Afonso Dhlakama Ossufo Momade Rome General Peace Accords

Mozambican National Resistance

Resistência Nacional Moçambicana
LeaderOssufo Momade
ChairmanAndré Magibire
Founded1975 (1975)
HeadquartersAvenida Ahmed Sekou Touré Nº 657, Maputo
Youth wingRENAMO Youth League
National conservatism
Economic liberalism
Right-wing populism
Political positionRight-wing[1]
International affiliationCentrist Democrat International (Observer)[2]
Assembly of the Republic
60 / 250
Party flag
Flag of RENAMO (3rd version).png

The Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO; Portuguese: Resistência Nacional Moçambicana) is a militant organization and political movement in Mozambique. Originally sponsored by the Rhodesian Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO), it was founded in 1975 as part of an anti-communist backlash against the country's ruling FRELIMO party.

Initially led by André Matsangaissa, a former senior official in FRELIMO's armed wing, the movement had its roots in a menagerie of anti-FRELIMO dissident groups which mushroomed immediately prior and shortly following Mozambican independence, as well as South African and Rhodesian attempts to encourage these competing interests.[3][4] It is clear that RENAMO's ranks were bolstered by Mozambican political exiles who genuinely opposed FRELIMO in principle, and a number of others who were conscripted by force.[5] On 4 October 1992, FRELIMO and RENAMO signed the Rome General Peace Accords, ending the Mozambican Civil War.

Critics of RENAMO frequently decried the movement as a "proxy army" of Rhodesia and later, of South Africa's apartheid government.[6] It has been theorised that RENAMO was formed for the sole purpose of combating Mozambican support for Rhodesian insurgents.[7] On the other hand, RENAMO was also reflective of FRELIMO's own splintering support base and dwindling popularity in the post-independence era.[4] Following the war it has been responsible for promoting constitutional reform as well as a strong domestic private sector.[8]

Matsangaissa, who died in 1979, was succeeded by Afonso Dhlakama, who lead the organization until his death in 2018.[9][10] Following renewed clashes, a peace agreement was reached between RENAMO and the Mozambique government in August 2019, resulting in the last RENAMO fighters surrendering their arms.[11] RENAMO leader Ossufo Momade vowed afterwards to “maintain peace and national reconciliation.”[12]

Mozambican Civil War

RENAMO unified with another rebel group, the Revolutionary Party of Mozambique (PRM) in 1982. As result of this merger, the rebel group was able to expand its operations in northern Mozambique, particularly in Zambezia Province.[13][14] In 1984 the South African and Mozambican governments signed the Nkomati Accord,[15] in which South Africa agreed to stop sponsoring RENAMO if the Mozambican government expelled exiled members of the African National Congress (ANC) residing there. This was consistent with the Total National Strategy then in existence whereby the carrot of infrastructural development projects would be offered as an inducement for co-operation, supported by the stick of military reprisal if guerillas of the ANC were still given succour.[16] In 1988, RENAMO experienced its only major split during the civil war, when former PRM commander Gimo Phiri broke off and founded an independent insurgent group known as Mozambican National Union (UNAMO).[17]

Meanwhile, the Mozambican government did not expel the exiled members of the ANC and consequently the South African government continued funnelling financial and military resources until a permanent peace accord was reached in 1992 and was supervised by the United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ) until 1994. To nudge this process in the right direction a special operation was launched by the National Intelligence Service called Operation Bush Talk, which was designed to permanently end the civil war in Mozambique to stem the flow of military materiel across the porous borders into South Africa.[18] One manifestation of this was the militia of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) that was being trained and armed by the SADF Special Forces as part of Operation Marion[19] which were being armed by weapons coming from Mozambique.

The peace accord led to the disarmament of RENAMO, to the integration of some of its fighters into the Mozambican army and to its transformation into a regular political party. It is now the main opposition party in Mozambique. At the legislative elections on 1 and 2 December 2004, the party was the main part of the Renamo-UE electoral alliance, that won 29.7% of the popular vote and 90 out of 250 seats. The presidential candidate of this alliance, Afonso Dhlakama, won 31.7% of the popular vote.

Raul Domingos, negotiator at the Rome General Peace Accords and RENAMO's leader in parliament from 1994–1999, was expelled from the party in 2000, and in 2003, founded the Party for Peace, Democracy, and Development.

Activities in Zimbabwe

RENAMO forces attacked an army base in Zimbabwe near Mukosa on 17 June 1987, killing seven soldiers and wounding 19. RENAMO attacked the Katiyo Tea Estate, destroying valuable property, in July and killed three men in Rushinga in August.[20] On 30 November, RENAMO militants burned down 13 houses.[21]

Between December 1987 and 21 January 1988 RENAMO performed 101 attacks near the Mozambique-Zimbabwe border.[21]

Following the end of the Mozambican Civil War, RENAMO remained linked to a Zimbabwean militant group, Chimwenje.[22]

Renewed clashes

In October 2012, RENAMO's headquarters were relocated near Casa Banana (also named Sathunjira, RENAMO's former guerrilla base in the 1980s) in Gorongosa, where a training camp was set up for around 800 partially armed followers. Previously, the headquarters had been moved from Maputo to Nampula in 2009.[23] RENAMO leader Afonso Dhlakama threatened to "destroy the country" if his political demands were not met.[24]

On 4 April 2013, one woman and four police officers were killed, with ten policemen more injured in a RENAMO attack on a police station in the town of Muxengue. The leader of the attackers was also killed.[25] RENAMO's security chief stated that the action was a response to previous police raids on RENAMO gatherings. Around 300 RENAMO members had remained armed since the 1992 peace deal, despite efforts to integrate them into the army or police.[26]

On 6 April 2013, two or three civilians were killed and two women were injured when alleged RENAMO militiamen attacked a truck and a bus in Chibabava District.[27] RENAMO denied being involved in the attack.[28]

On 21 June, suspected RENAMO guerrillas attacked a bus in Machanga, Sofala Province, injuring an elderly woman. The incident happened two days after RENAMO threatened to paralyse key roads and the only coal export train to force the FRELIMO government to renegotiate peace terms.[29]

On 17 October, suspected RENAMO guerrillas ambushed a military patrol near Gorongosa, RENAMO's stronghold, killing seven soldiers, according to local media.[30] On 18 October, another clash between Mozambican Armed Forces (FADM) and RENAMO militiamen took place in Mucodza, seven kilometres away from Gorongosa. National director of defence policy in the Ministry of Defence, Colonel Cristovao Chume, claimed that the soldiers suffered no losses and that a RENAMO fighter was injured and captured by their forces. RENAMO leader Dhlakama claimed that no RENAMO fighters were killed on the attack, which, according to him, was started by the Army, and that the casualties had been suffered by the FADM. However, reporters confirmed that the bodies of two RENAMO fighters were in the local morgue of Gorongosa.[31]

On 21 October, FADM forces captured Sathunjira base after several days of combat. RENAMO spokesman Fernando Mazanga claimed that the government forces had shelled the base with heavy weapons (artillery), and that Afonso Dhlakama had fled the base. A RENAMO statement said that the capture of the base puts an end to the 1992 peace deal.[32] RENAMO announced that MP Armindo Milaco was killed in the government raid. On 22 October, gunmen attacked a police station in Maringué District in apparent retaliation, with no casualties reported.[33]

On 26 October, alleged RENAMO fighters attacked civilian vehicles in the main north-south highway near Beira, killing one and injuring 10 people. RENAMO denied its implication in the attack.[34]

2014 peace process

On 5 September 2014 Dhlakama and president Guebuza signed a peace deal in an effort to end the two-year period of instability. The deal included integration of RENAMO forces into the army and a reform of the election oversight commission.[35][36] However, after RENAMO's refusal to accept the 2014 presidential elections, problems in the implementation of the peace deal and after continued efforts by government forces to disarm RENAMO met resistance, Dhlakama broke off the peace process in August 2015. Since then there have been renewed clashes between government and RENAMO forces. Dhlakama claims there have been two attempts by the government to assassinate him.[37][38]

2017 truce

In May 2017, RENAMO agreed to extend their truce indefinitely.[39]

Death of Dhlakama and its impact

On 3 May 2018, Afonso Dhlakama, who led RENAMO since 1979, died in Gorongosa after suffering a heart attack.[40] An unnamed official in RENAMO acknowledged this and also stated that Dhlakma had been ill prior to his death.[40] Regarding the future of RENAMO following Dhlakma's death, Ed Hobey Hamsher, an analyst with Maplecroft, stated that "no potential successor has Dhlakama's stature" and that anybody who succeeds him "will struggle to unify Renamo's factions."[41] At the time of Dhlakma's death, the RENAMO Congress was unable to fix a date to vote on a successor.[41] The next month on 14 June 2018, Ossufo Momade, who was picked to serve as the interim leader of RENAMO until the organization's Congress could vote on a permanent successor to Dhlakma,[41] went into hiding.[42]

Peace deal reached between RENAMO and Mozambique government

On August 1, 2019, Mozambique President Filipe Nyusi and RENAMO leader Ossufo Momade signed a peace agreement bringing an end to the six year period of armed clashes.[43][44] They also shook hands and embraced each other as well.[44] The signing of the peace took place at RENAMO's remote military base in the Gorongosa mountains.[44] After the agreement was signed, the last remaining RENAMO fighters surrendered their weapons Momade told the Associated Press “We will no longer commit the mistakes of the past.”[11] He also stated “We are for a humanized and dignified reintegration and we want the international community to help make that a reality.”[11] During another signing which took in Maputo's peace square, Momade declared the group would focus to "maintain peace and national reconciliation."[12]

Electoral history

Presidential elections

Election Party candidate Votes % Result
1994 Afonso Dhlakama 1,666,965 33.73% Lost Red XN
1999 2,133,655 47.71% Lost Red XN
2004 998,059 31.74% Lost Red XN
2009 650,679 16.41% Lost Red XN
2014 1,783,382 36.61% Lost Red XN
2019 Ossufo Momade 1,356,786 21.84% Lost Red XN

Assembly elections

Election Party leader Votes % Seats +/− Position Government
1994 Afonso Dhlakama 1,803,506 37.78%
112 / 250
Increase 112 Increase 2nd Opposition
1999 1,603,811 38.81%
117 / 250
Increase 5 Steady 2nd Opposition
2004 905,289 29.73%
90 / 250
Decrease 27 Steady 2nd Opposition
2009 688,782 17.69%
51 / 250
Decrease 39 Steady 2nd Opposition
2014 1,495,137 32.46%
89 / 250
Increase 38 Steady 2nd Opposition
2019 Ossufo Momade 1,351,659 22.28%
60 / 250
Decrease 29 Steady 2nd Opposition

Former RENAMO flags

See also


  1. ^ "Em Moçambique só há partidos de direita": uma entrevista com Michel Cahen. MACEDO, Victor Miguel Castillo de; MALOA, Joaquim - Revista do Programa de Pós‑Graduação em Sociologia da USP Archived 11 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "Partidos Archivo - idc-cdi". Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  3. ^ "Binding Memories: Chronology". Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  4. ^ a b Emerson, Stephen A. (19 February 2014). The Battle for Mozambique: The Frelimo_Renamo Struggle, 1977_1992. Helion and Company. pp. 74–110. ISBN 978-1-909384-92-7.
  5. ^ Watch, Human Rights (1992). Conspicuous destruction: war, famine and the reform process in Mozambique. New York u.a.: Human Rights Watch. pp. 86–88. ISBN 978-1-56432-079-7.
  6. ^ "Renamo, Malawi and the struggle to succeed Banda: Assessing theories of Malawian intervention in the Mozambican Civil War" (PDF). 11 November 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2016. External link in |publisher= (help)
  7. ^ "Key Actors in the War and Peace Process" (PDF). Conciliation Resources. January 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  8. ^ "Main Renamo Policy Guidelines" (PDF). RENAMO-UNIÃO ELEITORAL. 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ a b c
  12. ^ a b
  13. ^ Cabrita (2000), p. 202.
  14. ^ Emerson (2014), p. 90.
  15. ^ Ashton, P.J., Earle, A., Malzbender, D., Moloi, M.B.H., Patrick, M.J. & Turton, A.R. 2005. A Compilation of all the international freshwater agreements entered into by South Africa with other States. Pretoria: Water Research Commission; and Turton, A.R. 2003. The political aspects of institutional development in the water sector: South Africa and its International River Basions D.Phil. Thesis. Pretoria: Pretoria University; and Turton, A.R. 2007. The Hydropolitics of Cooperation: South Africa during the Cold War. In Grover, V.E. (ed). Water: A source of conflict or cooperation? Enfield: Science Publishers.
  16. ^ Geldenhuys, D. 1984. The Diplomacy of Isolation: South African Foreign Policy Making. Johannesburg: MacMillan.
  17. ^ Emerson (2014), p. 163.
  18. ^ Turton. A.R. 2010. Shaking Hands with Billy. Durban: Just Done Publications.
  19. ^ Stiff, P. 1999. The Silent War: South African Recce Operations 1969–1994. Alberton: Galago.
  20. ^ Audrey Kalley, Jacqueline. Southern African Political History: a chronological of key political events from independence to Mid-1997, 1999. Page 739.
  21. ^ a b Audrey Kalley, Jacqueline. Southern African Political History: a chronological of key political events from independence to Mid-1997, 1999. Page 742.
  22. ^ Banks, Arthur; Muller, Thomas; Phelan, Sean; Smith, Hal; Milnor, Andrew; Kimmelman, Eric; Aytar, Volkan; Twetten, Matthew; Willey, Joseph; Tallman, Elaine, eds. (1998). Political Handbook of the World: 1998. Binghamton, New York: CSA Publications. pp. 633–634, 1045–1046. ISBN 978-1-349-14953-7.
  23. ^ "Dhlakama back in the bush" Archived 15 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, 29 October 2012
  24. ^ "Mozambique: Dhlakama Threatens to Destroy the Country" All Africa (Agência de Informação de Moçambique), 14 November 2012
  25. ^ "Five killed in Mozambique clashes" News 24, 4 April 2013
  26. ^ "Mozambican ex-rebels Renamo in police clash" BBC, 4 April 2013
  27. ^ "Renamo attack civilians in Intercape bus" SABC (SAPA-AFP), 7 April 2013
  28. ^ "Mozambique bus attack controversy" News 24, 7 April 2013
  29. ^ "Suspected Renamo rebels attack bus in Mozambique". The Times (Reuters). 21 June 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  30. ^ "Renamo rebels kill seven Mozambique soldiers": local media Reuters, 17 October 2013
  31. ^ "Mozambique: Two RENAMO members killed in Sofala clash" Archived 21 October 2013 at, 19 October 2013
  32. ^ "Mozambique 20-year peace deal 'ends after base raided'" BBC, 21 October 2013
  33. ^ "Mozambique Army Overruns Second Rebel Base" (Cameroon Tribune), 30 October 2013
  34. ^ "Mozambican rebel group denies attack". Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  35. ^ "Subscribe to read". Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  36. ^ "Mozambique rivals sign peace deal". Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  37. ^ "Mozambique forces in deadly clashes with Renamo - police". Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  38. ^ "Mozambique: Renamo Wants Zuma to Mediate". 23 December 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2017 – via AllAfrica.
  39. ^ "Mozambique Rebel Movement Renamo Extends Truce Indefinitely". Voice of America. 4 May 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  40. ^ a b
  41. ^ a b c
  42. ^ "Opposition MDC 'is Zimbabwe's Renamo', claims war vets leader - report". News24. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  43. ^
  44. ^ a b c