Mykonos

Syros Tinos Delos

Mykonos

Μύκονος
Flag of Mykonos.svg
Flag
Nickname(s): 
Νησί των ανέμων (Nēsí tōn anémōn, "Island of the winds")
In red, Mykonos and neighboring Rineia and Delos islands within the South Aegean
In red, Mykonos and neighboring Rineia and Delos islands within the South Aegean
Coordinates: 37°27′32″N 25°21′51″E / 37.45889°N 25.36417°E / 37.45889; 25.36417Coordinates: 37°27′32″N 25°21′51″E / 37.45889°N 25.36417°E / 37.45889; 25.36417
Country Greece
RegionSouth Aegean
CapitalMykonos (town)
Area
 • Total85.5 km2 (33.0 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total10,134
 • Density120/km2 (310/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Mykonians
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal codes
846 00
Area codes22890
Car platesEM
Websitewww.mykonos.gr

Mykonos (/ˈmɪkənɒs, -ns/,[1][2] also UK: /ˈmk-/;[3] Greek: Μύκονος [ˈmikonos]) is a Greek island, part of the Cyclades, lying between Tinos, Syros, Paros and Naxos. The island has an area of 85.5 square kilometres (33.0 sq mi) and rises to an elevation of 341 metres (1,119 feet) at its highest point. There are 10,134 inhabitants according to the 2011 census, most of whom live in the largest town, Mykonos, which lies on the west coast. The town is also known as Chora (i.e. the Town in Greek, following the common practice in Greece when the name of the island itself is the same as the name of the principal town).

Mykonos's nickname is "The Island of the Winds".[4][5] Tourism is a major industry and Mykonos is known for its vibrant nightlife and for being a gay-friendly destination with many establishments catering for the LGBT community.[6][7][8]

History

Herodotus mentions Carians as the original inhabitants of the island.[9] Ionians from Athens seem to have followed next in the early 11th century BC. There were many people living on the neighbouring island of Delos, only 2 km (1.2 miles) away, which meant that Mykonos became an important place for supplies and transit. It was, however, during ancient times a rather poor island with limited agricultural resources. Its inhabitants were polytheists and worshipped many gods.[10]

Mykonos town (Chora)

Mykonos came under the control of the Romans during the reign of the Roman Empire and then became part of the Byzantine Empire until the 12th century. In 1204, with the fall of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade, Mykonos was occupied by Andrea Ghisi. The island was ravaged by the Catalans at the end of the 13th century and finally given over to direct Venetian rule in 1390.

In 1537, while the Venetians still reigned, Mykonos was attacked by Hayreddin Barbarossa, the admiral of Suleiman the Magnificent and an Ottoman fleet established itself on the island. The Ottomans, under the leadership of Kapudan Pasha, imposed a system of self-governance comprising a governor and an appointed council of syndics. When the castle of Tinos fell to the Ottomans in 1718, the last of the Venetians withdrew from the region.

Up until the end of the 18th century, Mykonos prospered as a trading centre, attracting many immigrants from nearby islands, in addition to regular pirate raids. In June 1794 the Battle of Mykonos was fought between British and French ships in the island's main harbour.

The Greek Revolution against the Ottoman Empire broke out in 1821 and Mykonos played an important role, led by the national heroine, Manto Mavrogenous. Mavrogenous, a well-educated aristocrat guided by the ideas of the Enlightenment, sacrificed her family's fortune for the Greek cause. Greece became an independent state in 1830. A statue of her sits in the middle of Mando Mavrogenous square in the main town.

As a result of sailing and merchant activity, the island's economy quickly picked up but declined again during the late 19th century and especially after the opening of the Corinth Canal in 1904 and the First World War at the beginning of the 20th century. Many Mykonians left the island to find work in mainland Greece and many foreign countries, especially the United States.[11]

Tourism soon came to dominate the local economy, owing a lot to the important excavations carried out by the French School of Archaeology, which began work in Delos in 1873.

Mythology

In Greek mythology, Mykonos was named after its first ruler, Mykonos (Μύκονος),[12] the son or grandson of the god Apollo and a local hero. The island is also said to have been the location of the Gigantomachy, the great battle between Zeus and Giants and where Hercules killed the invincible giants having lured them from the protection of Mount Olympus. According to myth, the large rocks all over the island are said to be the petrified corpses of the giants.[13]

Geography

Panoramic view of Chora port
Village of Ano Mera
Houses of Chora
An example of tourism driven Cycladic architecture

The island has an area of 85.5 square kilometres (33.0 sq mi) and rises to an elevation of 341 metres (1,119 feet) at its highest point. It is situated 150 kilometres (93 miles) east of Athens in the Aegean Sea. The island features no rivers, but numerous seasonal streams two of which have been converted into reservoirs.

The island is composed mostly of granite and the terrain is very rocky with many areas eroded by the strong winds. High quality clay and baryte, which is a mineral used as a lubricant in oil drilling, were mined on the eastern side of Mykonos until the late 1900s.

It produces 4,500 cubic metres (160,000 cu ft) of water daily, by reverse osmosis of sea water in order to help meet the needs of its population and visitors.[14]

The island has a population of nearly 12,500, most of whom live in the main town of Chora.[15]

Climate

Mykonos has a Mediterranean climate. The sun shines for up to 300 days a year. The rainy season lasts from October until March.[citation needed] Vegetation follows the typical pattern for the region and grows around mid-autumn and ends in the beginning of the summer.[16]

Although temperatures can rise as high as 40 °C (104 °F) in the summer months, average high temperature is around 28 °C (82 °F) and because of the seasonal cool "meltemi" wind, summer days are dry, sunny and pleasant. In the winter, average high temperature is around 15 °C (59 °F). The winters in general are mild and wet, with many sunny days still even in mid-winter. Snow is infrequent and doesn't stay long on the ground when it falls.

Villages

There are ten villages:

Cuisine

Baklava Mykonos

Local specialities:[citation needed]

Government

The town hall annex (Town Hall is to its left)

The municipality of Mykonos (officially: Greek: Δήμος Μυκόνου) is a separate regional unit of the South Aegean region, and the sole municipality in the regional unit.[17] As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Mykonos was created out of part of the former Cyclades Prefecture. The municipality, unchanged at the Kallikratis reform, also includes the islands Delos, Rineia and several uninhabited islets. The total area of the municipality is 105.183 km2 (40.611 sq mi).[18]

The mayors of Mykonos have been:

[19]

Demographics

There are 10,134 inhabitants (2011) most of whom live in the largest town, Mykonos, also known as Chora (i.e. the Town in Greek, a common denomination in Greece when the name of the island itself is the same as the name of the principal town).[citation needed]

Year Municipality population
1971 3,863
1981 5,530
1991 6,179
2001 9,320
2011 10,134

Economy

It being a Greek island, the economy of Mykonos is closely linked with the sea. However, with the rise of tourism, it plays a minor role during summer.[20]

Landmarks

Against Greek skies, one of the Mykonos Island Windmills, Chora. Cyclades, Aegean Sea, Greece
Chora or lower windmills
Mikri Venetia (Little Venice)
Elia Beach

The original Neoclassical building underwent refurbishments and expansions in the 1930s and 1960s and the large eastern room was added in 1972. The museum contains artefacts from the neighbouring island Rhenia, including 9th- to 8th-century BC ceramic pottery from the Cyclades and 7th- to 6th-century BC works from other areas in the Aegean. Its most famous item is the large vase produced in Tinos, showing scenes from the fall of Troy.[27]

Aegean Maritime Museum exhibit

Churches

Monastery in Ano Mera

The reason for the abundance of churches is that for a number of years to build a house, the islanders were required to build a church on their land first.

Transportation

Mykonos Airport is located 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) southeast of the town of Mykonos and it is served by international flights during summer. The flight from Athens to Mykonos takes 25 minutes.[34]

Mykonos is also accessible by boat and ferries. High speed vessels visit daily from the surrounding islands and from Athens.[35]

Taxis, buses or boats are available for transportation. There are three main bus depots in Mykonos. The northern depot is situated behind Remezzo Club above the old Port and provides regular service to Ano Mera, Elia and Kalafatis. A few hundred meters below, at the Old Port, lays another Depot focusing on the northern destinations of Tourlos (New Port) and Agios Stefanos. The southern Bus Depot is at the town "entrance", called Fabrika and it provides regular service to Ornos, Agios Yannis, Plati Gialos, Psarou, Paraga, and Paradise Beach. Small boats travel to and from the many beaches.[36] Tour boats go regularly to the nearby island of Delos.[37]

Culture

In 2013 the Mykonos Biennale was inaugurated offering theatrical, cultural, cinematic, artistic, and musical productions.[38]

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ "Mykonos". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  2. ^ "Mykonos". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  3. ^ "Mykonos". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  4. ^ "Mykonos – The Island of the Winds". Travel Wide World. 2014-02-11. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  5. ^ "The island of the winds and blue seas". World News. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  6. ^ Duncan Garwood, Mediterranean Europe, 2009
  7. ^ Lloyd E. Hudman, Richard H. Jackson, Geography of travel and tourism, 2003
  8. ^ Harry Coccossis, Alexandra Mexa, The challenge of tourism carrying capacity assessment: theory and practice, 2004
  9. ^ Herodotus' Histories.
  10. ^ Christopher Street. That New Magazine, Incorporated. 1995. p. 19. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  11. ^ Tsakos, Konstantinos (1998). Delos-Mykonos: A Guide to the History and Archaeology. Delos Island: Hesperos. ISBN 9789608623712.
  12. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s. vv. Andros, Mykonos
  13. ^ Freely, John (4 June 2006). The Cyclades: Discovering the Greek Islands of the Aegean. I.B.Tauris. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-84511-160-1. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  14. ^ Xenarios, George; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Tzen, Eftihia (January 2013). "Wind desalination for the Island of Mykonos in Greece: a case study". Desalination and Water Treatment. 51 (4–6): 1219–1228. doi:10.1080/19443994.2012.714603.
  15. ^ "Mykonos Island Geography". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  16. ^ "Mykonos Weather". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  17. ^ "Kallikratis reform law text" (PDF).
  18. ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece.
  19. ^ https://www.eetaa.gr/index.php?tag=dhmekl_details&id=728
  20. ^ "Mykonos, often called as the Ibiza of Greece - Greeka.com". Greeka. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  21. ^ "Mykonos Municipal Library". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  22. ^ "Petros the Pelican". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  23. ^ "Windmills of Mykonos". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  24. ^ "Little Venice". In My Kyonos.
  25. ^ "Armenistis Lighthouse". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  26. ^ "The Three Wells".
  27. ^ "Archaeological Museum". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  28. ^ "The Aegean Maritime Museum". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  29. ^ "Folklore Museum of Mykonos".
  30. ^ "Lena's House". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  31. ^ "Agricultural Museum". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  32. ^ "Panagia Paraportiani". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  33. ^ "Catholic Church". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  34. ^ Mykonos Airport Info Center, Mykonos Airport - Welcome
  35. ^ "Travel To Mykonos".
  36. ^ "Getting Around Mykonos". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  37. ^ "mykonos tours, excursions, day trips, cruises, Delos". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  38. ^ "metamatic:taf".
  39. ^ "Mykonos Web - About Mykonos - Gr". Retrieved 20 February 2015.