Pro tempore

Universities City Hearst Newspapers, LLC

Pro tempore (/ˌpr ˈtɛmpəri, -/), abbreviated pro tem or p.t.,[1][2] is a Latin phrase which best translates to "for the time being" in English. This phrase is often used to describe a person who acts as a locum tenens (placeholder) in the absence of a superior, such as the President pro tempore of the United States Senate, who acts in place of the President of the United States Senate, a position that is held by the Vice President of the United States ex officio throughout their entire term.

Legislative bodies can have one or more pro tempore for the presiding officer. These positions ostensibly go to legislators experienced in floor debate who are familiar with the content and application of relevant rules and precedents and who have a reputation for fairness among their colleagues.[citation needed]

Mayor pro tem

A common use of pro tempore in the United States is in municipalities such as cities and towns with regard to the position of the mayor. Some cities do not have a position of vice mayor, but rather appoint a person from the city council to act as mayor pro tempore (pro tem) in the absence of the actual mayor.[3]

Judge pro tem

In judicial courts, attorneys that volunteer in proceedings are called "judge pro tem".[4]

Dean pro tem

Universities sometimes appoint heads of faculties temporarily until ratified by a board of governors or senate committee. These positions are titled "Dean pro tem".[5]


  1. ^ "pro tempore". Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  2. ^ "pro tempore". Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  3. ^ Harlow, Keith. "Job Description of a Deputy Mayor Pro Tem". Chron. Hearst Newspapers, LLC. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  4. ^ "Temporary Judge Program". Superior Court of California. County of Los Angeles. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  5. ^ "Dean pro tem". The Exchange. The University of British Columbia. Retrieved 20 June 2019.