Mohammed VI of Morocco

Wikipedia:Citation needed Moulay Hassan, Crown Prince of Morocco Hassan II of Morocco

Mohammed VI
Amir al-Mu'minin
Mohammed standing behind a lectern
King of Morocco
Reign23 July 1999 – present
PredecessorHassan II
Heir apparentMoulay Hassan
Prime Ministers
Born (1963-08-21) 21 August 1963 (age 57)
Rabat, Morocco
(m. 2001)
Full name
Sidi Mohammed Bin Hassan al Alaoui سيدي محمد بن الحسن العلوي
Arabic / Berberالملك محمد السادس / ⴰⴳⴳⵍⵉⴷ ⵎⵓⵃⴰⵎⵎⴷ ⵙⴷⵉⵙ
FatherHassan II of Morocco
MotherLalla Latifa Hammou
ReligionSunni Islam

Mohammed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس‎; Berber languages: ⴰⴳⴳⵍⵉⴷ ⵎⵓⵃⴰⵎⵎⴷ ⵙⴷⵉⵙ agglid muhammd sdis; born 21 August 1963)[1] is the King of Morocco. He belongs to the Alaouite dynasty and ascended to the throne on 23 July 1999 upon the death of his father, King Hassan II.[2]

In 2019, his net worth was estimated around US$2.1 billion[3] and he is the richest king in Africa in 2014 according to the American business magazine Forbes.[4] and he is the 5th richest king in the world.

Early life and education

Mohammed VI was the second child and oldest son of Hassan II and his secondary wife, Lalla Latifa Hammou.[5] On the day of his birth, Mohammed was appointed Heir Apparent and Crown Prince.[citation needed] His father was keen on giving him a religious and political education from an early age; at the age of four he started attending the Qur'anic school at the Royal Palace.[1]

Mohammed completed his first primary and secondary studies at Collège Royal and attained his Baccalaureate in 1981, before gaining a bachelor's degree in law at the Mohammed V University at Agdal in 1985.[6] His research paper dealt with "the Arab-African Union and the Strategy of the Kingdom of Morocco in matters of International Relations".[1] He has also frequented the Imperial College and University of Rabat.[citation needed] He was furthermore appointed President of the Pan Arab Games, and was commissioned a Colonel Major of the Royal Moroccan Army on 26 November 1985. He served as the Coordinator of the Offices and Services of the Royal Armed Forces until 1994.[citation needed]

In 1987, Mohammed obtained his first Certificat d'Études Supérieures (CES) in political sciences, and in July 1988 he obtained a Diplôme d'Études Approfondies (DEA) in public law.[1] In November 1988, he trained in Brussels with Jacques Delors, then-President of the European Commission.[1]

Mohammed obtained his PhD in law with distinction on 29 October 1993 from the French University of Nice Sophia Antipolis for his thesis on "EEC-Maghreb Relations".[1] On 12 July 1994, he was promoted to the military rank of Major General, and that same year he became President of the High Council of Culture and Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Moroccan Army.

He speaks Arabic, Berber, English, French and Spanish.[7]

The New York Times reported that prior to ascending to the throne, Mohammed "gained a reputation as a playboy during the years he spent waiting in the wings, showing a fondness for fast cars and nightclubs."[8]

King of Morocco

On 23 July 1999, Mohammed succeeded his father as king, being enthroned in Rabat on 30 July.[citation needed]

Social reforms and liberalization

Mohammed VI (right) talking to US President George W. Bush in Washington on 23 April 2002.
Mohammed VI with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in 2014
Mohammed VI (left) with Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2004.
Mohammed VI (left) with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016.

Shortly after he took the throne, Mohammed addressed his nation via television, promising to take on poverty and corruption, while creating jobs and improving Morocco's human rights record. Mohammed's reformist rhetoric was opposed by Islamist conservatives, and some of his reforms angered fundamentalists. In February 2004, he enacted a new family code, or Mudawana, which granted women more power.[9]

Mohammed also created the so-called Instance Equité et Réconciliation (IER), which was tasked with researching human rights violations under Hassan II. This move was welcomed by many as promoting democracy, but was also criticized because reports of human rights violations could not name the perpetrators. According to human rights organisations, widespread abuses still exist in Morocco.[10][11][12] The 2011 Moroccan protests were motivated by corruption and general political discontentment, as well as by the hardships of the global economic crisis.

In December 2010, the whistleblowing website WikiLeaks published diplomatic cables which alleged high-level corruption involving the king himself.[13]

In a speech delivered on 9 March 2011, he said that parliament would receive "new powers that enable it to discharge its representative, legislative, and regulatory mission". In addition, the powers of the judiciary were granted greater independence from the King, who announced that he was impaneling a committee of legal scholars to produce a draft constitution by June 2011.[14] On 1 July, voters approved a set of political reforms proposed by Mohammed.

The reforms consisted of the following:[15]

In January 2017, Morocco banned the manufacturing, marketing and sale of the burqa.[28]

20 February Movement

The legitimacy of the king was contested in 2011 with the 20 February Movement that attempted to undermine the functioning of the monarchic system.

Royal pardon scandal

Protests broke out in Rabat, the capital of Morocco, on 2 August 2013, after Mohammed pardoned 48 jailed Spaniards, including a pedophile who had been serving a 30-year sentence for raping 11 children aged between 4 and 15. He has since revoked the pardon, after popular outrage.[29]

Business and wealth

Graphic detailing ownership of the palace-controlled holding[30] the Société National d'investissement as of June 2013.

Mohammed is Morocco's leading businessman and banker.[30] In 2015, he was estimated by Forbes magazine to be worth US$2.5 billion,[31] and the Moroccan Royal Family has one of the largest fortunes in the world.[32] Along with his family, they hold the majority stakes in the Société Nationale d'Investissement (SNI), which was originally state-owned but was merged in 2013 with Omnium Nord Africain (ONA Group), to form a single holding company that was taken off the Casablanca Stock Exchange—resulting in the scrapping of an equivalent of 50 billion Dirhams Marketcap (~US$6 billion).[33] SNI has a diverse portfolio consisting of many important businesses in Morocco and operating in various sectors such as; Attijariwafa Bank (banking), Managem (mining), Onapar, SOMED (tourism/real-estate and exclusive distributor of Maserati), Wafa Assurance (insurance), Marjane (hypermarket chain), Wana-Inwi (telecommunications), SONASID (Siderurgy), Lafarge Maroc (cSopriam (exclusive distributor of Peugeot-Citroën in Morocco), Renault Maroc (exclusive distributor of Renault in Morocco) and Nareva (energy).[34][35] SNI also owns many food-processing companies and is currently in the process of disengaging from this sector.[34] Between mid-2012 and 2013 SNI sold; Lessieur, Centrale Laitière, Bimo and Cosumar to foreign groups for a total amount of ~$1.37 billion (11.4 billion Dirhams including 9.7 billion in 2013 and 1.7 in 2012).[34]

SNI and ONA both owned stakes in Brasseries du Maroc, the largest alcoholic beverages manufacturer and distributor of brands such as Heineken in the country.[36]

Mohammed is also a leading agricultural producer and land owner in Morocco, where agriculture is exempted from taxes.[34] His holding company "Siger" has shares in the large agricultural group "Les domaines agricoles" (originally called "Les domaines royaux", now commonly known as "Les domaines"), which was founded by Hassan II.[34] In 2008, Telquel estimated that "Les domaines" had a revenue of $157 million (1.5 billion Dirhams), with 170,000 tons of citrus exported in that year.[34] According to the same magazine, the company officially owns 12,000 hectares of agricultural lands.[34] "Chergui", a manufacturer of dairy products, is the most recognizable brand of the group.[34] Between 1994 and 2004, the group has been managed by Mohammed VI's brother-in-law Khalid Benharbit, the husband of Princess Lalla Hasna.[34] "Les domaines" also owns the "Royal Golf de Marrakech", which originally belonged to Thami El Glaoui.[34]

His palace's daily operating budget is reported by Forbes to be $960,000—which is paid by the Moroccan state as part of a 2.576 billion Dirhams/year budget as of 2014[37]—owing much of it to the expense of personnel, clothes, and car repairs.[32]

Allegations of corruption

Royal involvement in business is a major topic in Morocco but public discussion of it is sensitive. The US embassy in Rabat reported to Washington in a leaked cable that "corruption is prevalent at all levels of Moroccan society".[13] Corruption allegedly reaches the highest levels in Morocco, where the business interests of Mohammed and some of his advisors influence "every large housing project," according to WikiLeaks documents quoted in The Guardian newspaper.[38] The documents released by the whistleblower website also quote the case of a businessman working for a US consortium, whose plans in Morocco were paralysed for months after he refused to join forces with a company linked with the royal palace. Decisions on big investments in the kingdom were taken by only three people, the documents quote a company executive linked to the royal family as saying. The three are the king, his secretary Mounir Majidi, and the monarch's close friend, adviser and former classmate Fouad Ali Himma, the executive said at a meeting with potential investors in a Gulf country. This corruption especially affects the housing sector, the WikiLeaks documents show.[39]

In April 2016, Mounir Majidi, the personal secretary of Mohammed, was named in the Panama Papers.[40][41]


Mohammed has one brother, Prince Moulay Rachid, and three sisters: Princess Lalla Meryem, Princess Lalla Asma, and Princess Lalla Hasna. The New York Times noted "conflicting reports about whether the new monarch had been married on Friday night, within hours of his father's death [in 1999]... to heed a Moroccan tradition that a King be married before he ascends the throne." A palace official subsequently denied that a marriage had taken place.[8]

On 21 March 2002, Mohammed married Salma Bennani (now H.R.H. Princess Lalla Salma) in Rabat.[citation needed] Bennani was granted the personal title of Princess with the title of Her Royal Highness on her marriage. They have two children: Crown Prince Moulay Hassan, who was born on 8 May 2003, and Princess Lalla Khadija, who was born on 28 February 2007.[9]

Mohammed's birthday on 21 August is a public holiday,[42] although festivities were cancelled upon the death of his aunt in 2014.[43]


Name Date of birth Place of birth Age
Crown Prince Moulay Hassan (2003-05-08)8 May 2003 Royal Palace, Rabat, Morocco 17
Princess Lalla Khadija (2007-02-28)28 February 2007 Royal Palace, Rabat, Morocco 13

Titles, styles and honours

Royal styles of
King Mohammed VI of Morocco
Coat of arms of Morocco.svg
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty

Titles and styles

The official style of Mohammed is "His Majesty the King Mohammed the Sixth, Commander of the Faithful, may God grant him victory" (صاحب الجلالة الملك محمد السادس أمير المؤمنين نصره الله Ṣāḥib al-Jalālah al-Malik Muḥammad al-Sādis, 'Amīr al-Mu'minīn, Naṣṣarahu-Illāh). When he is executing his duty as head of the Royal Moroccan Armed Forces, he is generally referred to as the "Commander-in-Chief."

Honours and decorations

National orders:

Mohammed has received numerous honours and decorations from various countries, some of which are listed below.

Foreign orders:

On 22 June 2000, Mohammed received an honorary doctorate from George Washington University.[55]


See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f "King Mohammed Ben Al-Hassan". Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco. Archived from the original on 7 April 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  2. ^ "World: Africa Mohammed VI takes Moroccan throne". BBC News. 24 July 1999. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  3. ^ Hoffower, Hillary. "Meet the 10 richest billionaire royals in the world right now". Business Insider.
  4. ^ "The 5 richest kings in Africa". Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  5. ^ (24 July 1999).Morocco's King Hassan dies, aged 70, Independent Online (South Africa)
  6. ^ "Biography of HM. King MohammedVI",
  7. ^ "Biography of HM. King Mohammed VI". Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  8. ^ a b "In Morocco, Too, a Young King for a New Generation" New York Times, 27 July 1999
  9. ^ a b "Morocco country profile". BBC News. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  10. ^ MacFarquhar, Neil (1 October 2005). "In Morocco, a Rights Movement, at the King's Pace". New York Times. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  11. ^ Harter, Pascale (19 April 2005). "Facing up to Morocco's hidden fear". BBC News. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  12. ^ "Morocco/Western Sahara: Amnesty International welcomes public hearings into past violations". Amnesty International. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  13. ^ a b Black, Ian (6 December 2010). "WikiLeaks cables accuse Moroccan royals of corruption". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  14. ^ Mohammed VI speech. (9 March 2011). Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  15. ^ a b BBC News (29 June 2011). "Q&A: Morocco's referendum on reform". Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  16. ^ A standardized version of the 3 native Berber dialects of Morocco: Tashelhit, Central Atlas Tamazight and Tarifit.
  17. ^ a b Article 5 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  18. ^ Article 47 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  19. ^ a b c 1996 Moroccan constitution
  20. ^ Article 46 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  21. ^ Article 91 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  22. ^ Article 49 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  23. ^ a b c AFP. "Maroc: la réforme constitutionnelle préconise de limiter certains pouvoirs du roi". Parisien. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  24. ^ Article 71 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  25. ^ Article 107 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution.
  26. ^ Voice of America (30 July 2011). "Moroccan King Calls for Prompt Parliamentary Elections". Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  27. ^ Driss Bennani, Mohammed Boudarham and Fahd Iraqi. "nouvelle constitution. plus roi que jamais". Telquel. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  28. ^ Ennaji, Moha. "Why Morocco's burqa ban is more than just a security measure". The Conversation. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  29. ^ Yaakoubi, Aziz El. (3 August 2013) Moroccan police break up protest against royal pardon of Spanish pedophile. Retrieved on 22 July 2015.
  30. ^ a b GREENE (24 April 2008). "MOROCCAN ROYAL FAMILY HOLDING ONA FIRES CEO". Consulate Casablanca. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  31. ^ "In Pictures: World's Richest Royals". Forbes. 17 June 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  32. ^ a b Pendleton, Devon; Serafin, Tatiana (30 August 2007). "In Pictures: The World's Richest Royals". Forbes.
  33. ^ Iraqi, Fahd; Mehdi Michbal (14 June 2013). "SNO - Le nouveau visage du business royal". Telquel. Archived from the original on 29 November 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tounassi, Fédoua (12 December 2008). "Enquête. Les jardins du roi". Telquel. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  35. ^ Ahmed Reda Benchemsi; Fahd Iraqi (18 July 2009). "Le Businessman" (PDF). TelQuel. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  36. ^ SQALLI, Nouaim (3 January 2006). "Bourse: Les filiales de l'ONA boostent le marché de blocs". l'Economiste. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  37. ^ Benseddik, Ahmed (12 November 2013). "Benkirane a bien augmenté le budget royal de " Sidna "". Demain Online. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  38. ^ "US embassy cables: Moroccan sacking exposes king's business role". The Guardian. 6 December 2010.
  39. ^ "US embassy cables: Moroccan businessman reveals royal corruption, claims US cable". The Guardian. 6 December 2010.
  40. ^ "Panama Papers: The Power Players". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  41. ^ "Mohammed VI aime les îles Vierges" Le Monde, 04 April 2016
  42. ^ "Morocco Official, Public and National Holidays". Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  43. ^ "title". Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  44. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado. (PDF) . Retrieved on 22 July 2015.
  45. ^ "HONORARY KNIGHTS AND DAMES". Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  46. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado. (PDF) . Retrieved on 22 July 2015.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z HM King Mohammed VI.
  48. ^ Quirinale website. Retrieved on 25 July 2016.
  49. ^ a b "ENTIDADES ESTRANGEIRAS AGRACIADAS COM ORDENS PORTUGUESAS - Página Oficial das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas". Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  50. ^ Quirinale website. Retrieved on 22 July 2015.
  51. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado. (PDF) . Retrieved on 22 July 2015.
  52. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado. (PDF) . Retrieved on 22 July 2015.
  53. ^ (Wam). "Morocco King honoured with Order of Zayed - Khaleej Times". Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  54. ^ "King Mohammed VI Awarded Grand Cross of the Order of La Pleiade". Morocco World News. 25 May 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  55. ^ "His Majesty The King Mohammed VI". Embassy of the kingdom of Morocco to United States of America. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.