Comorian languages

Ngiri language Myene language Yansi language
Comorian
shikomori/شِكُمُرِ
Native toComoros and Mayotte
RegionThroughout Comoros and Mayotte; also in Madagascar and Réunion
Native speakers
800,000 in Comoros[1] and 300,000 in Mayotte[2][3] (2011 and 2007)
Arabic
Latin
Official status
Official language in
 Comoros
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
zdj – Ngazidja dialect
wni – Ndzwani (Anjouani) dialect
swb – Maore dialect
wlc – Mwali dialect
Glottologcomo1260[4]
G.44[5]

Comorian (Shikomori or Shimasiwa, the "language of islands") is the name given to a group of four Bantu languages spoken in the Comoro Islands, an archipelago in the southwestern Indian Ocean between Mozambique and Madagascar. It is named as one of the official languages of the Union of the Comoros in the Comorian constitution. Shimaore, one of the languages, is spoken on the disputed island of Mayotte, a French department claimed by Comoros. Like Swahili, the Comorian languages are Sabaki languages, part of the Bantu language family. Each island has its own language and the four are conventionally divided into two groups: the eastern group is composed of Shindzuani (spoken on Ndzuani) and Shimaore (Mayotte), while the western group is composed of Shimwali (Mwali) and Shingazija (Ngazidja). Although the languages of different groups are not usually mutually intelligible, only sharing about 80% of their lexicon, there is mutual intelligibility between the languages within each group, suggesting that Shikomori should be considered as a two language groups rather than four distinct languages.[6]

Historically, the language was written in the Ajami script. The French colonial administration introduced the Latin script, of which a modified version was officially decreed in 2009.[7] Many Comorians now use the Latin script when writing the Comorian language although the Ajami script is still widely used, especially by women.

It is the language of Umodja wa Masiwa, the national anthem.

Phonology

The consonants and vowels in the Comorian languages:

Vowels

Front Back
Close i ĩ u ũ
Mid e o
Open a ã

Consonants

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Palato-
alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless p t ʈ k
voiced (b) (d) ɖ ɡ
implosive ɓ ɗ
vl. prenasal ᵐp ⁿt ᶯʈ ᵑk
vd. prenasal (ᵐb) (ⁿd) ᶯɖ ᵑɡ
impl. prenasal ᵐɓ ⁿɗ
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡ʃ
voiced d͡z d͡ʒ
vl. prenasal ⁿt͡s ⁿt͡ʃ
vd. prenasal ⁿd͡z ⁿd͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f θ s ʃ x h
voiced β v ð z ʒ ɣ
Nasal m n ɲ
Approximant w l j
Trill r

The consonants mb, nd, b, d are phonetically recognized as ranging from [ᵐɓ~ᵐb], [ⁿɗ~ⁿd], [ɓ~b], [ɗ~d].

References

  1. ^ "Udzima wa Komori". Université Laval, 2325, rue de l'Université. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  2. ^ Daniel Barreteau. "Premiers résultats d'une enquête sociolinguistique auprès des élèves de CM2 de Mayotte" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-17.
  3. ^ "Population of Mayotte". INSEE.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Comorian Bantu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  6. ^ Breslar, 1981; Ahmed-Chamanga, 2010
  7. ^ Ahmed-Chamanga, 2010