Protectorate

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A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still recognizing the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state. In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate is an autonomous area under a higher sovereignty. They are different from colonies as they have local rulers and rarely experience immigration of settlers from the suzerain state.

However, a state that remains under the protection of another state while retaining its independence is known as a protected state, different from a protectorate.

Rationale

Amical protection

In amical protection, the terms are often very favorable for the protectorate. The political interest of the protector is frequently moral (a matter of accepted moral obligation, prestige, ideology, internal popularity, or dynastic, historical, or ethno-cultural ties). Or the protector's interest is in countering a rival or enemy power (e.g., preventing the rival from obtaining or maintaining control of areas of strategic importance). This may involve a very weak protectorate surrendering control of its external relations; this, however, may not constitute any real sacrifice, as the protectorate may not have been able to have similar use of them without the protector's strength.

Amical protection was frequently extended by the great powers to other Christian (generally European) states and to smaller states that had no significant importance.[ambiguous] In the post-1815 period, non-Christian states (such as China's Qing dynasty) also provided amical protection towards other much weaker states.

In modern times, a form of amical protection can be seen as an important or defining feature of microstates. According to the definition proposed by Dumienski (2014): "microstates are modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints".[1]

Colonial protection

Conditions regarding protection are generally much less generous for areas of colonial protection. The protectorate was often reduced to a de facto condition similar to a colony, but the pre-existing native state continuing as the agent of indirect rule. Occasionally, a protectorate was established by another form of indirect rule: a chartered company, which becomes a de facto state in its European home state (but geographically overseas), allowed to be an independent country with its own foreign policy and generally its own armed forces.

In fact, protectorates were declared despite not being duly entered into by the traditional states supposedly being protected, or only by a party of dubious authority in those states. Colonial protectors frequently decided to reshuffle several protectorates into a new, artificial unit without consulting the protectorates, a logic disrespectful of the theoretical duty of a protector to help maintain its protectorates' status and integrity. The Berlin agreement of February 26, 1885 allowed European colonial powers to establish protectorates in Black Africa (the last region to be divided among them) by diplomatic notification, even without actual possession on the ground. This aspect of history is referred to as the Scramble for Africa. A similar case is the formal use of such terms as colony and protectorate for an amalgamation, convenient only for the colonizer or protector, of adjacent territories over which it held (de facto) sway by protective or "raw" colonial logic.

Foreign relations

In practice, a protectorate often has direct foreign relations only with the protecting power, so other states must deal with it by approaching the protector. Similarly, the protectorate rarely takes military action on its own, but relies on the protector for its defence. This is distinct from annexation in that the protector has no formal power to control the internal affairs of the protectorate.

Protectorates differ from League of Nations mandates and their successors, United Nations Trust Territories, whose administration is supervised, in varying degrees, by the international community. A protectorate formally enters into the protection through a bilateral agreement with the protector, while international mandates are stewarded by the world community-representing body, with or without a de facto administering power.

British protectorates

Americas

Arab world

Asia

Europe

Sub-Saharan Africa

*protectorates which existed alongside a colony of the same name

Oceania

Chinese protectorates

Dutch protectorates

French protectorates

Asia

Arab world and Madagascar

Sub-Saharan Africa

1960 stamp of Bechuanaland Protectorate with the portraits of Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II

The legal regime of "protection" was the formal legal structure under which French colonial forces expanded in Africa between the 1830s and 1900. Almost every pre-existing state in the area later covered by French West Africa was placed under protectorate status at some point, although direct rule gradually replaced protectorate agreements. Formal ruling structures, or fictive recreations of them, were largely retained as the lowest level authority figure in the French Cercles, with leaders appointed and removed by French officials.[12]

Oceania

German protectorates

The German Empire used the word Schutzgebiet, literally protectorate, for all of its colonial possessions until they were lost during World War I, regardless of the actual level of government control. Cases involving indirect rule included:

Before and during World War II, Nazi Germany designated the rump of occupied Czechoslovakia and Denmark as protectorates:

Indian protectorates

Italian protectorates

In Europe:

In the colonial empire:

Japanese protectorates

Polish protectorates

Ottoman protectorates

Portuguese protectorates

Russian protectorates

Spanish protectorates

Argentine protectorates

United States protectorates

Contemporary usage by the United States

Some agencies of the United States government, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency, still use the term protectorate to refer to insular areas of the United States such as Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.[22] This was also the case with the Philippines and (it can be argued via the Platt Amendment) Cuba at the end of Spanish colonial rule.[17] Liberia was the only African nation that was a colony for the United States but the government had no control over the land as it was controlled by the privately owned American Colonization Society. It was, however, a protectorate from January 7, 1822 until the Liberian Declaration of Independence from the American Colonization Society in July 26, 1847. Liberia was founded and established as a homeland for freed African-Americans and ex-Caribbean slaves who left the United States and the Caribbean islands with help and support from the American Colonization Society.[15][16] However, the agency responsible for the administration of those areas, the Office of Insular Affairs (OIA) within the United States Department of Interior, uses only the term "insular area" rather than protectorate.

United Nations protectorates

Joint protectorates

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Dumieński, Zbigniew (2014). "Microstates as Modern Protected States: Towards a New Definition of Micro-Statehood" (PDF). Occasional Paper. Centre for Small State Studies. Retrieved 20 August 2014. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ "Histories of the Modern Middle East". Laits.utexas.edu. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  3. ^ Cunningham, Joseph Davy (1849). A History of the Sikhs: From the Origin of the Nation to the Battles of the Sutlej. John Murray.
  4. ^ Meyer, William Stevenson (1908). "Ferozepur district". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. XII. p. 90. But the British Government, established at Delhi since 1803, interevened with an offer of protection to all the CIS-SUTLEJ STATES; and Dhanna Singh gladly availed himself of the promised aid, being one of the first chieftains to accept British protection and control.
  5. ^ a b c Onley, The Raj Reconsidered (2009), p. 50.
  6. ^ "Timeline – Story of Independence". Archived from the original on 2019-07-27. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
  7. ^ "Info" (PDF). himalaya.socanth.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  8. ^ "Histories of the Modern Middle East". Laits.utexas.edu. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  9. ^ "A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present, by Michael J. Seth", p112
  10. ^ Bedjaoui, Mohammed (1 January 1991). International Law: Achievements and Prospects. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9231027166 – via Google Books.
  11. ^ Capaldo, Giuliana Ziccardi (1 January 1995). Repertory of Decisions of the International Court of Justice (1947–1992). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 0792329937 – via Google Books.
  12. ^ See the classic account on this in Robert Delavignette. Freedom and Authority in French West Africa. London: Oxford University Press, (1950). The more recent statndard studies on French expansion include:
    Robert Aldrich. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion. Palgrave MacMillan (1996) ISBN 0-312-16000-3.
    Alice L. Conklin. A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa 1895–1930. Stanford: Stanford University Press (1998), ISBN 978-0-8047-2999-4.
    Patrick Manning. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa, 1880–1995. Cambridge University Press (1998) ISBN 0-521-64255-8.
    Jean Suret-Canale. Afrique Noire: l'Ere Coloniale (Editions Sociales, Paris, 1971); Eng. translation, French Colonialism in Tropical Africa, 1900 1945. (New York, 1971).
  13. ^ C. W. Newbury. Aspects of French Policy in the Pacific, 1853–1906. The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Feb., 1958), pp. 45–56
  14. ^ Gonschor, Lorenz Rudolf (August 2008). Law as a Tool of Oppression and Liberation: Institutional Histories and Perspectives on Political Independence in Hawaiʻi, Tahiti Nui/French Polynesia and Rapa Nui. Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa. pp. 56–59. hdl:10125/20375.
  15. ^ a b "The World: Two Decades of Decline; When Liberians Looked to America in Vain". The New York Times. 13 July 2003.
  16. ^ a b "A case of double conciousness americo-liberians and indigenous liberian relations 1840-1930 liberian relations 1840-1930". University of Central Florida. 2012.
  17. ^ a b "Platt Amendment (1903)".
  18. ^ Gould, Lewis L. "William McKinley: Foreign Affairs". Miller Center.
  19. ^ "U.S. De Facto Protectorate of Cuba, 1898-1934". dwkcommentaries.
  20. ^ Nelson, Karen Cherese. "The U.S. Protectorate in Panama: An Analysis of Recent U.S.-Panamanian Relations". Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
  21. ^ "The Philippines, 1898–1946". History.house.gov.
  22. ^ "Notice of Finding of Failure To Submit State Plans for the Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Emission Guidelines". Environmental Protection Agency. 12 March 2020.
  23. ^ "From the Archive 1999: Timor the defiant". The Sydney Morning Herald. 30 August 2019.
  24. ^ "East Timor". Human Rights Watch.