targets are carefully chosen. However, because their targets are often entire sections of the community, the victims are not targeted as individuals but rather as representatives of the group that the terrorists regard as alien.[5]



German economist Armin Falk et al. wrote in a 2011 article that Right-Wing Extremist Crime (REC), which includes anti-foreigner and racist motivations, is associated with unemployment rates; as unemployment rates increase, REC also increases.[6] A 2014 paper argues that right-wing terrorism increases with economic growth, seemingly due to its proponents often being people who lose out under economic modernisation.[7] Conversely, a 2019 study found that economic predictors did not predict right-wing terrorism, rather levels of extra-European immigration did; right-wing terrorists did not want immigrants in their country and sought to drive them out with force. Increased migration thus caused greater resentment and thus greater motive for attacks.[8]

Right-wing populist politics

In 2016, Thomas Greven suggested that right-wing populism is a cause of right-wing terrorism. More simply put, populism supports the advancement of "the average citizen", not the agendas of the privileged elite. Greven defines right-wing populists as those who support ethnocentrism, and oppose immigration. Because right-wing populism creates a climate of "us versus them", terrorism is more likely to occur.[9] Vocal opposition to Islamic terrorism by Donald Trump has been obscuring right-wing terrorism in the US,[10][11] where right-wing terror attacks outnumber Islamist and left-wing attacks combined.[12]

In the wake of the Christchurch mosque shootings at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand by terrorist Brenton Harrison Tarrant, expert in terrorism Greg Barton, of Deakin University in Australia (the home country of Tarrant), wrote of the "toxic political environment that allows hate to flourish". Saying that although right-wing extremism in Australia is not nearly as serious as the European neo-Nazi movements or the various types of white supremacy and toxic nationalism seen in American politics, both major parties attempted to win votes by repeating some of the tough language and inhumane policies which appeared to reward right-wing populists. He further argued: "The result has been such a cacophony of hateful rhetoric that it has been hard for those tasked with spotting the emergence of violent extremism to separate it from all the background noise of extremism".[13]

Fringe groups

According to Moghadam and Eubank (2006), groups associated with right-wing terrorism include white power skinhead gangs, far-right hooligans, and their sympathizers. The "intellectual guides" of right-wing terrorist movements espouse the view that the state must "rid itself of the foreign elements that undermine it from within" so the state can "provide for its rightful, natural citizens."[14]

In Australia, experts, police and others have been commenting on the failure of the authorities to act effectively in order to combat right-wing radicalisation,[15][16] and the government has vowed to put right-wing extremist individuals and groups under greater scrutiny and pressure, with the home affairs minister Mike Pezzullo making strong comments to a parliamentary committee.[17] A week after the Christchurch mosque shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand it emerged that the perpetrator Australian-born Brenton Harrison Tarrant had three years earlier been active on the Facebook pages of two Australian-based white nationalist groups the United Patriots Front (UPF) and True Blue Crew (TBC) praising UPF leader neo-Nazi Blair Cotrrell as they all celebrated Trump's victory in the 2016 presidential election in the United States and Tarrant was also offered to join the Lads Society a white nationalist fight club that was founded by Cottrell but declined.[18][19]

In the United States, Brian Levin, director of the Center for the Study of Hate & Extremism at California State University, San Bernardino and former NYPD officer, writes of the growth of white nationalism, saying that the political climate of polarization "has provided an opportunity for violent bigots, both on- and offline. Times of change, fear and conflict offer extremists and conspiracists a chance to present themselves as an alternative to increasingly distrusted traditional mainstream choices." He quotes former FBI agent Erroll Southers' view that white supremacy “is being globalized at a very rapid pace", and urges the government to hold hearings to investigate homegrown extremism.[20] Sociologists at the University of Dayton point to the origin of white nationalism in the US and its spread to other countries, and they also note that the Christchurch attacker's hatred of Muslims was inspired by American white nationalism.[21]

The Anti-Defamation League reports that white supremacist propaganda and recruitment efforts on and around college campuses have been increasing sharply, with 1,187 incidents in 2018 compared to 421 in 2017, far exceeding any previous year.[22] Far-right terrorists rely on a variety of strategies such as leafleting, violent rituals, and house parties to recruit, targeting angry and marginalized youth looking for solutions to their problems. But their most effective recruitment tool is extremist music, which avoids monitoring by moderating parties such as parents and school authorities. Risk factors for recruitment include exposure to racism during childhood, dysfunctional families such as divorced parents, physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, neglect, and disillusionment.[23]

Copycat terrorism

In the cases of far-right extremists, they will sometimes seek inspiration from other mass murderers and use it as a template to carry out future terrorist attacks. A notable case of this is Brenton Harrison Tarrant, the Australian-born perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings that killed 51 and injured 49; he cited several earlier far-right attackers, including Anders Behring Breivik, who carried out the 2011 Norway attacks; and Dylann Roof, who killed nine black people in the Charleston church shooting.[24][25][26]

John T. Earnest, the perpetrator of an arson attack on a mosque in Escondido, California and a mass shooting in a synagogue at nearby Poway, stated in an open letter that he was inspired by Tarrant as well as Robert Bowers, the perpetrator of the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting. Following the Escondido arson attack, he had left graffiti that said "For Brenton Tarrant, -t /pol/", and prior to the synagogue shooting, he published said open letter on 8chan and attempted to livestream the attack on Facebook Live just like Tarrant. Earnest also mentioned in the open letter "The Day of the Rope", a talking point in white nationalist and neo-Nazi circles referring to the execution of all non-whites, Jews, and liberals, as detailed in the 1978 novel The Turner Diaries.[27]

Patrick Crusius, the 21-year-old suspect in the mass shooting at a Walmart store in El Paso, Texas, on August 3, 2019, which killed 22 people and injured 24 others (almost all Hispanic Americans and Mexicans), said in an online manifesto called The Inconvenient Truth that he supported Tarrant and his manifesto. Similar to Tarrant, Crusius posted his manifesto on 8chan, as well as a Collin College notification letter.[28]

Role of the media

Social media

Social media platforms have been one of the principal means by which right-wing extremist ideas and hate speech have been shared and promulgated, leading to extensive debate about the limits of free speech and its impact on terrorist action and hate crimes.[29] In 2018, researchers in the US identified the YouTube recommendation system as promoting a range of political positions from mainstream libertarianism and conservatism to overt white nationalism.[30][31] Many other online discussion groups and forums are used for online right-wing radicalization.[32][33][34] Robert Bowers the perpetrator of the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting at Tree of Life - Or L'Simcha Congregation in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was a regular verified user on Gab a "free speech" alternative to Twitter and spread anti-Semitic, neo-Nazi and Holocaust denial propaganda as well as interacting or reposting 5 alt-right figures: Brad "Hunter Wallace" Griffin of Occidental Dissent and League of the South (LS), Daniel "Jack Corbin" McMahon a self-described "Antifa Hunter" "fascist", former California Republican Patrick Little, Jared Wyand of Project Purge and Daniel "Grandpa Lampshade" Kenneth Jeffreys of The Daily Stormer and Radio Aryan.[35][36][37] Twitter was found to be offering advertisements targeted to 168,000 users in a white genocide conspiracy theory category, which they removed shortly after being contacted by journalists in the wake of the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting.[38] After a Brooklyn synagogue was vandalized with death threats, the term "Kill all Jews" was listed as a trending topic on Twitter.[39]

Australian-born terrorist Brenton Harrison Tarrant the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand recorded a video of the attacks on Facebook Live which was shared extensively on social media as well as spreading his manifesto The Great Replacement on his Facebook and Twitter accounts and on 8chan /pol/ where he would announce the attacks and prior to this his social media was filled with white nationalist, anti-Islamic and neo-fascist material and his profile picture was "The Australian Shitposter" an image of a tanned, blonde-haired Akubra hat wearing man from Australia used to represent users on 4chan and 8chan as well as the alt-right subculture "The Dingoes".[40][41][42][43] The government of New Zealand already had laws in place relating to terrorism under which people sharing the video can be prosecuted, and it was announced that this would be vigorously pursued. Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern also vowed to investigate the role played by social media in the attack and take action, possibly alongside other countries, against the sites that broadcast the video.[29]

Facebook and Twitter became more active in banning extremists from their platform in the wake of the tragedy. Facebook pages associated with Future Now Australia had been removed from the platform, including their main page, Stop the Mosques and Save Australia.[44] Far-right activist leaders in Australia urged their supporters to follow them on Gab after being banned from Twitter and Facebook.[45] On March 28, 2019, Facebook announced that they have banned white nationalist and white separatist content along with white supremacy.[46] Patrick Crusius the man responsible for the 2019 El Paso shooting which killed 22 people and injured 24 others had prior to the incident liked/posted/retweeted content on his Twitter account in support of Donald Trump the 45th President of the United States.[47]

Mass media

Owen Jones wrote in The Guardian about how the press in Britain can play a role in helping to radicalise far-right terrorists, quoting Neil Basu, Britain's counter-terrorism chief. Basu cited the Daily Mail and Daily Mirror as particular culprits, while Jones also give examples from The Times, The Telegraph, The Spectator and others, with articles bemoaning so-called Cultural Marxism and misleading headlines such as "1 in 5 Brit Muslims" having sympathy with jihadists (The Sun).[48]


South Africa

In 1993, Chris Hani, the General Secretary of the South African Communist Party was murdered by Polish-born far-right anti-Communist Janusz Waluś who had been lent a firearm by far-right pro-Apartheid MP Clive Derby-Lewis.

The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging, a neo-Nazi paramilitary organisation, has often been described as terrorist.

In 2010, South African authorities foiled a plot by far-right terrorists to commit attacks as revenge for the murder of Eugène Terre'Blanche, seizing explosives and firearms.[49]



The Argentine Patriotic League (Liga Patriótica Argentina) was a Nacionalista paramilitary group, founded in Buenos Aires on January 16, 1919, during the Tragic week. It was merged into the Argentine Civic Legion in 1931.[50]

The Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (Spanish: Alianza Anticomunista Argentina, usually known as the Triple A or the AAA) was a far-right death squad which was founded in Argentina in 1973 and was active during Isabel Perón's rule (1974–1976).


During the rule of Brazil's military regime, some right-wing military organizations engaged in violent repression. The Riocentro 1981 May Day Attack was a bombing attempt that happened on the night of April 30, 1981. Severe casualties were suffered by the terrorists. While an NGO held a fundraiser fighting for democracy and free elections and celebrating the upcoming holiday, a bomb exploded at Riocentro parking area killing army sergeant Guilherme Pereira do Rosário and severely wounding captain Wilson Dias Machado, who survived the bomb explosion. The bomb exploded inside a car where both were preparing it. Rosário died instantaneously. They were the only casualties.

The Para-SAR example[51][52] was revealed by Brazilian Air Force captain Sérgio Ribeiro Miranda de Carvalho in 1968 before it reached the execution phase as it was made public to the press after a meeting with his superior Brigadier General João Paulo Burnier and chief of Para-SAR unity. Burnier discussed a secret plan to bomb a dense traffic area of Rio de Janeiro known as "Gasômetro" during commute and later claim that Communists were the perpetrators. He expected to be able to run a witch-hunt against the growing political military opposition. Burnier also mentioned his intentions on making the Para-SAR, a Brazilian Air Force rescue unity, a tool for eliminating some military regime political oppositors throwing them to the sea at a wide distance of the coast. On both of these events, no military involved on these actions or planning was arrested, charged or faced retaliation from the Brazilian military dictatorship. The only exception is captain Sérgio de Carvalho which had to leave the air force for facing his superiors retaliation after whistleblowing brigadier Burnier's plan.


Colombian paramilitary groups were responsible for most of the human rights violations in the latter half of the ongoing Colombian conflict.[53] The first paramilitary terrorist[54] groups were organized by U.S. military advisers who were sent during the Cold War to combat the spread of leftist politicians, activists and guerrillas.[55][56]

According to several international human rights and governmental organizations, right-wing paramilitary groups were responsible for at least 70 to 80% of political murders in Colombia per year.[53][57]

This groups were financed and protected by elite landowners, drug traffickers, members of the security forces, right-wing politicians and multinational corporations.[58][59][60][61]

Paramilitary violence and terrorism there was principally targeted towards peasants, unionists, indigenous people, human rights workers, teachers and left-wing political activists or their supporters.[62][63][64][65][66][67][68]


The Contras were a right-wing militant group, backed by the United States, that fought against the Sandinista National Liberation Front in Nicaragua. They were responsible for numerous human rights violations and carried out over 1300 terrorist attacks.[69][70]

United States

Reconstruction era

The term "white terrorism" is used by scholars to label acts of terrorism that were committed against African Americans during the Reconstruction era.[71][72]


According to American political scientist George Michael, "right-wing terrorism and violence has a long history in America".[73] In the aftermath of the Brown v. Board of Education decision (1954), members of a resurgent Ku Klux Klan perpetrated a campaign of terrorism against blacks, civil rights activists, Jews, and others.[74] Klansmen bombed the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, killing four African American girls, and carried out other murders as well, including those of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner (1963), Lemuel Penn (1964), Viola Liuzzo (1965), and Michael Donald.[74][75] Between 1956 and 1963, an estimated 130 bombings were perpetrated in the South.[74]

During the 1980s, more than 75 right-wing extremists were prosecuted in the United States for acts of terrorism, carrying out six attacks.[76] In 1983, Gordon Kahl, a Posse Comitatus activist, killed two federal marshals and he was later killed by police. Also that year, the white nationalist revolutionary group The Order (also known as the Brüder Schweigen or the Silent Brotherhood) robbed banks and armored cars, as well as a sex shop,[77] bombed a theater and a synagogue and murdered radio talk show host Alan Berg.[78][79]

The 19 April 1995 attack on the Murrah federal building in Oklahoma by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols killed 168 people and it was the deadliest act of domestic terrorism in the history of the United States.[80] McVeigh stated that it was committed in retaliation for the government's actions at Ruby Ridge and Waco.[81]

Eric Rudolph executed a series of terrorist attacks between 1996 and 1998. He carried out the 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing—which claimed two lives and injured 111—aiming to cancel the games, claiming they promoted global socialism and to embarrass the U.S. government.[82] Rudolph confessed to bombing an abortion clinic in Sandy Springs, an Atlanta suburb, on January 16, 1997, the Otherside Lounge, an Atlanta lesbian bar, on February 21, 1997, injuring five and an abortion clinic in Birmingham, Alabama on January 29, 1998, killing Birmingham police officer and part-time clinic security guard Robert Sanderson and critically injuring nurse Emily Lyons.


As of 2020, right-wing terrorism accounted for the majority of terrorist attacks and plots in the United States.[83] As of September 2020, the New America Foundation placed the number killed in terrorist attacks in the United States since 9/11 as follows: 114 killed in far-right attacks, 107 killed in jihadist attacks, 12 killed in black separatist/nationalist/supremacist attacks, 9 killed in "ideological misogyny/incel" attacks; and 1 killed in a far-left attack.[84] According to a 2017 Government Accountability Office report, 73% of violent extremist incidents that resulted in deaths since September 12, 2001 were caused by right-wing extremist groups.[85][86]

A 2019 report found that 50 people in the United States were killed in murders by domestic extremists (including both ideologically and non-ideologically motivated homicides) during the previous year. Of these killings, 78% were perpetrated by white supremacists, 16% by anti-government extremists, 4% by "incel" extremists, and 2% by domestic Islamist extremists.[87] Over the broader 2009 to 2018 time period, there were a total of 313 people in the United States killed by right-wing extremists (including both ideologically and non-ideologically motivated homicides), of which 76% were committed by white supremacists, 19% by anti-government extremists (including those affiliated with the militia, "sovereign citizen," tax protester, and "Patriot" movements), 3% by "incel" extremists, 1% by anti-abortion extremists, and 1% by other right-wing extremists.[87]

New America's tally shows that 114 people have been killed in right-wing extremist attacks since the September 11 attacks in 2001. Incidents causing death were the following:[84]

Year Occurrence Location Victims Wounded* Victims Killed*
2020 Kenosha protests shooting Kenosha, Wisconsin 1 2
2020 2020 boogaloo killings
(murder of a Federal Protective Service officer in Oakland and anti-police ambush in Santa Cruz)
Oakland, California
Santa Cruz, California
3 2
2019 El Paso Walmart shooting El Paso, Texas 23 23
2019 Poway synagogue shooting Poway, California 3 1
2018 Jeffersontown Kroger shooting Jeffersontown, Kentucky 0 2
2018 Pittsburgh synagogue shooting Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 7 11
2018 Murder of Blaze Bernstein Orange County, California 0 1
2018 Murder of MeShon Cooper-Williams Kansas City, Missouri 0 1
2017 Murder of Richard Collins III College Park, Maryland 0 1
2017 Car-ramming attack into counter-protesters at the white nationalist Unite the Right rally Charlottesville, Virginia 19 1
2017 Portland train attack Portland, Oregon 1 2
2017 Stabbing of Timothy Caughman New York City, New York 0 1
2015 Shooting at a showing of the film Trainwreck Lafayette, Louisiana 9 2
2015 Planned Parenthood shooting Colorado Springs, Colorado 9 3
2015 Shooting attack on worshippers at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church Charleston, South Carolina 1 9
2014 Attack on Pennsylvania State Police barracks Blooming Grove, Pennsylvania 1 1
2014 Ambush attack on Las Vegas police officers Las Vegas, Nevada 3
2014 Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting Overland Park, Kansas 3
2013 Los Angeles International Airport shooting attack on TSA officer Los Angeles, California 6 1
2013 Double murder committed by Jeremy Lee Moody and Christine Moody Jonesville, South Carolina 0 2
2012 Ambush attack against St. John the Baptist Parish police St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana 2 2
2012 Wisconsin Sikh temple shooting Oak Creek, Wisconsin 4 6
2011 Tri-state killing spree by white supremacists David Pedersen and Holly Grigsby Multiple 4
2011 FEAR group attacks Georgia 3
2011 Murder of James Craig Anderson Jackson, Mississippi 0 1
2010 Murder committed by Aryan Brotherhood members Mississippi 0 1
2010 Shooting at bookstore cafe perpetrated by Ross William Muehlberger Wichita Falls, Texas 4 1
2010 Murder of Todd Getgen[88][89] Carlisle, Pennsylvania 0 1
2009 Murder of sex offender by white supremacists North Palm Springs, California 0 1
2009 Murder committed by Charles Francis Gaskins Carmichael, California 0 1
2009 United States Holocaust Memorial Museum shooting Washington, D.C. 1 1
2009 Assassination of George Tiller Wichita, Kansas 1 1
2009 Murders of Raul and Brisenia Flores Brockton, Massachusetts 1 2
2009 Shooting of Pittsburgh police officers Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 2 3
2008 Woodburn bank bombing Woodburn, Oregon 2 2
2008 Knoxville Unitarian Universalist church shooting Knoxville, Tennessee 8 2
2007 Murder of homeless man by Aryan Soldiers 0 1
2006 Murder committed by John Ditullio 1 1
2004 Bank robbery Tulsa, Oklahoma 0 1
2003 Torture, abduction and murder Salinas, California 0 1
2001 Post-September 11 shootings Multiple 1 2
* Count of "victims killed" and "victims wounded" excludes attackers.

A report in The Washington Post, published on November 25, 2018, showed violent right-wing-related incidents up, and left-wing-related incidents down. Total domestic terrorism incidents was down to 41 in 2001, from a high of 468 in 1970, but then went up to 65 in 2017. Of those 65 events in 2017, 36 were right-wing-related (with 11 fatalities), 10 were left-wing-related (with 6 fatalities), 7 were related to Islamist extremism (with 16 fatalities), and 12, including the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, were categorized as "Other/Unknown" (with 62 fatalities, including 58 from the Las Vegas incident). The report found that 2018 was a particularly deadly year, with 11 people dying in the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting, 2 others in an incident in Kentucky, and two more in a shooting in Tallasshee. All three incidents were right-wing related.[90]

The Post reported that the upsurge in right-wing violence began during the Barack Obama administration and picked up steam under the presidency of Donald Trump, whose remarks after the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia in 2017 that there were "some very fine people on both sides" is widely seen as giving confidence to the right that the administration looked favorably on their goals, providing them with "tacit support". A former FBI assistant director for counterintelligence, is quoted as saying that "[political leaders] from the White House down, used to serve as a check on conduct and speech that was abhorrent to most people. I see that eroding. ... The current political rhetoric is at least enabling, and certainly not discouraging, violence."[90]

According to analysis by the newspaper of data from the Global Terrorism Database, 92 of 263 domestic terrorism events – 35% – that occurred from 2010 to 2017 were right-wing related, while 38 (14%) were Islamist extremist-related, and 34 (13%) were left-wing related. Not only that, but a criminologist from John Jay College stated that right-wing attacks were statistically more likely to result in fatalities.[90]



Neo-Nazis were suspected to have perpetrated the 1992 Copenhagen bombing, in which the office of a left-wing socialist party was attacked, killing one of its members.[91]


In the town of Toulon, a far-right extremist group called SOS-France existed. On 18 August 1986, four members were driving a car carrying explosives, apparently in an attempt to bomb the offices of SOS Racisme. However it exploded while they were still in it, killing all four of them.[92]

Neo-Nazi members of the French and European Nationalist Party were responsible for a pair of anti-immigrant terror bombings in 1988. Sonacotra hostels in Cagnes-sur-Mer and Cannes were bombed, killing Romanian immigrant George Iordachescu and injuring 16 people, mostly Tunisians. In an attempt to frame Jewish extremists for the Cagnes-sur-Mer bombing, the terrorists left leaflets bearing Stars of David and the name Masada at the scene, with the message "To destroy Israel, Islam has chosen the sword. For this choice, Islam will perish."[93]

On 28 May 2008, members of the neo-Nazi Nomad 88 group fired with machine guns at people from their car in Saint-Michel-sur-Orge.[94][95]

In the aftermath of the Charlie Hebdo shooting, six mosques and a restaurant were attacked in acts deemed as right-wing terrorism by authorities.[96] The acts included grenade throwing, shooting, and use of an improvised explosive device.


In 1980, a right-wing terrorist attack, known as Oktoberfest bombing in Munich Germany, killed 13 people, including the attacker, and injured 215. Fears of an ongoing campaign of major right-wing terrorist attacks did not materialize.[1]

In 1993, four neo-Nazi skinheads committed arson against a house of a Turkish German family in Solingen, Germany resulting in the deaths of 5 female Turks and injured 14 others including several children.

On 14 June 2000, the neo-Nazi Michael Berger killed three policemen in Dortmund and Waltrop.

In addition to several bank robberies, the Nationalsozialitscher Untergrund/National Socialist Underground (NSU) was responsible for the Bosphorus serial murders (2000–2006), the 2004 Cologne bombing and the murder of policewoman Michéle Kiesewetter in 2007 leaving at least 10 people dead and others injured. In November 2011, two members of the National Socialist Underground committed suicide after a bank robbery and a third member was arrested some days later.[citation needed]

Right-wing extremist offenses in Germany rose sharply in 2015 and 2016.[97] Figures from the German government tallied 316 violent xenophobic offences in 2014 and 612 such offenses in 2015.[97]

In August 2014, a group of four Germans founded a Munich-based far-right terrorist group, the Oldschool Society. The group, which held racist, anti-Semitic, and anti-Muslim views, eventually attracted 30 members.[98] They stockpiled weapons and explosives and plotted to attack a refugee shelter in Saxony,[98] but the group's leaders were arrested in May 2015 before carrying out the attack.[99] In March 2017 four of the group's leaders were sentenced to prison terms.[98]

The perpetrator of a mass shooting in Munich in 2016 had far-right views.[100]

According to interior ministry figures reported in May 2019, of an estimated 24,000 far-right extremists in the country, 12,700 Germans are inclined towards violence. Extremists belonging to Der Dritte Weg/The III. Path marched in through a town in Saxony on 1 May, the day before the Jewish remembrance of the Holocaust, carrying flags and a banner saying "Social justice instead of criminal foreigners".[101]

Walter Lübcke, a Christian Democratic Union (CDU) politician from Hesse was assassinated at his home via gunshot because of his pro-migrant views by Stephan Ernst a member of the British neo-Nazi terrorist group Combat 18 (C18) and the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) who had engaged in a series of anti-migrant crimes and had been convicted for knife and bomb attacks against minorities.[102] Following the murder, the self-described "doomsday prepper" group Nordkreuz (German: Northern Cross) was discovered to have made kill lists of politicians and acquired body bags for a hypothetical "Day X" doomsday scenario; using the messaging app Telegram and a police database with 25,000 names, the group amassed firearms and ammunition.[103][104]

On 9 October 2019, a mass shooting broke out near a synagogue and kebab stand in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, resulting in two dead and two others injured. The perpetrator Stephan Balliet committed the attack out of anti-Semitic, antifeminist and racist beliefs which he live-streamed the attack on Twitch for 35 minutes.

On 19 February 2020, two mass shootings occurred at two shisha bars in Hanau, resulting in the death of nine people, all with an immigrant background. The attacker then killed his mother at their house and committed suicide. The 43-year-old attacker was identified as a Neo-Nazi, who expressed a hatred for non-German people.[105]

In February 2020, following the observation of a meeting of a dozen right-wing extremists, those involved were arrested after they had decided to launch attacks on mosques in Germany to trigger a civil war.[106][107]


In the 1970s and 1980s, Italy endured the Years of Lead, a period characterized by frequent terrorist attacks: between 1969 and 1982, the nation suffered 8,800 terrorist attacks, in which a total of 351 people were killed and 768 were injured.[108] The terrorist attacks have been both ascribed both to the far-left and the far-right, yet many of the terrorist attacks remain without a clear culprit; many have claimed that responsibility for the attacks could be ascribed to rogue members of the Italian secret service. Some of the terrorist attacks ascribed to a particular political group may have actually been the work of these rogue agents: this has been claimed, among many others, by Francesco Cossiga,[109] who was the Prime Minister during the last years of lead, and by Giulio Andreotti,[110] who, during the same period of time, held the office of Prime Minister more than once.

The Years of Lead are considered to have begun with the Piazza Fontana bombing in Milan in December 1969,[108] perpetrated by Ordine Nuovo, a right-wing neofascist group.[111] Sixteen people were killed, and 90 injured, in the bombing.[111]

In July 1970, this same group carried out a bombing on a train traveling from Rome to Messina, killing six and wounding almost 100. The group also carried out the Piazza della Loggia bombing in 1974, killing eight antifascist activists.[111] Perhaps the most infamous right-wing terrorist attack in post-war Italy is the August 1980 Bologna bombing, in which neo-fascist Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari ("Armed Revolutionary Nuclei"), an Ordine Nuovo offshoot, killed 85 people and injured 200 at the Bologna railroad station.[111][112] Valerio Fioravanti, Francesca Mambro, and two others were convicted of mass murder in the attacks,[112] although both have always denied any connection with them.[113][114]

In December 2011, Gianluca Casseri targeted Senegalese peddlers in Florence, killing two and injuring three others before killing himself.[115][116] The perpetrator was a sympathizer of CasaPound,[115][116] a neo-fascist party that Italian judges have recognized as not posing a threat to public or private safety.[117]

In February 2018, neo-Nazi Lega Nord member Luca Traini shot and injured six African migrants in the town of Macerata.


On the night of 5 June 1997, members of the far-right Pērkonkrusts unsuccessfully bombed the Victory Memorial to Soviet Army. Two of them were killed in the explosion,[118] while six others, including Igors Šiškins, were sentenced for up to three years in prison in 2000.[119] The group ceased organised activities or was banned around 2006.[120]

In late 2018 the State Security Service arrested a self-proclaimed follower of the ideas of Anders Behring Breivik who was planning to perform terrorist attacks on an ethnic minority school and several commercial outlets in Jūrmala on 13 February, the birthday of Breivik. The individual had previously published comments on different websites for an extended period of time aimed against the Roma and Russian people, including calls to exterminate them. He was found guilty, but exempted from criminal liability on medical grounds and assigned to a psychiatric hospital for treatment.[121]


On 22 July 2011, Norwegian right-wing extremist with neo-Nazi[122][123] and fascist[124] sympathies Anders Behring Breivik carried out the 2011 Norway attacks, the deadliest attack in Norway since World War II. First he bombed several government buildings in Oslo, killing eight people and injuring more than 200. After the bombings, he went to Utøya island in a fake police uniform and began firing on people attending a political youth camp for the Worker's Youth League (AUF), a left-wing political party, killing 69 and injuring more than 110. Overall the two terrorist attacks in Utoya and Oslo, Norway resulted in 77 dead and 319 injured. Anders Behring Breivik also had written a manifesto 2083: A European Declaration of Independence in which he accused Islam, Cultural Marxism, multiculturalism, feminism and liberalism of causing a "cultural suicide" of Europe and claimed to belong to an organization called the Knights' Templar (named after the medieval military order).

Philip Manshaus was arrested for attacking Al-Noor Islamic Centre in Baerum, on the outskirts of Oslo, on August 10, 2019. According to police, the man appeared to hold "far-right" and "anti-immigrant" views and had expressed sympathy for Vidkun Quisling – the fascist World War II leader of Norway – as well as Australian-born terrorist Brenton Harrison Tarrant, the perpetrator of the Christchurch, New Zealand mosque shootings, John T. Earnest the perpetrator of the Escondido, California mosque fire and the Poway, California synagogue shooting, as well as Patrick Crusius the man behind the El Paso, Texas Walmart shooting targeting Mexicans. He has been charged with attempted murder in this case and with the murder of his 17-year-old stepsister in an unrelated incident. The mosque shooting is being investigated as a possible act of terrorism.[125]


Despite the country being nearly ethnically and religiously homogenous, Polish far-right targets, via propaganda or physical violence, religious and ethnic minorities such as Jews, Romani people, people with darker complexion or Middle Eastern appearance.[126] In 2016, police arrested a man who they say tried to burn down a mosque in Gdańsk.[96] The man belonged to the neo-nazi group called Blood & Honour.


The Savior was a neo-Nazi militant nationalist organization which claimed credit for the August 2006 Moscow market bombing, which killed 13. Media reports indicate that the market, located near Cherkizovsky, was targeted due to its high volume of Central Asian and Caucasian clientele.[127][128] Four members of The Saviour were sentenced to life imprisonment, while four others received lesser prison terms.[129]


Far-right terrorist acts surged after the death of dictator Francisco Franco in Spain 1975 and continued until the early 1980s, ranging from assassination of individuals to mass murder.[130][131][132]

In the 21st century, there has been some growth of support for right-wing populist party Vox, founded in 2014, but its impact has been low compared with its counterparts in Italy and France.[133]


Both the 2009–10 Malmö shootings and the Trollhättan school attack were conducted by right-wing terrorists along with a refugee centre bombing in 2017. A notable serial killer motivated by far-right motives is John Ausonius.[134] Far-rightists were also responsible for attacking an anti-racist demonstration in Stockholm in December 2013.

United Kingdom

In April 1999, David Copeland, a neo-Nazi, planted a series of nail bombs over 13 days. His attacks, which were aimed at London's black, Bangladeshi and gay communities, resulted in three dead and more than 100 injured.[135] Copeland was a former member of two far-right political groups, the British National Party (BNP) and the National Socialist Movement. Copeland told police, "My aim was political. It was to cause a racial war in this country. There'd be a backlash from the ethnic minorities, then all the white people will go out and vote BNP."[136]

In July 2007, Robert Cottage, a former BNP member, was convicted for possessing explosive chemicals in his home – described by police at the time of his arrest as the largest amount of chemical explosive of its type ever found in that country.[137] In June 2008, Martyn Gilleard, a British Nazi sympathizer, was jailed after police found nail bombs, bullets, swords, axes and knives in his flat.[138] Also in 2008, Nathan Worrell was found guilty of possession of material for terrorist purposes and racially aggravated harassment. The court heard that police found books and manuals containing recipes to make bombs and detonators using household items, such as weedkiller, at Worrell's flat.[139] In July 2009, Neil Lewington was planning a terror campaign using weapons made from tennis balls and weedkiller against those he classified as non British.[140]

In 2012, the British Home Affairs Committee warned of the threat of far-right terrorism in the UK, claiming it had heard persuasive evidence about the potential danger and cited the growth of similar threats across Europe.[141]

Members of Combat 18 (C18), a neo-Nazi organisation based on the concept of "leaderless resistance", have been suspected in numerous deaths of immigrants, non-whites and other C18 members.[142] Between 1998 and 2000, dozens of members were arrested.[143][144] A group calling itself the Racial Volunteer Force split from C18 in 2002, retaining close links to its parent organization.[145] Some journalists believed that the White Wolves were a C18 splinter group, alleging that the group had been set up by Del O'Connor, the former second-in-command of C18 and member of Skrewdriver Security.[146] C18 attacks on immigrants continued through 2009.[147] Weapons, ammunition and explosives were seized by police in the UK and almost every country in which C18 was active.

In 2016, Jo Cox, the Member of Parliament (MP) for the Batley and Spen constituency was murdered by Thomas Mair, who was motivated by neo-Nazi far-right political views and had connections to several far-right organisations in the UK, US, and South Africa such as National Vanguard and English Defence League (EDL).[148]

On 16 December 2016, Home Secretary Amber Rudd designated the far-right, neo-Nazi group National Action (NA) as a terrorist organisation which criminalises membership or support for the organisation.[149] On 12 June 2018, Jack Renshaw, 23, a former spokesperson for National Action, admitted in a guilty plea to buying a 48 cm (19 in) replica Roman gladius (often wrongly referred to in the media as a machete) to murder Rosie Cooper, the Member of Parliament (MP) for the West Lancashire constituency.[150]

In June 2017, Darren Osborne drove a van into a crowd leaving a mosque in Finsbury Park, north London, killing one and injuring nine others. Darren Osborne had acquired far-right publications from Tommy Robinson's English Defence League (EDL) and Jim Dowson and Jayda Fransen's Britain First Party (BF).[151][152]

In March 2018, Mark Rowley, the outgoing head of UK counter-terror policing, revealed that four far-right terror plots had been foiled since the Westminster attack in March 2017.[153]

In February 2019, an unnamed 33 year old was arrested in West Yorkshire "as part of an investigation into suspected extreme right wing activity".[154]

Northern Ireland

British far-right activists supplied funds and weaponry to Loyalist terrorist groups in Northern Ireland during the Troubles.[155] Following the Good Friday Agreement some members of Loyalist groups orchestrated racist attacks in Northern Ireland,[156][157][158] including pipe bomb and gun attacks on the homes of immigrants.[159][160][161][162][163] As a result, Northern Ireland has a higher proportion of racist attacks than other parts of the UK,[158][164] and was branded the "race-hate capital of Europe".[165]



In August 2016, Phillip Galea was charged with several terrorist offences. Galea had conducted "surveillance" of "left-wing premises" and planned to carry out bombings. Explosive ingredients were found at his home. Galea had links with organisations such as Combat 18 (C18) and the United Patriots Front (UPF).[166] On 5 December 2019, a jury found Galea guilty of planning and preparing a terror attack.[167]

In 2017 the Sydney Morning Herald reported on the conviction of neo-Nazi Michael James Holt, 26 who had threatened to carry out a mass shooting attack and considered Westfield Tuggerah as a target. He had manufactured home-made guns, knuckle dusters and slingshots in his grandfather's garage. Raids on his mother's home and a hotel room discovered more weapons including several firearms, slingshots and knuckle dusters.[168]

New Zealand

The Christchurch mosque shootings at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand which resulted in 51 deaths and injuries to 49 others were allegedly committed by Australian-born Brenton Harrison Tarrant who was motivated by white nationalism, neo-fascism (primarily ecofascism) and racism, Tarrant published a manifesto titled The Great Replacement named after a French far-right white genocide conspiracy theory of the same name by writer Renaud Camus and livestreamed the shootings on Facebook Live after announcing them on 8chan /pol/ (a centre of neo-Nazi/far-right discussion). Brenton Harrison Tarrant also praised various other far-right mass murderers and killers such as Anders Behring Breivik (Utoya and Oslo attacks, Norway), Dylann Roof (Charleston church shooting, United States), Luca Traini (Macerata shooting, Italy), Anton Lundin Pettersson (Trollhattan school attack, Sweden), Darren Osborne (2017 Finsbury Park attack, United Kingdom), Alexandre Bissonnette (Quebec City mosque shooting, Canada/Quebec) and Josue Estèbanez (Murder of Carlos Palomino, Spain) he also referred to Breivik as "Knight Justiciar Breivik" and claimed to have briefly contacted him and his organization the Knights Templar as well as etching the names of Pettersson, Traini and Bissonnette onto his guns which also contained references to various historical battles and figures such as Charles Martel and the Battle of Tours, the Rotherham child sexual exploitation scandal, the neo-Nazi slogan Fourteen Words and "Kebab Remover" additionally Tarrant expressed support for British Union of Fascists (BUF) leader Oswald Mosley and wished to start a Second American Civil War to balkanize the United States over the Gun rights' issue and the Second Amendment. Prior to the terrorist attacks, Brenton Harrison Tarrant had ties to Australia's prominent far-right organizations United Patriots Front (UPF) led by Blair Cottrell and True Blue Crew (TBC) led by Kane Miller via interactions on Facebook and affectionately called Blair Cottrell "Emperor Blair" as well as an offer to join the Lads Society but declined and donated to Gènèration Identitaire (GI) and Identitäre Bewegung Österreich (IBÖ) the Austria and France branches of Generation Identity an Identitarian organization and exchanged emails with Martin Sellner of the latter group between January 2018 and July 2018 one asking if they could meet up for coffee or beer in Vienna and another where the former sent the latter a link to his English language YouTube channel.

See also



  1. ^ a b c Aubrey 2004, p. 45.
  2. ^ Moghadam & Eubank 2006, p. 57.
  3. ^ Cameron, Gavin. Nuclear terrorism: a threat assessment for the 21st century. Springer, 1999, p.115
  4. ^ Moghadam & Eubank 2006, p. 58.
  5. ^ Cameron, Gavin. Nuclear terrorism: a threat assessment for the 21st century. Springer, 1999, p.115
  6. ^ Falk, Armin; Kuhn, Andreas; Zweimüller, Josef (2011). "Unemployment and Right-wing Extremist Crime*" (PDF). Scandinavian Journal of Economics. 113 (2): 260–285. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2011.01648.x. ISSN 0347-0520.
  7. ^ Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Liebert, Helge; and Schulze, Günther G. (2014) "On the heterogeneity of terror." European Economic Review. v.68, p.116-136
  8. ^ McAlexander, Richard J. "How are immigration and terrorism related? An analysis of right-and left-wing terrorism in Western Europe, 1980–2004." Journal of Global Security Studies 5, no. 1 (2020): 179-195.
  9. ^ Greven, Thomas (May 2016), The Rise of Right-wing Populism in Europe and the United States: A Comparative Perspective, Germany: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, p. 9
  10. ^ Neiwert, David (21 June 2017). "Trump's fixation on demonizing Islam hides true homegrown US terror threat". Reveal. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  11. ^ Givetash, Linda; Bennett, Geoff (March 17, 2019). "Trump downplayed the white nationalist threat. Experts say it's growing". NBC News. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  12. ^ Lopez, German (18 August 2017). "The radicalization of white Americans". Vox. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  13. ^ Barton, Greg (17 March 2019). "Christchurch attacks are a stark warning of toxic political environment that allows hate to flourish". The Conversation. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  14. ^ Moghadam & Eubank 2006, pp. 57-58.
  15. ^ Baker, Nick (22 March 2019). "Australia isn't doing enough to combat right-wing radicals, say extremism experts". SBS News. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  16. ^ Wroe, David; Koslowski, Max (19 March 2019). "Australia's right-wing extremist problem: Are we doing enough?". The Age. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  17. ^ Greene, Andrew (22 March 2019). "Christchurch mosque attack prompts Home Affairs boss to threaten greater scrutiny on white supremacists". Australian Broadcasting Corporation News. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  18. ^ Mann, Alex; Nguyen, Kevin; Gregory, Katharine (23 March 2019). "Christchurch shooting accused Brenton Tarrant supports Australian far-right figure Blair Cottrell". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  19. ^ Begley, Patrick (May 2, 2019). "Threats from white extremist group that tried to recruit Tarrant". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  20. ^ Levin, Brian (21 March 2019). "Why White Supremacist Attacks Are on the Rise, Even in Surprising Places". Time. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  21. ^ Jipson, Art; Becker, Paul J. (20 March 2019). "White nationalism, born in the USA, is now a global terror threat". The Conversation. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  22. ^ "White Supremacists Step Up Off-Campus Propaganda Efforts in 2018". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  23. ^ National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (November 2016). Recruitment and Radicalization among US Far-Right Terrorists (PDF). U.S. Department of Homeland Security. pp. 1–4. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  24. ^ Kingsley, Patrick (March 16, 2019). "New Zealand Massacre Highlights Global Reach of White Extremism". The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
  25. ^ Lamourex, Mack (March 15, 2019). "Accused New Zealand Shooter Had Canadian Mass Murderer's Name On Weapon". Vice Media. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
  26. ^ Diego Quesada, Juan (March 15, 2010). "New Zealand mosque shooting: New Zealand attacker had name of Spanish killer on weapon". El Pais. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
  27. ^ Davis, Michael (May 15, 2019). "The Anti-Jewish Manifesto of John T. Earnest, The San Diego Synagogue Shooter". Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI). Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  28. ^ Evans, Robert (August 4, 2019). "The El Paso Shooting and the Gamification of Terror". Bellingcat. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
  29. ^ a b Graham-McLay, Charlotte (21 March 2019). "In New Zealand, Spreading the Mosque Shooting Video Is a Crime". New York Times. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  30. ^ Lewis, Becca (October 4, 2018). "How YouTube is quietly radicalizing the next generation — and making millions". NBC News. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  31. ^ Lewis, Rebecca (September 2018). "Alternative Influence: Broadcasting the Reactionary Right on YouTube" (PDF). datasociety.net. Data and Society. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  32. ^ Manavis, Sarah (15 March 2018). "The Christchurch shooting shows how a far-right web culture is driving radicalisation". New Statesman. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  33. ^ Todd, Andrew; Morton, Frances (21 March 2019). "NZ Authorities Have Been Ignoring Online Right-Wing Radicalisation For Years". Vice. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  34. ^ Ward, Justin (April 19, 2018). "Day of the trope: White nationalist memes thrive on Reddit's r/The_Donald". Hatewatch. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  35. ^ Amend, Alex (November 1, 2018). "On Gab, domestic terrorist Robert Bowers engaged with several influential alt-right figures". Southern Poverty Law Center/Network Contagion Research Institute (NCRI). Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  36. ^ Schulberg, Jessica; O'Brien, Luke; Mushtare, Oliva (February 7, 2019). "The Neo-Nazi Podcaster Next Door". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  37. ^ Weill, Kelly (November 2, 2018). "Pittsburgh Shooting Suspect Robert Bowers Worked on Gab to Dox Left-Wing Blogger". The Daily Beast. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  38. ^ Jones, Rhett (November 2, 2018). "Facebook Offered Advertisers 'White Genocide' Option". Gizmodo. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  39. ^ Notopoulos, Katie; Mac, Ryan (November 2, 2018). "Twitter Is Sorry For Listing "Kill All Jews" As A Trending Topic". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  40. ^ McBride, Jessica (March 15, 2019). "Brenton Tarrant Social Media: Twitter Rants, Live Video". Heavy.com. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  41. ^ McBride, Jessica (March 15, 2019). "Brenton Tarrant Manifesto: The 'Great Replacement' Rant". Heavy.com. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  42. ^ Evans, Robert (March 15, 2019). "Shitposting, Inspirational Terrorism, and the Christchurch Mosque Massacre". Bellingcat. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  43. ^ Begley, Patrick (March 15, 2019). "Alleged mosque shooter's meme popular with Australian far-right group". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  44. ^ Wilms, Tim (22 March 2019). "Future Now Facebook pages deleted". unshackled.net. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  45. ^ Koslowski, Max (20 March 2019). "Australia's far-right moves to shadowy messaging service amid crackdown on digital giants". The Age. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  46. ^ Cox, Joseph; Koebler, Jason (27 March 2019). "Facebook Bans White Nationalism and White Separatism". Motherboard. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  47. ^ McBride, Jessica (August 4, 2019). "Patrick Crusius: Suspect's Twitter Page Shows Trump Support". Heavy.com. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
  48. ^ Jones, Owen (28 March 2019). "Why we need to talk about the media's role in far-right radicalisation". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  49. ^ Smith, David (7 May 2010). "South African police foil white extremist bomb plot". The Guardian.
  50. ^ Patrick Frank. Los Artistas del Pueblo: prints and workers' culture in Buenos Aires, 1917-1935. University of New Mexico Press, 2006. Pp. 206.
  51. ^ "Brasileiros magazine". Archived from the original on 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2015-04-03.
  52. ^ "Fatos magazine" (PDF). June 1, 1985.
  53. ^ a b Constanza Vieira (August 27, 2008). "International Criminal Court Scrutinises Paramilitary Crimes". Inter Press Service. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011.
  54. ^ Rempe, Dennis M. (Winter 1995). "Guerrillas, Bandits, and Independent Republics: US Counter-insurgency Efforts in Colombia 1959–1965". Small Wars and Insurgencies. 6 (3): 304–27. doi:10.1080/09592319508423115. Archived from the original on March 30, 2010.
  55. ^ Rempe, 1995 Archived March 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  56. ^ Livingstone 2003, p. 155.
  57. ^ HRW, 1996: "III: The Intelligence Reorganization"
  58. ^ Schulte-Bockholt, Alfredo (2006). The Politics of Organized Crime and the Organized Crime of Politics: a study in criminal power. Lexington. p. 95.
  59. ^ Marc Chernick (March–April 1998). "The paramilitarization of the war in Colombia". NACLA Report on the Americas. 31 (5): 28. doi:10.1080/10714839.1998.11722772.
  60. ^ Brittain & Petras 2010, pp. 129–31.
  61. ^ Forrest Hylton (2006). Evil Hour in Colombia. Verso. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-1-84467-551-7.
  62. ^ Michael Taussig (2004). Law in a Lawless Land: Diary of limpieza in Colombia. New Press.
  63. ^ Elizabeth F. Schwartz (Winter 1995–1996). "Getting Away with Murder: Social Cleansing in Colombia and the Role of the United States". The University of Miami Inter-American Law Review. 27 (2): 381–420.
  64. ^ Lovisa Stannow (1996) "Social cleansing" in Colombia, MA Thesis, Simon Fraser University
  65. ^ Alfredo Molano (2005). The Dispossessed: Chronicles of the desterrados of Colombia. Haymarket. p. 113.
  66. ^ Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, "Colombia: Activities of a Colombian social cleansing group known as 'Jóvenes del Bien' and any state efforts to deal with it", 2 April 2004
  67. ^ Brittain & Petras 2010, pp. 132–35.
  68. ^ William Avilés (May 2006). "Paramilitarism and Colombia's Low-Intensity Democracy". Journal of Latin American Studies. 38 (2): 380.
  69. ^ Feldmann, Andreas E.; Maiju Perälä (July 2004). "Reassessing the Causes of Nongovernmental Terrorism in Latin America". Latin American Politics and Society. 46 (2): 101–132. doi:10.1111/j.1548-2456.2004.tb00277.x.
  70. ^ Gary LaFree; Laura Dugan; Erin Miller (2014). Putting Terrorism in Context: Lessons from the Global Terrorism Database. Routledge. p. 56. ISBN 1134712413.
  71. ^ Schenk, David H. (April 30, 2014). "Freedmen with Firearms: White Terrorism and Black Disarmament During Reconstruction". Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era. 4.
  72. ^ Butchart, Ronald E. "Black hope, white power: emancipation, reconstruction and the legacy of unequal schooling in the US South, 1861–1880". Paedagogica historica 46.1–2 (2010): 33–50.
  73. ^ Michael 2003, p. 114.
  74. ^ a b c George Michael, Confronting Right Wing Extremism and Terrorism in the USA (Routledge, 2003), pp. 126-27.
  75. ^ Steven E. Atkins, Encyclopedia of Right-Wing Extremism in Modern American History (ABC-CLIO, 2011), p. 18.
  76. ^ Smith 1994, pp. 25–26.
  77. ^ "Free the Order Rally". Southern Poverty Law Center. Spring 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-07-11. Retrieved 2007-08-17.
  78. ^ "Death List Names Given to US Jury". New York Times. September 17, 1985. Retrieved 2007-08-25.
  79. ^ Morris Dees and Steve Fiffer. Hate on Trial: The Case Against America's Most Dangerous Neo-Nazi. Villard Books, 1993. p. xiiv
  80. ^ Michael 2003, p. 107.
  81. ^ "McVeigh offers little remorse in letters". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Associated Press. June 10, 2001. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012.
  82. ^ "Full Text of Eric Rudolph's Confession".
  83. ^ Wilson, Jason (June 27, 2020). "Violence by far right is among US's most dangerous terrorist threats, study finds". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  84. ^ a b "In Depth: Terrorism in America After 9/11: Part IV. What is the Threat to the United States Today? (main text and details after clicking Dataset, then "Download as CSV")". New America Foundation. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  85. ^ "GAO-17-300, COUNTERING VIOLENT EXTREMISM: Actions Needed to Define Strategy and Assess Progress of Federal Efforts". U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Government Accountability Office, 6 Apr. 2017. Web. 4 June 2017.
  86. ^ Eddington, Patrick G. "GAO Weighs in on 'Countering Violent Extremism'". Cato Institute. N.p., 13 Apr. 2017. Web. 04 June 2017.
  87. ^ a b Murder and Extremism in the United States in 2018, Anti-Defamation League Center on Hate and Extremism, January 2019, pp. 13–18
  88. ^ "Police: Suspect in Pa. lawyer's killing at range says he stole guns to help overthrow US gov't", Associated Press (August 2, 2010).
  89. ^ Mary Klaus (August 1, 2010), "Suspect in shooting death of Enola lawyer was arming rebel group, district attorney says", The Patriot-News (Pittsburgh).
  90. ^ a b c Lowery, Wesley; Kindy, Kimberly; and Ba Tran, Andrew (November 25, 2018). "In the United States, right-wing violence is on the rise". The Washington Post.
  91. ^ "Afdød nynazist hævdes at stå bag brevbombe". 2013-04-26.
  92. ^ "Explosion in Car Kills Four".
  93. ^ Greenhouse, Steven (20 December 1988). "Immigrant Hostel Bombed in France". New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  94. ^ "Un groupuscule néonazi à l'origine d'une fusillade". Le Monde.fr. 2008-06-03.
  95. ^ "Le groupuscule néonazi décide de s'autodissoudre". 2008-06-03.
  96. ^ a b "EUROPEAN UNION TERRORISM SITUATION AND TREND REPORT (TE-SAT) 2016". Europol. 2016. p. 41.
  97. ^ a b Carla Bleiker, Sharp rise in right-wing crime in Germany just 'the tip of the iceberg', Deutsche Welle (February 11, 2016).
  98. ^ a b c Associated Press, Four jailed in Germany for forming far-right terrorist group (March 15, 2017).
  99. ^ Kate Brady, 'Oldschool Society' neo-Nazis go on trial for refugee home attacks, Deutsche Welle (April 27, 2016).
  100. ^ "Munich shooter liked Nazis, Breivik, identified as Aryan, says report". Deutsche Welle, 22 July 2017.
  101. ^ "Germany says half of extreme right 'prone to violence'". BBC News. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  102. ^ Le Blond, Josie (June 26, 2019). "Far-right suspect confesses to killing German politician". The Guardian. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  103. ^ "German neo-Nazi doomsday prepper network 'ordered body bags, made kill lists'". Deutsche Welle. June 29, 2019. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  104. ^ Bennhold, Katrin (2020-08-01). "Body Bags and Enemy Lists: How Far-Right Police Officers and Ex-Soldiers Planned for 'Day X'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-08-02.
  105. ^ Germany shooting: Investigation into 'deeply racist' gunman's links
  106. ^ Schuetze, Christopher F. (February 14, 2020). "Germany Says It's Broken Up a Far-Right Terrorism Network". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 16, 2020.
  107. ^ Staff. "German far-right 'terror cell' met on WhatsApp: report". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved February 16, 2020.
  108. ^ a b Tobias Hof, "The Success of Italian Anti-terrorism Policy" in An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-Western Experiences (editors Jussi M. Hanhimäki & Bernhard Blumenau: Routledge, 2013), p. 100.
  109. ^ "Cossiga: "Le spie? Ve le racconto io" - La Stampa". Lastampa.it. 2006-11-21. Retrieved 2018-04-15.
  110. ^ Di Stefano Marroni (2000-08-03). "Andreotti: I servizi segreti si sentivano alla guerra santa - la Repubblica.it" (in Italian). Ricerca.repubblica.it. Retrieved 2018-04-15.
  111. ^ a b c d Richard McHugh, "Ordine Nuovo" in The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism, 2d ed. (editor Gus Martin: SAGE Publications, 2011), pp. 451-52.
  112. ^ a b Four Convicted of Mass Murder in Italian Bombing that Killed 85, Associated Press (July 11, 1988).
  113. ^ Anna Cento Bull & Philip Cooke, Ending Terrorism in Italy (Routledge, 2013), pp. 141-42.
  114. ^ Anne Hanley, The accidental terrorist, Independent (May 5, 1997).
  115. ^ a b "Viewpoint: Killer Breivik's links with far right". BBC News. August 27, 2012.
  116. ^ a b Kington, Tom (December 23, 2011). "Ezra Pound's daughter aims to stop Italian fascist group using father's name". The Guardian. London.
  117. ^ Altri articoli dalla categoria » (2016-02-01). "La polizia "promuove" CasaPound: "La violenza? Colpa dei centri sociali"". Repubblica.it. Retrieved 2018-04-15.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  118. ^ "Latvia". AXT. 1998. Archived from the original on 2009-01-10. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
  119. ^ "Latvian Nationalists Imprisoned for Obelisk Bombing". The Moscow Times. 30 May 2000. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  120. ^ Camus, Jean-Yves; Lebourg, Nicolas (2017). Far-Right Politics in Europe. Belknap Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-06-749-7153-0.
  121. ^ "Latvia's State Security Service says it foiled right-wing terror plot in 2019". Public Broadcasting of Latvia. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  122. ^ Leif Stang (18 April 2012). "Close to Nazism". Dagbladet (in Norwegian).
  123. ^ Daniel Vergara (10 January 2014). "Breivik vill deportera "illojala judar"". Expo Idag (in Swedish).
  124. ^ Eva-Therese Grøttum; Marianne Vikås (10 May 2013). "Breivik seeks to start the fascist party". VG Nett (in Norwegian).
  125. ^ "Norway mosque shooting probed as terror act", BBC World News, August 11, 2019, retrieved August 11, 2019
  126. ^ "European Islamophobia Report" (PDF). SETA. 2015.
  127. ^ "Russian court jails market bombers". Al Jazeera. 15 May 2008.
  128. ^ Marcel Van Herpen Putinism: The Slow Rise of a Radical Right Regime in Russia 2013 "On August 21, 2006, members of The Savior, a neo-Nazi group led by Nikolai Korolev, a former FSB officer, bombed the Cherkizovsky market in Moscow, the largest market of Russia, frequented by many merchants from Central Asia."
  129. ^ "Racist bombers sentenced to life for market blast". Russia Today. Archived from the original on 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  130. ^ Transición y represión política. Juan Manuel Olarieta Alberdi, Revista de estudios políticos, ISSN 0048-7694, Nº 70, 1990, pages 225-262
  131. ^ País, Ediciones El (21 March 2010). "Reportaje - Las otras víctimas". Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  132. ^ Las otras víctimas de una transición nada pacífica. Gonzalo Wilhelmi. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
  133. ^ Stothard, Michael (8 November 2018). "Awakening of Spain's far-right fringe unsettles mainstream parties". Financial Times. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  134. ^ "Donald Trump is right, there was a recent attack in Sweden. By neo-Nazis on a refugee centre". 19 February 2017.
  135. ^ Buncombe, Andrew; Judd, Terri; and Bennett, Jason. "'Hate-filled' nailbomber is jailed for life", The Independent, 30 June 2000.
  136. ^ "The Nailbomber", BBC Panorama, 30 June 2000.
  137. ^ "Know your enemy".
  138. ^ "Man guilty over nail bombs plot". BBC News. June 24, 2008.
  139. ^ "Racist who had bomb kit jailed for campaign against couple". The Guardian. London. December 13, 2008.
  140. ^ "Man 'on cusp' of bombing campaign". BBC News. June 29, 2009.
  141. ^ "Home Affairs Committee warns of far-right terror threat". BBC News. February 6, 2012.
  142. ^ "Ex-Combat 18 man speaks out". BBC News. 25 November 2001.
  143. ^ "MI5 swoops on Army 'neo-Nazis'", Sunday Telegraph, 7 March 1999
  144. ^ BNP Under the skin: Profile of Adrian Marsden, BBC News
  145. ^ "Combat 18" at www.metareligion.com
  146. ^ Stuart Millar, "Anti-terror police seek White Wolf racist over bombs"
  147. ^ "Belfast racists threaten to cut Romanian baby's throat", Belfast Telegraph, 17 June 2009
  148. ^ Ian Cobain and Matthew Taylor, Far-right terrorist Thomas Mair jailed for life for Jo Cox murder, Guardian (November 23, 2017).
  149. ^ Elgot, Jessica (12 December 2016). "Neo-Nazi group National Action banned by UK home secretary". The Guardian.
  150. ^ Khomami, Nadia (2018-06-12). "Alleged neo-Nazi admits plotting murder of MP Rosie Cooper". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
  151. ^ Dodd, Vikram; Rawlinson, Kevin (2018-02-01). "Finsbury Park attack: man 'brainwashed by anti-Muslim propaganda' convicted". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  152. ^ correspondent, Vikram Dodd Crime (2018-02-01). "How London mosque attacker became a terrorist in three weeks". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  153. ^ "Four far-right UK terrorist plots foiled since Westminster attack, police reveal". 26 February 2018.
  154. ^ "Leeds man arrested on suspicion of preparing 'extreme right wing' terror acts". www.yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  155. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (1 July 2003). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. NYU Press. pp. 40–41, 45. ISBN 978-0-8147-3155-0.
  156. ^ "UVF 'behind racist attacks in south and east Belfast'". Belfast Telegraph, 3 April 2014.
  157. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique. "Racist war of the loyalist street gangs". The Guardian, 10 January 2004.
  158. ^ a b "Race hate on rise in NI". BBC News, 13 January 2004.
  159. ^ "Two arrested over racist pipe bomb attacks in Londonderry". BBC News, 10 March 2014.
  160. ^ "Loyalists hit out at racist attacks". BBC News, 3 July 2003.
  161. ^ "Police probe after bomb attacks". BBC News, 2 June 2005.
  162. ^ "Mother of South Belfast racist attack to leave home". Belfast Daily. 25 May 2013.
  163. ^ "Gun attack: Family at home during 'hate crime' in west Belfast". BBC News, 24 April 2014.
  164. ^ "Bitter tide of violent racial hate recalls the worst of the Troubles". Irish Independent, 8 August 2004.
  165. ^ "Ulster 'is race hate capital of Europe'". BreakingNews.ie. 26 June 2006.
  166. ^ Press, Australian Associated (31 October 2016). "Victorian extremist Phillip Galea planned to bomb leftwing premises, police say". The Guardian. Australian Associated Press.
  167. ^ Right-wing extremist yells to jury after guilty verdict for plotting terror attack
  168. ^ Olding, Rachel (28 January 2017). "White supremacist threatened to shoot up Central Coast shopping centre" – via The Sydney Morning Herald.