Pretoria Convention

South African Republic British Empire Orange Free State

Pretoria Convention
Wespaneel detail, Paul Kruger-standbeeld, a.jpg
Paul Kruger and Evelyn Wood in negotiations, relief by Anton van Wouw
ContextEnd of the First Boer War and defeat of the British Empire and subsequent independence for the South African Republic[1]
Signed3 August 1881 (1881-08-03)
LocationPretoria, South African Republic (Negotiated in Newcastle)
LanguageEnglish, Afrikaans

The Pretoria Convention was the peace treaty that ended the First Boer War (16 December 1880 to 23 March 1881) between the Transvaal Boers and Great Britain. The treaty was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881, but was subject to ratification by the Volksraad within 3 months from the date of signature. The Volksraad first raised objections to a number of the clauses of the treaty, but did eventually ratify the version signed in Pretoria, after Britain refused any further concessions or changes to the treaty.[2][1]

British preparation work for the Pretoria Convention of 1881 was done at Newcastle.[3]

Under this agreement, the South African Republic regained self-government under nominal British suzerainty.

This convention was superseded in 1884 by the London Convention.[4]


By the time of the Battle of Majuba, the governments of the South African Republic and Britain were in contact, President Brand of the Orange Free State acting as intermediary.

See also


  1. ^ a b c tinashe (1 June 2012). "The convention of Pretoria, 'Convention' for the Settlement of the Transvaal Territory, 3 August 1881".
  2. ^ Haggard, H. Rider (1900). "VI - The Retrocession of the Transvaal". The Last Boer War. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. pp. 188–192. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  3. ^ Theal, George McCall (1919). History of South Africa, from 1873 to 1884, twelve eventful years, with continuation of the history of Galekaland, Tembuland, Pondoland, and Bethshuanaland until the annexation of those territories to the Cape Colony, and of Zululand until its annexation to Natal. London: Allen. pp. 129. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  4. ^ Forbes, Avary William Holmes (1910). A history of the British Dominions beyond the seas (1558-1910). London: Holland. pp. 208. Retrieved 20 August 2009.