Order of St Michael and St George

United Kingdom Privy Council of the United Kingdom Italy

The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Order of Saint Michael and Saint George grand cross collar badge (United Kingdom 1870-1900) - Tallinn Museum of Orders.jpg
Collar and Badge of the Grand Cross
Awarded by
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Order of St Michael and St George).svg
Sovereign of the United Kingdom
TypeOrder of chivalry
Established28 April 1818
MottoAuspicium Melioris Ævi
Token of a Better Age
EligibilityTypically British or Commonwealth realm citizens
Awarded forAt the monarch's pleasure, though typically awarded for extraordinary non-military service in a foreign country and for services to foreign and commonwealth affairs.
StatusCurrently constituted
FounderPrince George, Prince Regent
SovereignQueen Elizabeth II
Grand MasterPrince Edward, Duke of Kent
GradesKnight/Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)
Knight/Dame Commander (KCMG/DCMG)
Companion (CMG)
Next (higher)Order of the Star of India
Next (lower)Order of the Indian Empire
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon.svg
Ribbon bar of the Order of St Michael and St George
Star of a Knight or Dame Commander

The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV,[1][2] while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III.

It is named in honour of two military saints, St Michael and St George.

The Order of St Michael and St George was originally awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, and was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire.[2] It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, and can also be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs.[2]


The Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority and rank:

Coat of arms of the British monarch as sovereign of the Order of St Michael and St George

It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations. People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are regularly appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), and then after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander (KCMG). It is the traditional award for members of the FCO.

The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi (Latin for "Token of a better age"). Its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, and St. George, patron saint of England. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael trampling over and subduing Satan in battle.

The Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer fully a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse; no appointments have been made to it since 1936. The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has also been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947.


The Order's insignia often depict St Michael subduing Satan

The Prince Regent founded the Order to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted their own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817. It was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, and for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean".[3]

In 1864, however, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became part of Greece. A revision of the basis of the Order in 1868, saw membership granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, and in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order.

In 1965 the order was opened to women,[4] with Evelyn Bark becoming the first female CMG in 1967.[5]


The British Sovereign is the Sovereign of the Order and appoints all other members of the Order (by convention, on the advice of the Government). The next-most senior member is the Grand Master. The office was formerly filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands; now, however, Grand Masters are chosen by the Sovereign. Grand Masters include:

The Order originally included 15 Knights Grand Cross, 20 Knights Commanders, and 25 Companions but has since been expanded and the current limits on membership are 125, 375, and 1,750 respectively. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, nor do foreign members appointed as "honorary members".


The Order has six officers. The Order's King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers. The Usher of the Order is known as the Gentleman or Lady Usher of the Blue Rod. Blue Rod does not, unlike the usher of the Order of the Garter, perform any duties related to the House of Lords.

Habit and insignia

Mantle of the Order.
Representation of the star of a Knight or Dame Grand Cross
Star and badge of a Knight or Dame Commander
Collar worn by a Knight or Dame Grand Cross

Members of the Order wear elaborate regalia on important occasions (such as coronations), which vary by rank:

At less important occasions, simpler insignia are used:

On certain "collar days" designated by the Sovereign, members attending formal events may wear the Order's collar over their military uniform or morning wear. When collars are worn (either on collar days or on formal occasions such as coronations), the badge is suspended from the collar. All collars which have been awarded since 1948 must be returned to the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood. The other insignia may be retained.


The chapel of the Order of St Michael and St George in St Paul's Cathedral, London.

The original home of the Order was the Palace of St. Michael and St. George in Corfu, the residence of the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands and the seat of the Ionian Senate. Since 1906, the Order's chapel has been in St Paul's Cathedral in London. (The Cathedral also serves as home to the chapels of The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire and the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor.) Religious services for the whole Order are held quadrennially; new Knights and Dames Grand Cross are installed at these services.

The Sovereign and the Knights and Dames Grand Cross are allotted stalls in the choir of the chapel, above which their heraldic devices are displayed. Perched on the pinnacle of a knight's stall is his helm, decorated with a mantling and topped by his crest. Under English heraldic law, women other than monarchs do not bear helms or crests; instead, the coronet appropriate to the dame's rank, if there is one, is used. Above the crest or coronet, the stall's occupant's heraldic banner is hung, emblazoned with his or her coat of arms. At a considerably smaller scale, to the back of the stall is affixed a piece of brass (a "stall plate") displaying its occupant's name, arms and date of admission into the Order. Upon the death of a Knight, the banner, helm, mantling and crest are taken down. The stall plates, however, are not removed; rather, they remain permanently affixed somewhere about the stall, so that the stalls of the chapel are festooned with a colourful record of the Order's Knights and Dames Grand Cross since 1906.

The reredos within the chapel were commissioned from Henry Poole in 1927.[7]

Precedence and privileges

The Duke of Kent, Grand Master of the Order, and the Duchess of Kent
German shipping magnate Rickmer Clasen Rickmers (1807–1886) wearing the insignia of a C.M.G. (centre)

Members of the Order of St Michael are assigned positions in the order of precedence in England and Wales. Wives of male members also feature on the order of precedence, as do sons, daughters and daughters-in-law of Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders; relatives of female members, however, are not assigned any special precedence. (As a general rule, individuals can derive precedence from their fathers or husbands, but not from their mothers or wives.)

Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders prefix "Sir", and Dames Grand Cross and Dames Commanders prefix "Dame", to their forenames. Wives of Knights may prefix "Lady" to their surnames, but no equivalent privilege exists for husbands of Dames. Such forms are not used by peers and princes, except when the names of the former are written out in their fullest forms. Furthermore, honorary (foreign) members and clergymen do not receive the accolade and thus are not entitled to use the prefix "Sir" or "Dame". Knights and Dames Grand Cross use the post-nominal "GCMG"; Knights Commanders and Dames Commanders use "KCMG" and "DCMG" respectively; Companions use "CMG".

Knights and Dames Grand Cross are also entitled to receive heraldic supporters. They may, furthermore, encircle their arms with a depiction of the circlet (a circle bearing the motto) and the collar; the former is shown either outside or on top of the latter. Knights and Dames Commanders and Companions may display the circlet, but not the collar, surrounding their arms. The badge is depicted suspended from the collar or circlet.

Popular references

Riband (worn incorrectly), star and collar of GCMG worn by Lord Grenfell

In the satirical British television programme Yes Minister, Jim Hacker MP is told an old joke[8] by his Private Secretary Bernard Woolley about what the various post-nominals stand for. From Season 2, Episode 2 "Doing the Honours":

Woolley: In the [civil] service, CMG stands for "Call Me God". And KCMG for "Kindly Call Me God".
Hacker: What does GCMG stand for?

Woolley (deadpan): "God Calls Me God".

Both sexes use the same post-nominal initials, except that there is a distinctly female form of Knight Commander of St Michael and St George. This is Dame Commander of St. Michael and St George (DCMG).

Ian Fleming's spy, James Bond, a commander in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve (RNVR) was fictionally decorated with the CMG in 1953. (This is mentioned in the novels From Russia, with Love and On Her Majesty's Secret Service, and on-screen in his obituary in Skyfall.) He was offered the KCMG (which would have elevated him from Companion to Knight Commander in the Order) in The Man with the Golden Gun, but he rejected the offer as he did not wish to become a public figure. Dame Judi Dench's character "M" is "offered" early retirement and a GCMG in Skyfall after a series of events resulting in the loss of a list that named every NATO espionage operative.

Long-time Doctor Who companion Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart wore the ribbon of the order as the highest of his decorations in the series' classic era.

Current Knights and Dames Grand Cross

Riband, badge and star of a GCMG worn by Lord Tweedsmuir

(NOTE: For clarity, the table denotes holders of the GCMG only; all other posts-nominal shown, for respective members, are for the sake of completeness alone.)

Knights and Dames Grand Cross

Number Name Post-nominals Known for Year
1 Zanzibar Sayyid Sir Jamshid bin Abdullah of Zanzibar GCMG Sultan of Zanzibar 1963
2 The Duke of Kent KG GCMG GCVO Royal family 1967
3 Belize Dame Elmira Minita Gordon GCMG GCVO Governor-General of Belize 1984
4 United Kingdom Sir Antony Acland KG GCMG GCVO British diplomat 1986
5 United Kingdom Sir Crispin Tickell GCMG KCVO British diplomat 1989
6 Guyana Sir Shridath Ramphal GCMG AC ONZ OE OM OCC QC Secretary General of the Commonwealth of Nations 1990
7 Papua New Guinea Sir Michael Somare GCL GCMG CH CF KStJ SSI KSG PC Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea 1990
8 New Zealand Dame Catherine Tizard GCMG GCVO DBE QSO ONZ Governor-General of New Zealand 1990
9 United Kingdom The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn KT GCMG Governor of Hong Kong 1991
10 Papua New Guinea Sir Wiwa Korowi GCMG Governor-General of Papua New Guinea 1992
11 Antigua and Barbuda Sir James Carlisle GCMG Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda 1993
12 United Kingdom Sir Rodric Braithwaite GCMG British diplomat 1994
13 Papua New Guinea Sir Julius Chan GCL GCMG KBE Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea 1994
14 Belize Sir Colville Young GCMG MBE Governor-General of Belize 1994
15 United Kingdom The Lord Hannay of Chiswick GCMG CH British diplomat 1995
16 The Bahamas Sir Orville Turnquest GCMG QC Governor-General of the Bahamas 1995
17 New Zealand Sir Michael Hardie Boys GNZM GCMG QSO Governor-General of New Zealand 1996
18 United Kingdom Sir Christopher Mallaby GCMG GCVO British diplomat 1996
19 Tuvalu Sir Tulaga Manuella GCMG Governor-General of Tuvalu 1996
20 Grenada Sir Daniel Williams GCMG Governor-General of Grenada 1996
21 United Kingdom Sir John Coles GCMG British diplomat 1997
22 Papua New Guinea Sir Silas Atopare GCL GCMG Governor-General of Papua New Guinea 1998
23 Solomon Islands Sir John Lapli GCMG Governor-General of the Solomon Islands 1999
24 Saint Lucia Dame Pearlette Louisy GCMG Governor-General of Saint Lucia 1999
25 United Kingdom Sir Andrew Wood GCMG British diplomat 2001
26 United Kingdom Sir John Goulden GCMG British diplomat 2001
27 United Kingdom The Lord Kerr of Kinlochard GCMG British diplomat 2001
28 Tuvalu Sir Tomasi Puapua GCMG KBE PC Governor-General of Tuvalu 2002
29 United Kingdom Sir David Wright GCMG LVO British diplomat 2002
30 United Kingdom Sir Jeremy Greenstock GCMG British diplomat 2003
31 United Kingdom Sir Rob Young GCMG British diplomat 2003
32 United Kingdom The Lord Robertson of Port Ellen KT GCMG PC Secretary General of NATO 2004
33 United Kingdom Sir Stephen Wall GCMG LVO British diplomat 2004
34 Papua New Guinea Sir Paulias Matane GCL GCMG OBE Governor-General of Papua New Guinea 2005
35 Solomon Islands Sir Nathaniel Waena GCMG CSI KStJ Governor-General of Solomon Islands 2005
36 United Kingdom The Lord Jay of Ewelme GCMG British diplomat 2006
37 United Kingdom Sir Emyr Jones Parry GCMG British diplomat 2007
38 Jamaica Sir Kenneth O. Hall GCMG OJ Governor-General of Jamaica 2007
39 Antigua and Barbuda Dame Louise Lake-Tack GCMG Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda 2007
40 United Kingdom Sir David Manning GCMG KCVO British diplomat 2008
41 Grenada Sir Carlyle Glean GCMG Governor-General of Grenada 2008
42 Jamaica Sir Patrick Allen ON GCMG CD Governor-General of Jamaica 2009
43 Solomon Islands Sir Frank Kabui GCMG OBE CSI Governor-General of Solomon Islands 2009
44 The Bahamas Sir Arthur Foulkes GCMG Governor-General of the Bahamas 2010
45 Tuvalu Sir Iakoba Italeli GCMG Governor-General of Tuvalu 2010
46 United Kingdom The Lord Ricketts GCMG GCVO British diplomat 2011
47 United Kingdom Sir Nigel Sheinwald GCMG British diplomat 2011
48 Barbados Sir Elliott Belgrave GCMG QC Governor-General of Barbados 2012
49 Grenada Dame Cécile La Grenade GCMG OBE Governor-General of Grenada 2013
50 Saint Kitts and Nevis Sir Edmund Lawrence GCMG OBE Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis 2013
51 The Bahamas Dame Marguerite Pindling GCMG Governor-General of the Bahamas 2014
52 Antigua and Barbuda Sir Rodney Williams GCMG Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda 2014
53 United Kingdom The Baroness Ashton of Upholland GCMG PC British diplomat 2015
54 United Kingdom Sir John Sawers GCMG British diplomat 2015
55 Saint Kitts and Nevis Sir Tapley Seaton GCMG CVO QC JP Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis 2015
56 United Kingdom Sir Simon Fraser GCMG British diplomat 2016
57 United Kingdom Sir Peter Westmacott GCMG LVO British diplomat 2016
58 Papua New Guinea Sir Robert Dadae GCMG Governor-General of Papua New Guinea 2017
59 Barbados Dame Sandra Mason GCMG DA QC Governor-General of Barbados 2017
60 United Kingdom Sir Mark Lyall Grant GCMG British diplomat & National Security Adviser 2018
61 Saint Lucia Sir Neville Cenac GCMG Governor-General of Saint Lucia 2018
62 The Bahamas Sir Cornelius A. Smith GCMG Governor-General of the Bahamas 2019
63 Solomon Islands Sir David Vunagi GCMG Governor-General of Solomon Islands 2019
64 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Dame Susan Dougan GCMG OBE Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2020


Honorary Knights/Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)

Star and collar of honorary GCMG worn by Serbian Field Marshal Živojin Mišić
Name Post-Nominals Known for Year
Iceland Vigdís Finnbogadóttir GCB GCMG Former President of Iceland 1982
Brunei Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah of Brunei GCB GCMG Sultan of Brunei 1984
Qatar Abdelaziz bin Khalifa Al Thani GCMG Member of the royal family of Qatar 1985
Nepal Gyanendra of Nepal GCMG Former King of Nepal 1986
Philippines Fidel V. Ramos GCMG Former President of the Philippines 1995
Poland Aleksander Kwaśniewski GCB GCMG Former President of Poland 1996
Maldives Maumoon Abdul Gayoom GCMG Former President of the Maldives 1997 [9]
Pakistan Nawaz Sharif GCMG Former Prime Minister of Pakistan 1997
Qatar Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani GCB GCMG Former Emir of Qatar 1997
Argentina Carlos Menem GCMG Former President of Argentina 1998
Mexico Ernesto Zedillo GCMG Former President of Mexico 1998
Peru Alberto Fujimori GCMG Former President of Peru 1998
Hungary János Martonyi GCMG Former Minister of Foreign Affairs 1999 [9]
Jordan Abdullah II of Jordan GCB GCMG KCVO King of Jordan 1999
Denmark Friis Arne Petersen GCMG Former Director of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark 2000
Italy Giuliano Amato GCMG Former Prime Minister of Italy 2000
Italy Lamberto Dini GCMG Former Prime Minister of Italy 2000
Italy Umberto Vattani GCMG Former Secretary General of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2000
Romania Emil Constantinescu GCMG Former President of Romania 2000
South Africa Thabo Mbeki GCB GCMG Former President of South Africa 2000
Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev GCMG Former President of Kazakhstan 2000
Jordan Ali Abu al-Ragheb GCMG Former Prime Minister of Jordan 2001
Portugal Jorge Sampaio GCMG Former President of Portugal 2001
Hong Kong Anson Chan GBM GCMG CBE JP Former Chief Secretary of Hong Kong 2002 [10]
Mexico Vicente Fox GCMG Former President of Mexico 2002 [9]
East Timor Xanana Gusmão GCMG, GCL, CNZM Former Prime Minister of East Timor 2003
Afghanistan Hamid Karzai GCMG Former President of Afghanistan 2003
Albania Alfred Moisiu GCMG Former President of Albania 2003
Poland Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz GCMG Former Prime Minister of Poland 2004
Italy Gianfranco Fini GCMG Former Deputy Prime Minister of Italy 2005
United Arab Emirates Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum GCMG Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates 2010 [11]
United Arab Emirates Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan GCMG Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi 2010 [12]
Kuwait Sabah Al Khalid Al Sabah GCMG Deputy Prime Minister of Kuwait 2012 [citation needed]
France Manuel Valls GCMG Former Prime Minister of France 2014 [13]
Malta Marie Louise Coleiro Preca GCMG Former President of Malta 2015 [14]

Honorary Knights/Dames Commander (KCMG/DCMG)

Knight Commander star of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Name Post-Nominals Known for Year
Bahrain Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa KCMG King of Bahrain 1979
United States Henry Kissinger KCMG Former United States Secretary of State 1995
Brazil Frederico Cezar de Araujo KCMG Brazilian diplomat 1997
Brazil Gelson Fonseca KCMG Brazilian diplomat 1997
Brazil Affonso Emilio de Alencastro Massot KCMG Brazilian diplomat 1997
Japan Takekazu Kawamura KCMG Japanese diplomat 1998
Germany Henrik Schmiegelow KCMG German diplomat 1998
Sweden Carl Bildt KCMG Former Prime Minister of Sweden & High Representative for Bosnia 1998 [15]
Hungary József Szájer KCMG Former Chairman of the European Integration Select Committee 1999
Denmark Jan Marcussen KCMG Danish diplomat 2000
Italy Carmela Decaro Bonella DCMG Former Deputy Director General and Director of the President of Italy’s Office 2000
Italy Luigo Guidobono Cavalchini KCMG Former Private Secretary to the Foreign Minister of Italy 2000
Italy Francesco Olivieri KCMG Former Diplomatic Adviser to the Prime Minister of Italy 2000
Spain Javier Solana KCMG Former Secretary General of NATO 2000
United States Richard Armitage KCMG, CNZM, AC Former United States Deputy Secretary of State 2005
Netherlands Jaap de Hoop Scheffer KCMG Former Secretary General of NATO 2010 [16]
Japan Sadako Ogata DCMG Japanese academic and diplomat 2011
Greece Efthymios Mitropoulos KCMG Former Secretary-General of International Maritime Organization 2011
Indonesia Marzuki Alie KCMG Former Speaker of the Indonesian House of Representatives 2012
Indonesia Irman Gusman KCMG Former Speaker of the Indonesian House of Regional Representatives 2012
Indonesia Marty Natalegawa KCMG Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia 2012
Indonesia Sudi Silalahi KCMG Former Secretary of State of Indonesia 2012
United Arab Emirates Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan KCMG Minister of Foreign Affairs of the UAE 2013
South Korea Yun Byung-se KCMG Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of South Korea 2013
Belgium Jacques Rogge KCMG Former President of the International Olympic Committee 2014
United States Angelina Jolie DCMG American actress, filmmaker, and humanitarian 2014 [17]
France Laurent Fabius KCMG Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of France 2014
France Laurent Stefanini KCMG Former Ambassador, Chief of Protocol to President Hollande 2014
Singapore Grace Fu DCMG Former Minister for Foreign Affairs of Singapore 2014
Denmark Anders Fogh Rasmussen KCMG Former Prime Minister of Denmark & Secretary General of NATO 2015 [18]
Mexico José Antonio Meade Kuribreña KCMG Former Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico 2015 [18]
Malta Joseph Muscat KCMG Former Prime Minister of Malta 2015 [18]
Belgium Peter Piot KCMG Belgian microbiologist 2016 [19]
Malta George Vella KCMG Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Malta and former President of Malta 2018
Jordan Zeid Raad Al Hussein KCMG Former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights 2019

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Duckers, Peter (2009) [2004]. British Orders and Decorations. Oxford: Shire Publications. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-7478-0580-9. OCLC 55587484.
  2. ^ a b c d e f The Royal Household (2009). "Order of St. Michael and St. George". The Official Website of the British Monarchy. London: Crown Copyright. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  3. ^ Townsend, Francis (1828). Calendar of Knights. William Pickering. p. 206.
  4. ^ "Knights/Knighthoods genealogy project". geni_family_tree. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  5. ^ Evelyn Bark, article in The Independent
  6. ^ Joseph Netto; Leah Asmelash. "Jamaica's governor-general suspends personal use of royal insignia over 'offending image'". CNN. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  7. ^ Henry POOLE 1873–1928 (Tate Britain); retrieved 1 October 2009.
  8. ^ Cross, Colin (1968). The Fall of the British Empire. London: Book Club Associates.
  9. ^ a b c [1]
  10. ^ "H.K.'s ex-No. 2 leader Anson Chan honored by Queen Elizabeth". Findarticles. 11 November 2002. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
  11. ^ Alice Johnson Khalifa, Queen Elizabeth II exchange orders. Gulf News. 26 November 2010 Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  12. ^ List of honorary British knights and dames
  13. ^ "Honorary awards" (PDF). Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  14. ^ "Honorary awards" (PDF). Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  15. ^ [2] Archived 1 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "Hoge Britse ridderorde voor De Hoop Scheffer" (in Dutch).
  17. ^ "Honorary British Awards to Foreign Nationals – 2014". Archived from the original on 16 October 2014.
  18. ^ a b c "Honorary British Awards to Foreign Nationals – 2015" (PDF).
  19. ^ "Honorary awards" (PDF).