Federal Parliament of Nepal

National Assembly (Nepal) House of Representatives (Nepal) Nepal

Federal Parliament of Nepal

संघीय संसद, नेपाल
Emblem of Nepal
HousesNational Assembly (upper house)
House of Representatives (lower house)
Founded5 March 2018 (2 years ago) (2018-03-05)
Preceded byConstituent Assembly of Nepal
Nanda Kishor Pun
since 31 October 2015
Chairman of the National Assembly
Ganesh Prasad Timilsina
since 15 March 2018
Deputy Chairman of the National Assembly
Shashikala Dahal
since 19 March 2018
Speaker of the House of Representatives
Agni Prasad Sapkota[1]
since 26 January 2020
Deputy Speaker of the House of Representatives
since 20 January 2020
Khadga Prasad Oli, NCP
since 4 March 2018
59 assemblymen
275 representatives
Nepal House of Representatives 2018.svg
House of Representatives political groups
Government (174)
  •      NCP: 174

Opposition (101)

Nepal National Assembly 2020.svg
National Assembly political groups
Government (50)
  •      NCP: 50

Opposition (9)

  •      NC: 6
  •      PSPN : 3
House of Representatives committees10
National Assembly committees4
Joint committees
First-past-the-post & proportional representation
Single transferable vote
26 November and 7 December 2017
National Assembly last election
23 January 2020
Meeting place
Nepalese Constituent Assembly Building.jpg
International Convention Centre,
Kathmandu, Nepal
Constitution of Nepal
New Emblem of Nepal.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal portal

The Federal Parliament of Nepal (संघीय संसद नेपाल, Saṅghīya Sansada Nēpāla) is the bicameral federal and supreme legislature of Nepal established in 2018. It consists of the National Assembly as the upper house and the House of Representatives as the lower house.


Legislatures of Kingdom of Nepal

The former Parliament of Nepal was dissolved by King Gyanendra in 2002, on the grounds that it was incapable of handling the Maoist rebels. The country's five main political parties had staged protests against the king, arguing that he must either call fresh elections or reinstate the elected legislature. In 2004, the king announced that parliamentary elections would be held within twelve months; in April 2006, in response to major pro-democratic protests, it was announced that Parliament would be reestablished.[2]

Interim Legislature of Nepal

After the success of the April 2006 people's movement, on January 15, 2007, the old parliament was dissolved and replaced by a 330-member interim legislature of Nepal.[citation needed] The legislature drafted an interim constitution and a constituent assembly election was held in April 2008. The 601-member assembly on 28 May 2008 abolished the 238-year-old monarchy and declared the country a republic. The constituent assembly, which was initially given two years to draft a new constitution, was dissolved on 27 May 2012 after its failure to draft a new constitution due to differences over restructuring the state.

Legislature Parliament of Nepal

The second Nepalese Constituent Assembly was converted into a legislative parliament of Nepal after the promulgation of the constitution on September 20, 2015.[3] The second Nepalese Constituent Assembly was formed after the failure of the first Constituent Assembly to draft a new constitution. The Legislature Parliament of Nepal was dissolved on 21 January 2018 (7 Magh, 2074 BS).[4]


According to the Constitution of Nepal 2015, Nepal has a two-chamber Parliament (संसद), consisting of the House of Representatives and the National Assembly, with the President of Nepal acting as their head.[5]

President of Nepal

The President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (नेपालको राष्ट्रपति, Nēpālakō rāṣṭrapati) is the head of state of Nepal and commander in chief of the Nepalese Armed Forces and the supreme leader of the country. The office was created in May 2008 after the country was declared as a republic. The first President of Nepal was Ram Baran Yadav. The current president is Bidhya Devi Bhandari, elected in October 2015. She is the first female Nepali head of state. The President is to be formally addressed as "The Right Honourable" (सम्माननीय, Sam'mānanīya).[6]

House of Representatives

The House of Representatives (प्रतिनिधि सभा, Pratinidhi Sabha) has 275 members. 165 members are elected from single-member constituencies by first-past-the-post voting and 110 elected through proportional electoral system where voters vote for political parties, considering the whole country as a single election constituency. The members of the house hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers.

National Assembly

The National Assembly (राष्ट्रिय सभा, Rastriya Sabha) has 59 members. Eight members are elected from each of the seven provinces by an electoral college of each province, and three are appointed by the President on recommendation of the government. They must include at least three women, one Dalit, and one member from disabled groups. Members serve staggered six year terms such that the term of one-third members expires every two years.

Parliamentary committees

There are 16 thematic committees in the federal parliament: ten in the House of Representatives, four in the National Assembly and two common.[7]

House of Representatives

National Assembly


Women's Representation

The constitution of Nepal guarantees a 33% reservation for women in all public offices including the federal pariament. On 16 March 2018, Dr. Shiva Maya Tumbahamphe was elected as the deputy speaker of the house.[8] Women’s representation in the parliament has increased since the Constituent Assembly, which eventually guaranteed provisions for women's representation on the constitution.[2]

Parliament House

Both houses of the federal parliament currently meet at the International Convention Centre in New Baneshwor, Kathmandu. A new parliament building is being constructed in the premises of the Singha Durbar complex, which houses most government offices.[9]

See also


  1. ^ "Elected Speaker". Nepal Republic Media. Kathmandu, Nepal. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Nepal's Political Development: Nepal Constituent Assembly Portal". Nepalcaportal.org. Archived from the original on 3 August 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
  3. ^ "Nepal elects first woman speaker of parliament - Times of India".
  4. ^ "संविधानसभा प्रथम". parliament.gov.np. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "President of Nepal", Wikipedia, 29 December 2019, retrieved 19 January 2020
  7. ^ "All parliamentary committees in place". The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  8. ^ "CPN-UML leader Tumbahamphe elected to Deputy Speaker of HoR". 16 March 2018.
  9. ^ "New building for federal parliament to cost Rs5 billion rupees". The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 14 June 2020.