Minnesota Twins

New York Yankees Bert Blyleven Kirby Puckett

Minnesota Twins
2020 Minnesota Twins season
Established in 1901
Based in Minnesota since 1961
Minnesota Twins logo (low res).svgMinnesota Twins Insignia.svg
Team logoCap insignia
Major league affiliations
Current uniform
Retired numbers
Other nicknames
  • Twinkies, Nats (1905-1955), Grifs (1912-1920), Little Piranhas (2006), Bomba Squad (2019)
Major league titles
World Series titles (3)
AL Pennants (6)
West/Central Division titles (11)
Wild card berths (1)2017
Front office
Principal owner(s)Jim Pohlad
ManagerRocco Baldelli[3]
General managerThad Levine[4][5]
President of baseball operationsDerek Falvey (chief baseball officer)[6][7]

The Minnesota Twins are an American professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Twins compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the American League (AL) Central Division. The team is named after the Twin Cities area which includes the two adjoining cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul.

The franchise was founded in Washington, D.C. in 1901 as the Washington Senators. The team relocated to Minnesota and was renamed the "Minnesota Twins" at the start of the 1961 season. The Twins played in Metropolitan Stadium from 1961 to 1981 and in the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome from 1982 to 2009. The team played its inaugural game at Target Field on April 12, 2010.[8] The franchise won the World Series in 1924 as the Senators,[9] and in 1987 and 1991 as the Twins.

Through the 2019 season, the team has fielded 19 American League batting champions.[10][11] The team has hosted five All-Star Games: 1937 and 1956 in Washington, D.C.; and 1965, 1985, and 2014 in Minneapolis-St. Paul.

From 1901 to 2019, the Twins overall win-loss record is 8903-9603 (a 0.481 win-loss "percentage").[12]

Team history

Washington Nationals/Senators: 1901–1960

Washington's Bucky Harris scores on his home run in the fourth inning of Game 7 of the 1924 World Series.

The team was founded in Washington, D.C. in 1901 as one of the eight original teams of the American League, named the Washington Senators from 1901 to 1904, the Washington Nationals from 1905 to 1955, and the Senators again from 1956 to 1960 but nonetheless was commonly referred to as the Senators throughout its history (and unofficially as the "Grifs" during Clark Griffith's tenure as manager from 1912 to 1920).[13] The name "Nationals" appeared on uniforms for only two seasons, and then was replaced with the "W" logo. The media often shortened the nickname to "Nats" — even for the 1961 expansion team. The names "Nationals" and "Nats" were revived in 2005, when the Montreal Expos relocated to Washington to become the Nationals.

The Washington Senators spent the first decade of their existence finishing near the bottom of the American League standings. The team's long bouts of mediocrity were immortalized in the 1955 Broadway musical Damn Yankees.[14] Their fortunes began to improve with the arrival of 19-year-old pitcher, Walter Johnson, in 1907. Johnson blossomed in 1911 with 25 victories, although the Senators still finished the season in seventh place.[15] In 1912, the Senators improved dramatically, as their pitching staff led the league in team earned run average and in strikeouts. Johnson won 33 games while teammate Bob Groom added another 24 wins to help the Senators finish the season in second place.[16] Griffith joined the team in 1912 and became the team's owner in 1920.[17] (The franchise remained under Griffith family ownership until 1984.[18]) The Senators continued to perform respectably in 1913 with Johnson posting a career-high 35 victories, as the team once again finished in second place.[19] The Senators then fell into another period of decline for the next decade.

The team had a period of prolonged success in the 1920s and 1930s, led by Walter Johnson, as well as additional Hall-of-Famer Bucky Harris, Goose Goslin, Sam Rice, Heinie Manush, and Joe Cronin.[20] In particular, a rejuvenated Johnson rebounded in 1924 to win 23 games with the help of his catcher, Muddy Ruel, as the Senators won the American League pennant for the first time in the history of the franchise.[21] The Senators then faced John McGraw's heavily favored New York Giants in the 1924 World Series.[22] The two teams traded wins back and forth with three games of the first six being decided by one run.[23][24] In the deciding 7th game, the Senators were trailing the Giants 3–1 in the 8th inning when Bucky Harris hit a routine ground ball to third which hit a pebble and took a bad hop over Giants third baseman Freddie Lindstrom. Two runners scored on the play, tying the score at three.[25] An aging Walter Johnson then came in to pitch the ninth inning, and held the Giants scoreless into extra innings. In the bottom of the twelfth inning with Ruel at bat, he hit a high, foul ball directly over home plate.[26] The Giants' catcher, Hank Gowdy, dropped his protective mask to field the ball but, failing to toss the mask aside, stumbled over it and dropped the ball, thus giving Ruel another chance to bat.[26] On the next pitch, Ruel hit a double and proceeded to score the winning run when Earl McNeely hit a ground ball that took another bad hop over Lindstrom's head.[25][26] This would mark the only World Series triumph for the franchise during their 60-year tenure in Washington.

The following season they repeated as American League champions but ultimately lost the 1925 World Series to the Pittsburgh Pirates. After Walter Johnson's retirement in 1927, he was hired as manager of the Senators. After enduring a few losing seasons, the team returned to contention in 1930. In 1933, Senators owner Griffith returned to the formula that worked for him nine years prior: 26-year-old shortstop Joe Cronin became player-manager. The Senators posted a 99–53 record and cruised to the pennant seven games ahead of the New York Yankees, but in the 1933 World Series the Giants exacted their revenge winning in five games. Following the loss, the Senators sank all the way to seventh place in 1934 and attendance began to fall. Despite the return of Harris as manager from 1935 to 1942 and again from 1950 to 1954, Washington was mostly a losing ball club for the next 25 years contending for the pennant only during World War II. Washington came to be known as "first in war, first in peace, and last in the American League",[27] with their hard luck being crucial to the plot of the musical and film Damn Yankees. Cecil Travis, Buddy Myer (1935 A.L. batting champion), Roy Sievers, Mickey Vernon (batting champion in 1946 and 1953), and Eddie Yost were notable Senators players whose careers were spent in obscurity due to the team's lack of success.[28][29] In 1954, the Senators signed future Hall of Fame member Harmon Killebrew. By 1959 he was the Senators’ regular third baseman and led the league with 42 home runs earning him a starting spot on the American League All-Star team.

President Calvin Coolidge (left) and Washington Senators pitcher Walter Johnson (right) shake hands following the Senators' 1924 championship.

After Griffith's death in 1955, his nephew and adopted son Calvin took over the team presidency. Calvin sold Griffith Stadium to the city of Washington and leased it back leading to speculation that the team was planning to move as the Boston Braves, St. Louis Browns and Philadelphia Athletics had all done in the early 1950s. By 1957, after an early flirtation with San Francisco (where the New York Giants would eventually move after that season ended), Griffith began courting Minneapolis–St. Paul, a prolonged process that resulted in his rejecting the Twin Cities' first offer[30] before agreeing to relocate. Home attendance in Washington, D.C. steadily increased from 425,238 in 1955 to 475,288 in 1958, and then jumped to 615,372 in 1959.[31] However, part of the Minnesota deal guarateed a million fans a year for three years, plus the potential to double TV and radio money.[32][33]

The American League opposed the move at first, but in 1960 a deal was reached: The Senators would move and would be replaced with an expansion Senators team for 1961. Thus, the old Washington Senators became the Minnesota Twins.

Minnesota Twins: 1961–present

In 1960, Major League Baseball granted the city of Minneapolis an expansion team. Washington owner Calvin Griffith, Clark's nephew and adopted son, requested that he be allowed to move his team to Minneapolis-St. Paul and instead give Washington the expansion team. Upon league approval, the team moved to Minnesota after the 1960 season, setting up shop in Metropolitan Stadium, while Washington fielded a brand new "Washington Senators" (which later became the Texas Rangers prior to the 1972 season).[34]

Success came quickly to the team in Minnesota. Sluggers Harmon Killebrew[35] and Bob Allison, who had already been stars in Washington, were joined by Tony Oliva and Zoilo Versalles, and later second baseman Rod Carew[36] and pitchers Jim Kaat and Jim Perry, winning the American League pennant in 1965.[37] A second wave of success came in the late 1980s and early 1990s under manager Tom Kelly, led by Kent Hrbek, Bert Blyleven,[38] Frank Viola, and Kirby Puckett,[39] winning the franchise's second and third World Series (and first and second in Minnesota).[40]

The name "Twins" was derived from the popular name of the region, the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St. Paul). The NBA's Minneapolis Lakers had relocated to Los Angeles in 1960 due to poor attendance which was believed to have been caused in part by the reluctance of fans in St. Paul to support the team.[41] Griffith was determined not to alienate fans in either city by naming the team after one city or the other, so his desire was to name the team the "Twin Cities Twins",[41] however MLB objected. Griffith therefore named the team the Minnesota Twins. However, the team was allowed to keep its original "TC" (for Twin Cities) insignia for its caps. The team's logo shows two men, one in a Minneapolis Millers uniform and one in a St. Paul Saints uniform, shaking hands across the Mississippi River within an outline of the state of Minnesota. The "TC" remained on the Twins' caps until 1987, when they adopted new uniforms. By this time, the team felt it was established enough to put an "M" on its cap without having St. Paul fans think it stood for Minneapolis. The "TC" logo was moved to a sleeve on the jerseys, and occasionally appeared as an alternate cap design.[42] Both the "TC" and "Minnie & Paul" logos remain the team's primary insignia. As of 2010, the "TC" logo has been reinstated on the cap as their logo.[43]


The Twins were eagerly greeted in Minnesota when they arrived in 1961. They brought a nucleus of talented players: Harmon Killebrew,[44] Bob Allison, Camilo Pascual, Zoilo Versalles, Jim Kaat, Earl Battey, and Lenny Green. Tony Oliva, who would go on to win American League batting championships in 1964, 1965 and 1971, made his major league debut in 1962. That year, the Twins won 91 games, the most by the franchise since 1933. Behind Mudcat Grant's 21 victories, Versalles' A.L. MVP season and Oliva's batting title, the Twins won 102 games and the American League Pennant in 1965, but they were defeated in the World Series by the Los Angeles Dodgers in seven games (behind the Series MVP, Sandy Koufax, who compiled a 2–1 record, including winning the seventh game).[45]

Heading into the final weekend of the 1967 season, when Rod Carew was named the A.L. Rookie of the Year, the Twins, Boston Red Sox, Chicago White Sox, and Detroit Tigers all had a shot at clinching the American League championship. The Twins and the Red Sox started the weekend tied for 1st place and played against each other in Boston for the final three games of the season. The Red Sox won two out of the three games, seizing their first pennant since 1946 with a 92–70 record. The Twins and Tigers both finished one game back, with 91–71 records, while the White Sox finished three games back, at 89–73. In 1969, the new manager of the Twins, Billy Martin, pushed aggressive base running all-around, with Carew stealing home seven times in the season (1 short of Ty Cobb's Major League Record) in addition to winning the first of seven A.L. batting championships.[46] With Killebrew slugging 49 homers and winning the AL MVP Award, these 1969 Twins won the very first American League Western Division Championship, but they lost three straight games to the Baltimore Orioles, winners of 109 games, in the first American League Championship Series. The Orioles would go on to be upset by the New York Mets in the World Series. Martin was fired after the season, in part due to an August 1969 fight in Detroit with 20-game winner Dave Boswell and outfielder Bob Allison, in an alley outside the Lindell A.C. bar. Bill Rigney led the Twins to a repeat division title in 1970, behind the star pitching of Jim Perry (24-12), the A.L. Cy Young Award winner, while the Orioles again won the Eastern Division Championship behind the star pitching of Jim Palmer. Once again, the Orioles won the A.L. Championship Series in a three-game sweep,[47] and this time they would win the World Series.


After winning the division again in 1970, the team entered an eight-year dry spell, finishing around the .500 mark. Killebrew departed after 1974. Owner Calvin Griffith faced financial difficulty with the start of free agency, costing the Twins the services of Lyman Bostock and Larry Hisle, who left as free agents after the 1977 season, and Carew, who was traded after the 1978 season.[48] In 1975, Carew won his fourth consecutive AL batting title,[49] having already joined Ty Cobb as the only players to lead the major leagues in batting average for three consecutive seasons. In 1977, Carew batted .388, which was the highest in baseball since Boston's Ted Williams hit .406 in 1941; he won the 1977 AL MVP Award. He won another batting title in 1978, hitting .333.[49]


The Metrodome, 2007

In 1982, the Twins moved into the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome, which they shared with the Minnesota Vikings. After a 16–54 start, the Twins were on the verge on becoming the worst team in MLB history. They turned the season around somewhat, but still lost 102 games which is the second-worst record in Twins history (beaten only by the 2016 team, who lost 103 games), despite the .301 average, 23 homers and 92 RBI from rookie Kent Hrbek.[50] In 1984, Griffith sold the Twins to multi-billionaire banker/financier Carl Pohlad. The Metrodome hosted the 1985 Major League Baseball All-Star Game. After several losing seasons, the 1987 team, led by Hrbek, Gary Gaetti, Frank Viola (A.L. Cy Young winner in 1988), Bert Blyleven, Jeff Reardon, Tom Brunansky, Dan Gladden, and rising star Kirby Puckett, returned to the World Series after defeating the favored Detroit Tigers in the ALCS, 4 games to 1. Tom Kelly managed the Twins to World Series victories over the St. Louis Cardinals in 1987[51][52] and the Atlanta Braves in 1991.[53] The 1988 Twins were the first team in American League history to draw more than 3 million fans.[54] On July 17, 1990, the Twins became the only team in major league history to pull off two triple plays in the same game. Twins' pitcher and Minnesota native Jack Morris was the star of the series in 1991, going 2–0 in his three starts with a 1.17 ERA.[55] 1991 also marked the first time that any team that finished in last place in their division would advance to the World Series the following season; both the Twins and the Braves did this in 1991.[56] Contributors to the 1991 Twins' improvement from 74 wins to 95 included Chuck Knoblauch, the A.L. Rookie of the Year; Scott Erickson, 20-game winner; new closer Rick Aguilera and new designated hitter Chili Davis.

The World Series in 1991 is regarded by many as one of the classics of all time. In this Series, four games were won during the teams' final at-bat, and three of these were in extra innings. The Atlanta Braves won all three of their games in Atlanta, and the Twins won all four of their games in Minnesota. The sixth game was a legendary one for Puckett, who tripled in a run, made a sensational leaping catch against the wall, and finally in the 11th inning hit the game-winning home run. The seventh game was tied 0–0 after the regulation nine innings, and marked only the second time that the seventh game of the World Series had ever gone into extra innings. The Twins won on a walk-off RBI single by Gene Larkin in the bottom of the 10th inning, after Morris had pitched ten shutout innings against the Braves.[57] The seventh game of the 1991 World Series is widely regarded as one of the greatest games in the history of professional baseball.[58][59][60]

After a winning season in 1992 but falling short of Oakland in the division, the Twins fell into a years-long stretch of mediocrity, posting a losing record each season for the next eight: 71–91 in 1993, 50–63 in 1994, 56–88 in 1995, 78–84 in 1996, 68–94 in 1997, 70–92 in 1998, 63–97 in 1999 and 69–93 in 2000. From 1994 to 1997, a long sequence of retirements and injuries hurt the team badly, and Tom Kelly spent the remainder of his managerial career attempting to rebuild the Twins. In 1997, owner Carl Pohlad almost sold the Twins to North Carolina businessman Don Beaver, who would have moved the team to the Piedmont Triad area.[61][62]

Puckett was forced to retire at age 35 due to loss of vision in one eye from a central retinal vein occlusion.[63] The 1989 A.L. batting champion, he retired as the Twins' all-time leader in career hits, runs, doubles, and total bases. At the time of his retirement, his .318 career batting average was the highest by any right-handed American League batter since Joe DiMaggio. Puckett was the fourth baseball player during the 20th century to record 1,000 hits in his first five full calendar years in Major League Baseball, and was the second to record 2,000 hits during his first 10 full calendar years. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2001, his first year of eligibility.


Justin Morneau, drafted in 1999 by the Twins, won the AL MVP award in 2006.

The Twins dominated the Central Division in the first decade of the new century, winning the division in six of those ten years ('02, '03, '04, '06, '09 and '10), and nearly winning it in '08 as well. From 2001 to 2006, the Twins compiled the longest streak of consecutive winning seasons since moving to Minnesota.

Threatened with closure by league contraction,[64] the 2002 team battled back to reach the American League Championship Series before being eliminated 4–1 by that year's World Series champion Anaheim Angels. The Twins have not won a playoff series since the 2002 series against the Athletics, this despite the team winning several division championships in the decade.


In 2006, the Twins won the division on the last day of the regular season (the only day all season they held sole possession of first place) but lost to the Oakland Athletics in the ALDS. Ozzie Guillén coined a nickname for this squad, calling the Twins "little piranhas".[65] The Twins players embraced the label, and in response, the Twins Front office started a "Piranha Night", with piranha finger puppets given out to the first 10,000 fans. Scoreboard operators sometimes played an animated sequence of piranhas munching under that caption in situations where the Twins were scoring runs playing "small ball", and the stadium vendors sold T-shirts and hats advertising "The Little Piranhas".

The Twins also had the AL MVP in Justin Morneau,[66] the AL batting champion in Joe Mauer,[65] and the AL Cy Young Award winner in Johan Santana.[67]


In 2008, the Twins finished the regular season tied with the White Sox on top of the AL Central, forcing a one-game playoff in Chicago to determine the division champion.[68] The Twins lost that game and missed the playoffs. The game location was determined by rule of a coin flip that was conducted in mid-September. This rule was changed for the start of the 2009 season, making the site for any tiebreaker game to be determined by the winner of the regular season head-to-head record between the teams involved.[69]


After a year where the Twins played .500 baseball for most of the season, the team won 17 of their last 21 games to tie the Detroit Tigers for the lead in the Central Division.[70] The Twins were able to use the play-in game rule to their advantage when they won the AL Central at the end of the regular season by way of a 6–5 tiebreaker game that concluded with a 12th-inning walk-off hit by Alexi Casilla to right field, that scored Carlos Gómez.[71] However, they failed to advance to the American League Championship Series as they lost the American League Divisional Series in three straight games to the eventual World Series champion New York Yankees.[72] That year, Joe Mauer became only the second catcher in 33 years to win the AL MVP award.[73] Iván Rodríguez won for the Texas Rangers in 1999, previous to that, the last catcher to win an AL MVP was the New York Yankees Thurman Munson in 1976.[74]


In their inaugural season played at Target Field, the Twins finished the regular season with a record of 94–68, clinching the AL Central Division title for the 6th time in 9 years under manager Ron Gardenhire. New regular players included rookie Danny Valencia at third base, designated hitter Jim Thome,[75] closer Matt Capps,[76] infielder J. J. Hardy,[77] and infielder Orlando Hudson.[78] In relief pitching roles were late additions Brian Fuentes and Randy Flores. On July 7, the team suffered a major blow when Justin Morneau sustained a concussion, which knocked him out for the rest of the season. In the divisional series, the Twins lost to the Yankees in a three-game sweep for the second consecutive year.[79] Following the season, Ron Gardenhire received AL Manager of the Year honors after finishing as a runner up in several prior years.[80]


After repeating as AL Central champions in 2010, the Twins entered 2011 with no players on the disabled list, and the team seemed poised for another strong season. During the off-season, the team signed Japanese shortstop Tsuyoshi Nishioka to fill a hole in the middle infield, re-signed Jim Thome, who was in pursuit of career home run number 600, and also re-signed Carl Pavano. However, the season was largely derailed by an extensive list of injuries. Nishioka's broken leg in a collision at second base[81] led the way and was followed by DL stints from Kevin Slowey, Joe Mauer, Jason Repko, Thome, Delmon Young (two stints on the DL), José Mijares, Glen Perkins, Joe Nathan, Francisco Liriano, Jason Kubel, Denard Span (two stints), Justin Morneau, Scott Baker, and Alexi Casilla. The team's low point was arguably on May 1 when the team started 7 players who were batting below .235 in a game against Kansas City.[82] From that day forward, the Twins made a strong push to get as close as five games back of the division lead by the All-Star break. However, the team struggled down the stretch and fell back out of contention. The team failed to reach the playoffs for the first time since 2008 and experienced their first losing season in four years. Despite an AL-worst 63–99 record, the team drew over 3 million fans for the second consecutive year.[83]

Michael Cuddyer served as the Twins representative at the All-Star game, his first appearance.[84] Bert Blyleven's number was retired during the season and he was also inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame during the month of July.[85] On August 10, Nathan recorded his 255th save, passing Rick Aguilera for first place on the franchise's all-time saves list.[86] On August 15, Thome hit 599th and 600th home run at Comerica Park to become the eighth player in Major League history to hit 600 home runs, joining Babe Ruth, Willie Mays, Hank Aaron, Barry Bonds, Sammy Sosa, Ken Griffey, Jr., and Alex Rodriguez.[87]


The team started the 2012 season with a league worst 10–24 record.[88] In late May and early June, the team embarked on a hot streak, winning 10 out of 13 games.[89][90] By mid July, the team found themselves only 10 games out of the division lead.[91] On July 16, the Twins defeated the Baltimore Orioles 19–7, the most runs scored in the short history of Target Field.[92][93] By the end of August, the Twins were more than 20 games below .500, and last in the American League.[94] On August 29, it was announced that the Twins would host the 2014 All-Star Game.[95] In 2013, the Twins finished in 4th place in the AL Central, with a record of 66–96.[96] In 2014, the team finished with a 70–92 record, last in the division and accumulated the second fewest wins in the American League.[97] As a result, Ron Gardenhire was fired on September 29, 2014.[98] On November 3, 2014 Paul Molitor was announced by the team as the 13th manager in Twins history.

In 2015, the team had a winning season (83-79), following four consecutive seasons of 90 or more losses.

In 2016, the Minnesota Twins finished last in the AL Central, with a 59–103 record. Brian Dozier set his career high in home runs with 43, which was tied for second in baseball, and leading all 2nd basemen. Tyler Duffey led all Twins starters with 9 wins throughout the season, while fellow reliever Brandon Kintzler led the team with 17 saves. Rising stars Miguel Sanó, Max Kepler, and Byron Buxton combined to have 263 total hits, 52 home runs, 167 RBIs, and a batting average of .232 throughout the season. The Twins signed star Korean slugger Byung Ho Park to a 4-year/$12 million contract, where he hit a .191 batting average, with 12 home runs, and 24 RBIs before being sent down to Rochester for the remainder of the season.[99]

2017 and 2018

In 2017, the Twins went 85–77, finishing 2nd In the AL Central.[100] Following Brian Dozier's 34 home runs,[101] Miguel Sanó, Byron Buxton, and Eddie Rosario all had breakout years, while Joe Mauer hit .305. They ended up making the playoffs,[102] which made them the first ever team to lose 100 games the previous year and make the playoffs the next season.[103] They lost to the Yankees in the wild card round.[104]

The 2018 season did not go as well. The Twins went 78–84, and did not return to the post-season. Sanó and Buxton were injured most of the year and eventually both sent down to the minors, while long-time Twin Brian Dozier was traded at the deadline.[105] One bright spot came at the end of the season, when hometown hero Joe Mauer returned to catcher (his original position) for his final game, ending his career with a signature double and standing ovation.[106] Another highlight was the team's two-game series against the Cleveland Indians in San Juan, Puerto Rico.[107][108] After the season, manager Paul Molitor was fired.[109] Free agent signing Logan Morrison and long-time veteran Ervin Santana declared free agency.[110]


During the 2019 off-season, the Twins hired Rocco Baldelli as their new manager,[111] signed free agents Marwin González,[112] Jonathan Schoop, Nelson Cruz, and claimed CJ Cron off of waivers from the Tampa Bay Rays. Cron had 30 homeruns in the 2018 season. They also signed Martín Pérez, Ronald Torreyes, and Blake Parker.[110]

Third baseman Miguel Sanó had surgery on his achilles tendon in March and did not return until May.[113][needs update]

The Twins started the 2019 MLB season hot, owning the best record in baseball through mid-May. The strong start however did not translate to strong attendance, as they had the largest attendance drop in baseball during the first month of the season, with bad weather also being a factor. On May 8, in an effort to get fans back to the ballpark, the Twins announced a flash sale of $5 tickets for their remaining home games in May. The Twins sold 20,000 tickets within a day, and had to make additional seating available due to the overwhelming demand.[114][115]

The Twins set the record for the most homeruns in the first half of the season with 166, and they are on track to set the record for most homeruns in a season. The old record - 267 - was set by the 2018 New York Yankees. Through 159 games (as of 09/26/2019) they have hit 301 homeruns, which is an average of 1.94 HR/game. At this pace, they would hit 307 home runs by the end of the regular season.

On September 17, 2019, Miguel Sanó hit a 482-foot home run to make the Twins the first team in major league history to have five players with at least 30 home runs in a season.[116]

On September 25, 2019, the Twins clinched the American League Central division for the first time since 2010.

On September 26, 2019, the Twins became the first team in major league history to hit 300 home runs in a season.[117]

The Twins finished the 2019 season with the second most wins in franchise history with 101, one short of the 1965 season.[118][circular reference] The team combined for a total of 307 home runs, the most in MLB history for a single season.[119] The team's slugging prowess has earned them the nickname the Bomba Squad.[120] In the 2019 ALDS, the Twins opponents were the New York Yankees, who finished one home run behind at 306 and the second team to break the 300 home run mark. The Twins were swept again, and extend their postseason losing streak to 16, dating back to the 2004 ALDS.[121]

Threatened contraction or relocation of the team

The Metrodome in 2006.

The quirks of the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome, including the turf floor and the white roof, gave the Twins a significant home-field advantage that played into their winning the World Series in both 1987 and 1991, at least in the opinion of their opponents, as the Twins went 12–1 in postseason home games during those two seasons.[122] These were the first two World Series in professional baseball history in which a team won the championship by winning all four home games.[123] (The feat has since been repeated once, by the Arizona Diamondbacks in 2001.) Nevertheless, the Twins argued that the Metrodome was obsolete and that the lack of a dedicated baseball-only ballpark limited team revenue and made it difficult to sustain a top-notch, competitive team (the Twins had been sharing tenancy in stadiums with the NFL's Minnesota Vikings since 1961). The team was rumored to contemplate moving to such places as New Jersey, Las Vegas, Portland, Oregon, the Greensboro/Winston-Salem, North Carolina area, and elsewhere in search of a more financially competitive market. In 2002, the team was nearly disbanded when Major League Baseball selected the Twins and the Montreal Expos (now the Washington Nationals franchise) for elimination due to their financial weakness relative to other franchises in the league. The impetus for league contraction diminished after a court decision forced the Twins to play out their lease on the Metrodome. However, Twins owner Carl Pohlad continued his efforts to relocate, pursuing litigation against the Metropolitan Stadium Commission and obtaining a state court ruling that his team was not obligated to play in the Metrodome after the 2006 season. This cleared the way for the Twins to either be relocated or disbanded prior to the 2007 season if a new deal was not reached.

Target Field

Target Field in 2010.

In response to the threatened loss of the Twins, the Minnesota private and public sector negotiated and approved a financing package for a replacement stadium— a baseball-only outdoor, natural turf ballpark in the Warehouse District of downtown Minneapolis— owned by a new entity known as the Minnesota Ballpark Authority.[124] Target Field was constructed at a cost of $544.4 million (including site acquisition and infrastructure), utilizing the proceeds of a $392 million public bond offering based on a 0.15% sales tax in Hennepin County and private financing of $185 million provided by the Pohlad family.[125][126] As part of the deal, the Twins also signed a 30-year lease of the new stadium, effectively guaranteeing the continuation of the team in Minnesota for a long time to come. Construction of the new field began in 2007, and was completed in December 2009, in time for the 2010 season. Commissioner Bud Selig, who earlier had threatened to disband the team, observed that without the new stadium the Twins could not have committed to sign their star player, catcher Joe Mauer, to an 8-year, $184 million contract extension. The first regular season game in Target Field was played against the Boston Red Sox on April 12, 2010, with Mauer driving in two runs and going 3-for-5 to help the Twins defeat the Red Sox, 5–2.[127]

On May 18, 2011, Target Field was named "The Best Place To Shop" by Street and Smith's SportsBusiness Journal at the magazine's 2011 Sports Business Awards Ceremony in New York City.[128] It was also named "The Best Sports Stadium in North America" by ESPN The Magazine in a ranking that included over 120 different stadiums, ballparks and arenas from around North America.[129]

In July 2014, Target Field hosted the 85th Major League Baseball All-Star Game and the Home Run Derby.

In June 2020, following protests over the killing of George Floyd, a statue of former owner Calvin Griffith was removed from Target Plaza outside of the stadium because of his history of racist comments.[130]



The Twins' white home uniform, first used in 2016, features the current "Twins" script (with an underline below "win") in navy outlined in red with Kasota gold drop shadows. Letters and numerals also take on the same color as the "Twins" script. The modern "Minnie and Paul" alternate logo (with the state of Minnesota in navy outlined in Kasota gold) appears on the left sleeve. Caps are in all-navy with the interlocking "TC" outlined in Kasota gold.[131]

The Twins' red alternate home uniform, first used in 2016, features the "TC" insignia outlined in Kasota gold on the left chest. Letters and numerals are in navy outlined in white with Kasota gold drop shadows. The "Minnie and Paul" alternate logo appears on the left sleeve. The uniform is paired with a navy-brimmed red cap with the "TC" outlined in Kasota gold.[131]

The Twins' navy alternate home uniform, first used in 2019, features the classic "Twins" script (with a tail underline accent after the letter "s") in red outlined in navy and Kasota gold. Letters and numerals also take on the same color as the "Twins" script. As with the home white uniforms, it is paired with the all-navy Kasota gold "TC" cap. The gold-trimmed "TC" insignia also appears on the left sleeve.[132]

The Twins' powder blue alternate uniform, first used in 2020, is a modern buttoned version of the road uniform the team used from 1973 to 1986. The set contains the classic "Twins" script in red outlined in navy, along with red letters on the back and red numerals (both on the chest and on the back) outlined in navy. The "Minnie and Paul" alternate logo appears on the left sleeve. The uniform is paired with the primary all-navy "TC" cap minus the Kasota gold accents, which is also used on the helmets regardless of uniform. [133]

The Twins' grey road uniform, first used in 2010, features the current "Minnesota" script (with an underline below "innesot") in red trimmed in navy. Letters are in navy while numerals (both on the chest and on the back) are in red trimmed in navy. The team's primary logo appears on the left sleeve. The uniform is paired with either the all-navy or the red-brimmed navy "TC" cap.[131]

The Twins' navy alternate road uniform, first used in 2010, shares the same look as the regular road uniforms, but with a few differences. The "Minnesota" script is in red outlined in white, letters and chest numerals are in white outlined in red, and back numerals are in red outlined in white. Red piping is also added. The uniform is paired with either the all-navy or the red-brimmed navy "TC" cap.[131]

Past uniforms

From 1961 to 1971 the Twins sported uniforms bearing the classic "Twins" script and numerals in navy outlined in red. The original "Minnie and Paul" alternate logo appears on the left sleeve of both the pinstriped white home uniform and grey road uniform.[131]

For the 1972 season the Twins updated their uniforms. The color scheme on the "Twins" script and numerals were reversed, pinstripes were removed from the home uniform, and an updated "Minnie and Paul" roundel patch replaced the originals on the left sleeve.[131]

In 1973 the Twins switched to polyester pullover uniforms, which included a powder blue road uniform. Chest numerals were added while a navy-brimmed red cap was used with the home uniform. The original "Minnie and Paul" logo returned to the left sleeve. Player names in red were added to the road uniform in 1977.[131]

In 1987 the Twins updated their look. Home white uniforms brought back the pinstripes along with the modern-day "Twins" script. The "TC" insignia adorned the left sleeve, later replaced by the modern "Minnie and Paul" alternate in 2002. Road grey uniforms, which also featured pinstripes, were emblazoned with "Minnesota" in red block letters outlined in navy, while the updated primary logo adorned the left sleeve. Both uniforms kept the red numerals trimmed in navy, but the color on the player names was changed to navy. In 1997, player names were added to the home uniform. Initially, both uniforms were paired with an all-navy cap featuring the underlined "M" in front, but in 2002, the "TC" cap was brought back as a home cap while the "M" cap was used on the road. The "M" cap was retired following the 2010 season, though the team continued to wear them as a throwback on special occasions.[131]

For a few games during the 1997 season, the Twins wore red alternate uniforms, which featured navy piping and letters in white trimmed in navy. In that same year, the Twins also released a road navy alternate uniform, featuring red piping, "Minnesota" and player names in white block letters outlined in red, and red numerals outlined in white. The following season, the Twins replaced the red uniforms with a home navy alternate, which features the "Twins" script and back numerals in red outlined in white, and player names and chest numerals in white outlined in red. Both uniforms contained the "TC" (later modern "Minnie and Paul") and primary logo sleeve patches respectively. The Twins also brought back the navy-brimmed red cap for a few games with the home navy alternates. The road navy alternates remained in use until 2009, with the home navy version worn for the last time in the 2013 season.[131]

The Twins also wore three other alternate uniforms in the past. In 2006, the Twins wore a sleeveless variation of their regular home uniforms with navy undershirts, which they wore until 2010. They also wore a buttoned version of their 1973–86 home uniforms in 2009, before giving way to the throwback off-white version of their 1961–71 home uniforms from 2010 to 2018.[131]


Minnesota Twins all-time roster: A complete list of players who played in at least one game for the Twins franchise.

Minor league affiliates

The Minnesota Twins farm system consists of seven minor league affiliates.[134]

Level Team League Location
Triple-A Rochester Red Wings International League Rochester, New York
Double-A Pensacola Blue Wahoos Southern League Pensacola, Florida
Class A-Advanced Fort Myers Mighty Mussels Florida State League Fort Myers, Florida
Class A Cedar Rapids Kernels Midwest League Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Rookie Elizabethton Twins Appalachian League Elizabethton, Tennessee
GCL Twins Gulf Coast League Fort Myers, Florida
DSL Twins Dominican Summer League Boca Chica, Santo Domingo


Baseball Hall of Fame members

Minnesota Twins Hall of Famers
Affiliation according to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
Washington Senators

Stan Coveleski
Joe Cronin
Ed Delahanty

Rick Ferrell
Lefty Gomez
Goose Goslin *

Clark Griffith *
Bucky Harris *
Whitey Herzog
Walter Johnson *

Heinie Manush *
Sam Rice *
Al Simmons

George Sisler
Tris Speaker
Early Wynn

Minnesota Twins

Bert Blyleven *

Rod Carew *
Steve Carlton

Harmon Killebrew *
Paul Molitor

Jack Morris
Kirby Puckett *

Jim Thome
Dave Winfield

  • Players and managers listed in bold are depicted on their Hall of Fame plaques wearing a Twins or Senators cap insignia.
  • * Washington Senators or Minnesota Twins listed as primary team according to the Hall of Fame

Molitor, Morris, and Winfield were all St. Paul natives who joined the Twins late in their careers and were warmly received as "hometown heroes", but were elected to the hall primarily on the basis of their tenures with other teams. Both Molitor and Winfield had their 3,000th hit with Minnesota,[135][136][137] while Morris pitched a complete-game shutout for the Twins in game seven of the 1991 World Series. Molitor was the first player in history to hit a triple for his 3,000th hit.

Cronin, Goslin, Griffith, Harris, Johnson, Killebrew and Wynn are listed on the Washington Hall of Stars display at Nationals Park (previously they were listed at Robert F. Kennedy Stadium). So are Ossie Bluege, George Case, Joe Judge, George Selkirk, Roy Sievers, Cecil Travis, Mickey Vernon and Eddie Yost.[138]

Ford C. Frick Award recipients

Minnesota Twins Ford C. Frick Award recipients
Affiliation according to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum

Herb Carneal

Russ Hodges

Arch McDonald

Chuck Thompson

Bob Wolff

  • Names in bold received the award based primarily on their work as broadcasters for the Twins or Senators.

Team captains

Twins Hall of Fame

Year Year inducted
Bold Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame
Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame as a Twin
Bold Recipient of the Hall of Fame's Ford C. Frick Award
Minnesota Twins Hall of Fame
Year No. Name Position(s) Tenure
2000 3 Harmon Killebrewdagger 1B 1961–74
29 Rod Carewdagger 2B 1967–78
6 Tony Oliva RF/DH 1962–76
14 Kent Hrbek 1B 1981–94
34 Kirby Puckettdagger CF 1984–95
Calvin Griffith President and Owner 1961–83
2001 Herb Carnealdagger Radio Broadcaster 1962–2007
36 Jim Kaat P 1961–73
2002 28 Bert Blylevendagger P 1970–76
10 Tom Kelly Manager 1986–2001
2003 4 Bob Allison OF 1961–70
Bob Casey Public Address Announcer 1961–2004
2004 10 Earl Battey C 1961–67
2005 16 Frank Viola P 1982–89
Carl Pohlad Owner 1984–2009
2006 2 Zoilo Versalles SS 1961–67
2007 8 Gary Gaetti 3B 1981–90
Jim Rantz Director of Minor Leagues 1986–2012
2008 38 Rick Aguilera P 1989–95
2009[139] 22, 23, 59 Brad Radke P 1995–2006
George Brophy Front office executive 1961–85
2010[140] 7 Greg Gagne SS 1983–92
2011[141] 31 Jim Perry P 1963–72
2012[142] 17 Camilo Pascual P 1961–66
2013[143] 18 Eddie Guardado P 1993–2003, 2008
Tom Mee Media Relations Director 1961–91
2016 John Gordon Radio Broadcaster 1987–2011
48 Torii Hunter CF/RF 1997–2007, 2015
2017 5 Michael Cuddyer RF 2001–11
Andy MacPhail General Manager 1985–94
2018 57 Johan Santana P 2000–2007
2019 36 Joe Nathan P 2004–2009, 2011
Jerry Bell President 1987–2002

Retired numbers

Banners and retired numbers displayed in the Metrodome

The Metrodome's upper deck in center and right fields was partly covered by a curtain containing banners of various titles won, and retired numbers. There was no acknowledgment of the Twins' prior championships in Washington and several Senator Hall of Famers, such as Walter Johnson, played in the days prior to numbers being used on uniforms. However Killebrew played seven seasons as a Senator, including two full seasons as a regular prior to the move to Minnesota in 1961.

Prior to the addition of the banners, the Twins acknowledged their retired numbers on the Metrodome's outfield fence. Harmon Killebrew's #3 was the first to be displayed, as it was the only one the team had retired when they moved in. It was joined by Rod Carew's #29 in 1987, Tony Oliva's #6 in 1991, Kent Hrbek's #14 in 1995, and Kirby Puckett's #34 in 1997 before the Twins began hanging the banners to reduce capacity. The championships, meanwhile were marked on the "Baggie" in right field.


May 4, 1975

Retired July 14, 1991

Retired June 15, 2019

Retired September 8, 2012

Retired August 13, 1995

Retired July 16, 2011

Retired July 19, 1987

Retired May 25, 1997

Honored April 15, 1997
Target Field retired number signs in 2010.

In the Metrodome, the numbers ran in that order from left to right. In Target Field, they run from right to left, presumably to allow space for additional numbers in the future. The retired numbers also serve as entry points at Target Field, The center field gate is Gate No. 3, honoring Killebrew, the left field gate is Gate No. 6, honoring Oliva, the home plate gate is Gate No. 14, for Hrbek, the right field gate serves as Gate No. 29, in tribute to Carew, and the plaza gate is known as Gate No. 34, honoring Puckett.

The numbers that have been retired hang within Target Field in front of the tower that serves as the Twins' executive offices in left field foul territory. The championships banners have been replaced by small pennants that fly on masts at the back of the left field upper deck. Those pennants, along with the flags flying in the plaza behind right field, serve as a visual cue for the players, suggesting the wind direction and speed.

Jackie Robinson's number, 42, was retired by Major League Baseball on April 15, 1997 and formally honored by the Twins on May 23, 1997.[144] Robinson's number was positioned to the left of the Twins numbers in both venues.

Player Jersey Position Date retired
Harmon Killebrew 3 LF-1B-3B: 1954–60 (WAS)
LF-1B-3B: 1961–74 (MIN)
May 4, 1975
Rod Carew 29 1B-2B: 1967–78 (MIN) July 19, 1987
Tony Oliva 6 RF-DH: 1962–76 (MIN)
Coach: 1976–78 (MIN)
Coach: 1985–91 (MIN)
July 14, 1991
Kent Hrbek 14 1B: 1981–94 (MIN) August 13, 1995
Jackie Robinson 42 Retired by MLB April 15, 1997
Kirby Puckett 34 CF: 1984–95 (MIN) May 25, 1997
Bert Blyleven 28 P: 1970–76 (MIN)
P: 1985–88 (MIN)
July 16, 2011
Tom Kelly 10 Manager: 1986–2001 (MIN) September 8, 2012
Joe Mauer 7 C-1B-DH: 2004-2018 (MIN) June 15, 2019



Team records

Team seasons

Year Regular Season Postseason Result
Wins Losses Win % Finish Attendance Attendance per Game Record Win %
2001 85 77 .525 2nd – AL Central 1,782,929 22,011 0–0 .000
2002 94 67 .584 1st – AL Central 1,924,473 23,906 4–6 .400 Won ALDS vs Oakland Athletics, 3–2
Lost ALCS to Anaheim Angels, 1–4
2003 90 72 .556 1st – AL Central 1,946,011 24,025 1–3 .250 Lost ALDS to New York Yankees, 1–3
2004 92 70 .568 1st – AL Central 1,911,490 23,599 1–3 .250 Lost ALDS to New York Yankees, 1–3
2005 83 79 .512 3rd – AL Central 2,034,243 25,114 0–0 .000
2006 96 66 .593 1st – AL Central 2,285,018 28,210 0–3 .000 Lost ALDS to Oakland Athletics, 0–3
2007 79 83 .488 3rd – AL Central 2,296,347 28,349 0–0 .000
2008 88 75 .540 2nd – AL Central 2,302,611 28,427 0–0 .000
2009 87 76 .534 1st – AL Central 2,416,237 29,466 0–3 .000 Lost ALDS to New York Yankees, 0–3
2010 94 68 .580 1st – AL Central 3,223,640 39,798 0–3 .000 Lost ALDS to New York Yankees, 0–3
2011 63 99 .389 5th – AL Central 3,168,107 39,112 0–0 .000
2012 66 96 .407 5th – AL Central 2,776,354 34,275 0–0 .000
2013 66 96 .407 4th – AL Central 2,477,644 30,588 0–0 .000
2014 70 92 .432 5th – AL Central 2,250,606 27,785 0–0 .000
2015 83 79 .521 2nd – AL Central 2,220,054 27,408 0–0 .000
2016 59 103 .364 5th – AL Central 1,963,912 24,246 0–0 .000
2017 85 77 .525 2nd – AL Central 2,051,279 25,324 0–1 .000 Lost AL Wild Card Game (Yankees)
2018 78 84 .481 2nd – AL Central 1,959,197 24,489 0–0 .000
2019 101 61 .623 1st – AL Central 2,294,152 28,322 0–3 .000 Lost ALDS to New York Yankees, 0–3
2020 10 2 .833 1st – AL Central 0 0 0-0 .000
Total as Twins 4690 4741 .497  –  –  – 25–42 .373 2 World Series Championships

Radio and television

In 2007, the Twins took the rights to the broadcasts in-house and created the Twins Radio Network (TRN). With that new network in place the Twins secured a new Metro Affiliate flagship radio station in KSTP (AM 1500). It replaced WCCO (AM 830), which held broadcast rights for the Twins since the team moved to Minneapolis in 1961. For 2013, the Twins moved to FM radio on KTWN-FM 96.3 K-Twin, which is owned by the Pohlad family. The original radio voices of the Twins in 1961 were Ray Scott, Halsey Hall and Bob Wolff. After the first season, Herb Carneal replaced Wolff. Twins TV and radio broadcasts were originally sponsored by the Hamm's Brewing Company. In 2009, Treasure Island Resort & Casino became the first ever naming rights partner for the Twins Radio Network, making the commercial name of TRN the Treasure Island Baseball Network.[147] In 2017, it was announced that WCCO would become the flagship station the Twins again starting in 2018, thus returning the team back to its original station after 11 years.[148]

Cory Provus is the current radio play by play announcer,[149] taking over in 2012 for longtime Twins voice John Gordon who retired following the 2011 season.[150] Former Twins OF Dan Gladden serves as color commentator.[151]

TRN broadcasts are originated from the studios at Minnesota News Network and Minnesota Farm Networks. Kris Atteberry hosts the pre-game show, the "Lineup Card" and the "Post-game Download" from those studios except when filling in for Provus or Gladden when they are on vacation.

On April 1, 2007, Herb Carneal, the radio voice of the Twins for all but one year of their existence, died at his home in Minnetonka after a long battle with a list of illnesses. Carneal is in the broadcasters wing of the Baseball Hall of Fame.[152]

Hall of Famer Bert Blyleven played 11 seasons for the Twins

The television rights are held by Fox Sports North[153] with Dick Bremer as the play-by-play announcer and former Twin, 2011 National Baseball Hall of Fame inductee,[154] Bert Blyleven as color analyst. They are sometimes joined by Roy Smalley, Justin Morneau and Jack Morris.[155]

Bob Casey was the Twins first public-address announcer starting in 1961 and continuing until his death in 2005. He was well known for his unique delivery and his signature announcements of "No smoking in the Metrodome, either go outside or quit!" (or "go back to Boston", etc.), "Batting 3rd, the center-fielder, No. 34, Kirby Puckett!!!" and asking fans not to 'throw anything or anybody' onto the field.[156]

Community activities

Team and franchise traditions

Fans wave a Homer Hanky to rally the team during play-offs and other crucial games. The Homer Hanky was created by Terrie Robbins of the Star Tribune newspaper in the Twin Cities in 1987. It was her idea to originally give away 60,000 inaugural Homer Hankies. That year, over 2.3 million Homer Hankies were distributed.[158]

The party atmosphere of the Twins clubhouse after a win is well-known,[159] the team's players unwinding with loud rock music (usually the choice of the winning pitcher) and video games.[159]

The club has several hazing rituals, such as requiring the most junior relief pitcher on the team to carry water and snacks to the bullpen in a brightly colored small child's backpack (Barbie in 2005, SpongeBob SquarePants in 2006, Hello Kitty in 2007, Disney Princess and Tinkerbell in 2009, Chewbacca and Darth Vader in 2010),[159] and many of its players, both past and present, are notorious pranksters.[159] For example, Bert Blyleven earned the nickname "The Frying Dutchman" for his ability to pull the "hotfoot" – which entails crawling under the bench in the dugout and lighting a teammate's shoelaces on fire.[160][161]


  1. ^ Bollinger, Rhett (July 30, 2013). "Twins hold ceremony to unveil All-Star logo". MLB.com. MLB Advanced Media. Retrieved July 13, 2019. The Twins moved one step closer to hosting next year's All-Star Game, as they unveiled the official logo for the 2014 Midsummer Classic in a special ceremony on Tuesday at Target Field. The logo focuses on the structure of the ballpark within downtown Minneapolis, and it features the club's core colors of navy and red, with a tan skyline and a blue sky. The tan skyline represents the quarried limestone used throughout Target Field, while the sky blue is symbolic of a clear Upper Midwest sky. The retaining keystone shape is inspired by the Twins' historic "Minnie and Paul" logo that represents the twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul.
  2. ^ "Introducing the 2015 Twins Home Uniform". TwinsBaseball.com. MLB Advanced Media. November 10, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
  3. ^ Randhawa, Manny (October 25, 2018). "Twins tab Rocco Baldelli as new manager". TwinsBaseball.com. MLB Advanced Media. Retrieved July 13, 2019.
  4. ^ Bollinger, Rhett (November 3, 2016). "Levine formally named general manager". TwinsBaseball.com. MLB Advanced Media. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  5. ^ E. Neal III, La Velle (November 3, 2016). "Twins name Thad Levine general manager". Star Tribune. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  6. ^ "Minnesota Twins name Derek Falvey Executive Vice President, Chief Baseball Officer". TwinsBaseball.com (Press release). MLB Advanced Media. October 3, 2016. Retrieved October 4, 2016.
  7. ^ E. Neal III, La Velle (October 3, 2016). "Derek Falvey officially named Twins' chief baseball officer". Star Tribune. Retrieved October 4, 2016.
  8. ^ "Minnesota Twins Move Into Target Field". TwinsBaseball.com (Press release). MLB Advanced Media. January 4, 2010. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  9. ^ "Remembering the Washington Senators' 1924 World Series". Bleacher Report. October 27, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  10. ^ "Minnesota Twins Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  11. ^ "Batting Average Year-by-Year Leaders / Batting Champions on Baseball Almanac". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  12. ^ "Minnesota Twins Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  13. ^ Fleming, Frank. "Sports Encyclopedia". Retrieved September 8, 2020.
  14. ^ "Damn Yankees". The Broadway Musical Home. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  15. ^ "1911 Washington Senators". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
  16. ^ "1912 Washington Senators". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
  17. ^ "Griffith, Clark | Baseball Hall of Fame". Baseballhall.org. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  18. ^ Goldstein, Richard (October 21, 1999). "Calvin Griffith, 87, Is Dead; Tight-Fisted Baseball Owner". The New York Times.
  19. ^ "1913 American League Team Statistics and Standings". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
  20. ^ "Johnson, Walter | Baseball Hall of Fame". Baseballhall.org. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  21. ^ "1924 American League Team Statistics and Standings". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
  22. ^ "1924 World Series". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
  23. ^ 1924 World Series, Baseball Almanac. Includes box scores for all seven games of the 1924 World Series.
  24. ^ History of baseball in D.C., on MLB.com but not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball, Sept. 29, 2004.
  25. ^ a b "1924 World Series Game 7 box score". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
  26. ^ a b c Ruel, Muddy (October 1964). How Senators' Strategy Won for Johnson. Baseball Digest. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
  27. ^ "Washington Senators". BaseballLibrary.com. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
  28. ^ Grosshandler, Stan (February 1981). 13 Most Forgotten Stars In Major League History. Baseball Digest. Books.Google.com. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
  29. ^ Vass, George (August 1999). 20th Century All-Overlooked Stars. Baseball Digest. Books.Google.com. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
  30. ^ "Senators Reject Bids to Move to Minneapolis or St. Paul". New York Times. October 27, 1957. Retrieved May 2, 2008.
  31. ^ The American League in Transition, 1965-1975: How Competition Thrived When the Yankees Didn’t, Paul Hensley, McFarland & Co. Publishers, 2013.
  32. ^ The American League in Transition, 1965-1975, Paul Hensley, page 13, “Along with a potential to gain over twice as much profit from the sale of television and radio . . ”.
  33. ^ The cost of baseball's broadcast rights in 1961, SBNation, Larry Granillo, Aug. 29, 2013. In the 1961 season, the new Washington Senators received $300,000 for TV and radio broadcast rights, whereas the Minnesota Twins (old Senators) received $550,000 for the broadcast rights. Please see chart.
  34. ^ "Texas Rangers on Baseball Almanac". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  35. ^ "Killebrew, Harmon | Baseball Hall of Fame". Baseballhall.org. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  36. ^ "Carew, Rod | Baseball Hall of Fame". Baseballhall.org. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  37. ^ "1965 Minnesota Twins Batting, Pitching, & Fielding Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  38. ^ "Blyleven, Bert | Baseball Hall of Fame". Baseballhall.org. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  39. ^ "Puckett, Kirby | Baseball Hall of Fame". Baseballhall.org. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  40. ^ "Kirby Puckett & Your 1987 And 1991 World Series Championship Winning Minnesota Twins | 30-Year Old Cardboard". Bapple2286.wordpress.com. March 14, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  41. ^ a b "Today in Twins History". Twinstrivia.com. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  42. ^ "Twins Uniforms and Logos | twinsbaseball.com: History". Minnesota Twins. MLB. June 19, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  43. ^ "Twins Unveil New Logos, Uniforms for 2010 Season". Bizofbaseball.com. November 16, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  44. ^ McDaniel, Randy (October 9, 2017). "A Cold Hamm's Beer and A Hot Game OF Snooker". KXRB-FM. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  45. ^ "1965 World Series – Los Angeles Dodgers over Minnesota Twins (4-3)". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  46. ^ Rod Carew Baseball Hall of Fame
  47. ^ "1970 Minnesota Twins Batting, Pitching, & Fielding Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  48. ^ "Rod Carew Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  49. ^ a b "Rod Carew Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
  50. ^ "Kent Hrbek". Baseball-Reference.com. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
  51. ^ "1987 World Series by Baseball Almanac". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  52. ^ "1987 World Series – Minnesota Twins over St. Louis Cardinals (4-3)". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  53. ^ "1991 World Series by Baseball Almanac". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  54. ^ "Twins Timeline". Minnesota Twins. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  55. ^ Caple, Jim (November 19, 2003). "1991 World Series had it all". ESPN.
  56. ^ "Worst to First: Looking Back on the Miracle Season of the 1991 Atlanta Braves | Braves 101 | Sports Media 101". Braves 101. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  57. ^ "Jack Morris 1991 Game by Game Pitching Logs". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  58. ^ "The top 25 single-game performances in MLB postseason history – ESPN". Espn.go.com. June 20, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  59. ^ "MLB's 20 Greatest Games | MLB Network: Network". Mlb.mlb.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  60. ^ Berkow, Ira (October 28, 1991). "WORLD SERIES: SPORTS OF THE TIMES; Game 7 Was a Gift From Above". The New York Times.
  61. ^ Twins Meet Don Beaver: He Inks Letter of Intent to Buy Team Street & Smith's SportsBusiness Daily
  62. ^ Was baseball deal charade? `Well, sort of' - Justin Catanoso, Triad Business Journal, 3 May 1999
  63. ^ Jim Souhan (March 27, 1998). "Kirby says goodbye". StarTribune. Archived from the original on October 17, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
  64. ^ Gettings, John (2001). "Labor Pains: A guide to Major League Baseball's contraction issue". Infoplease.com. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  65. ^ a b "Mauer wins AL batting title on final day – MLB – ESPN". Sports.espn.go.com. October 1, 2006. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  66. ^ "Morneau edges Jeter to win AL MVP – MLB – ESPN". Sports.espn.go.com. November 23, 2006. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  67. ^ "Johan Santana Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  68. ^ "White Sox claim AL Central crown | whitesox.com: News". Chicago.whitesox.mlb.com. Archived from the original on January 22, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  69. ^ "Coin flips no longer used as tiebreaker | MLB.com: News". Mlb.mlb.com. June 19, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  70. ^ "2009 Minnesota Twins Schedule, Box Scores and Splits". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  71. ^ "Detroit Tigers vs. Minnesota Twins". CNN.
  72. ^ "2009 Postseason | MLB.com: Schedule". Mlb.mlb.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  73. ^ "Mauer handily catches AL MVP Award | MLB.com: News". Minnesota Twins. MLB. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  74. ^ "Tools Of Excellence". Hartford Courant. November 24, 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  75. ^ "Jim Thome, Twins – ESPN". Espn.go.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  76. ^ "Matt Capps – Minnesota Twins – MLB – Yahoo! Sports". Sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  77. ^ "Milwaukee Brewers trade SS J. J. Hardy for Minnesota Twins' CF Carlos Gómez – ESPN". Sports.espn.go.com. November 6, 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  78. ^ "Orlando Hudson gets one-year deal from Minnesota Twins – ESPN". Sports.espn.go.com. February 5, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  79. ^ "2010 Postseason | MLB.com: Schedule". Mlb.mlb.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  80. ^ "MLB Manager of the Year Award Winners". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  81. ^ "Transactions | twinsbaseball.com: Team". Mlb.mlb.com. June 19, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  82. ^ "Minnesota vs. Kansas City – May 1, 2011". Sports Illustrated Canada. May 1, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  83. ^ "2012 MLB Attendance – Major League Baseball – ESPN". Espn.go.com. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  84. ^ "Michael Cuddyer a first-time All-Star at age 32 | HardballTalk". Hardballtalk.nbcsports.com. July 3, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  85. ^ Jim Caple (July 24, 2011). "Roberto Alomar, Bert Blyleven, Pat Gillick welcomed into HOF – ESPN New York". Espn.go.com. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  86. ^ "Setting Twins saves record an 'honor' for Joe Nathan | twinsbaseball.com: News". Mlb.mlb.com. June 19, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  87. ^ Duane Burleson, Associated Press. "Thome slugs home run No. 600". StarTribune.com. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  88. ^ "2012 Minnesota Twins Batting, Pitching, & Fielding Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  89. ^ "Minnesota Twins vs. Seattle Mariners - Box Score - May 06, 2012 - ESPN". Scores.espn.go.com. May 6, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  90. ^ "Toronto Blue Jays vs. Minnesota Twins - Box Score - May 13, 2012 - ESPN". Scores.espn.go.com. May 13, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  91. ^ "Oakland Athletics vs. Minnesota Twins - Box Score - July 15, 2012 - ESPN". Scores.espn.go.com. July 15, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  92. ^ "Baltimore Orioles vs. Minnesota Twins - Box Score - July 16, 2012 - ESPN". Scores.espn.go.com. July 16, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  93. ^ "Span, Revere Spark Twins In 19-7 Win Over Orioles « CBS Minnesota". Minnesota.cbslocal.com. July 16, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  94. ^ "Minnesota Twins vs. Texas Rangers - Box Score - August 25, 2012 - ESPN". Scores.espn.go.com. August 25, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2013.
  95. ^ "MLB tabs Target Field for '14 All-Star Game". Major League Baseball. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  96. ^ "MLB Regular Season Standings Major League Baseball". ESPN.com. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  97. ^ "2014 MLB Regular Season Standings - Major League Baseball - ESPN". ESPN.com. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  98. ^ "Minnesota Twins fire manager Ron Gardenhire – ESPN". ESPN.com. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  99. ^ "ByungHo Park Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com.
  100. ^ "Twins dump Tigers to end season at 85-77".
  101. ^ "2017 Minnesota Twins Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  102. ^ "Minnesota Twins Clinch Playoff Berth for 2017 MLB Postseason".
  103. ^ "Twins Become 1st Team to Make Playoffs One Year After Losing 100-Plus Games".
  104. ^ "Wild start! Yanks' pop, 'pen erase Minn".
  105. ^ "Dodgers add depth in trades for Dozier, Axford".
  106. ^ "Joe Mauer Doubles, Catches In Finale". MLB.com. Major League Baseball.
  107. ^ "Indians, Twins to play in Puerto Rico in 2018". MLB.com. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  108. ^ Wells, Adam. "Twins, Indians to Play 2-Game Series in Puerto Rico in 2018". Bleacher Report. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  109. ^ "Twins fire manager Paul Molitor after 78-84 finish". Chron.com.
  110. ^ a b "Twins 2019 Off Season Transactions". CBS Sports. CBS.
  111. ^ "Twins Hire New Manager". MLB.com.
  112. ^ "Twins Sign Marwin Gonzalez". MLB Trade Rumors.
  113. ^ "Twins' Miguel Sano has heel procedure, could be out until May".
  114. ^ "First-place Minnesota Twins offer fans $5 tickets, sell 20,000 in less than 24 hours". CBS Sports.
  115. ^ "Due to overwhelming demand, we've released Ballpark Access tickets to all May games for $5". MN Twins Official Twitter.
  116. ^ https://www.mlb.com/news/miguel-sano-record-fifth-twins-player-30-homers
  117. ^ https://www.espn.com/mlb/story/_/id/27708619/having-blast-twins-become-1st-hit-300-hrs
  118. ^ "1965 Minnesota Twins Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  119. ^ https://www.baseball-almanac.com/recbooks/rb_hr7.shtml
  120. ^ https://www.kare11.com/mobile/article/sports/mlb/twins/the-bomb-squad-behind-the-bomba-squad/89-e5a7dd06-899c-4d29-90d6-62f244f99cf0
  121. ^ https://www.mlb.com/twins/news/twins-eliminated-by-yankees-in-al-division-series-sweep
  122. ^ Adams, Dan (March 30, 2010). "Minnesota Twins Organization, World Series Dreams Trashed by Target Field?". Bleacher Report. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  123. ^ Gammons, Peter (2006). The 2006 ESPN Baseball Encyclopedia. New York: Sterling Pub. Co. ISBN 978-1-4027-3625-4.
  124. ^ Weiner, Jay (April 1, 2010). "Target Field: 'The House That Jerry Bell Willed to Completion'". MinnPost. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  125. ^ "Editorial: Target Field built to exceed expectations". Star Tribune. May 31, 2009. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  126. ^ Gordon, Jack (March 2010). "The Coolest Ballpark in America". Twin Cities Business Magazine. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  127. ^ "April 12, 2010 Boston Red Sox at Minnesota Twins Play by Play and Box Score". Baseball-Reference.com. April 12, 2010. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  128. ^ Vomhof, Jr., John (May 19, 2011). "Target Field named Sports Facility of the Year". Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  129. ^ Hart Van Denburg (July 2, 2010). "ESPN Magazine calls Target Field the best stadium in North America". City Pages. Archived from the original on May 17, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  130. ^ "Twins remove ex-owner Griffith statue over racist remarks". Associated Press. June 19, 2020.
  131. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Twins Uniforms and Logos". Minnesota Twins. MLB. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  132. ^ "Twins 2019 Home Alternate Jerseys". Minnesota Twins. MLB. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  133. ^ "Twins New 2020 Alternate Uniforms". Minnesota Twins. MLB. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  134. ^ "Minnesota Twins Minor League Affiliates". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  135. ^ "Mr. Longevity". CNN. September 27, 1993.
  136. ^ "Paul Molitor 3,000th Hit Box Score (Enhanced) by Baseball Almanac". Baseball-almanac.com. September 16, 1996. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  137. ^ "National Baseball Hall of Fame – The 3,000 Hit Club – Paul Molitor". Exhibits.baseballhalloffame.org. September 16, 1996. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  138. ^ "Washington Senators Hall of Fame?". Baseball-fever.com. November 27, 2010. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  139. ^ Thesier, Kelly (January 23, 2009). "Radke, Brophy join Twins Hall of Fame". Minnesota Twins. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
  140. ^ Thesier, Kelly (February 9, 2010). "Gagne elected to Twins Hall of Fame". Minnesota Twins. Retrieved July 17, 2010.
  141. ^ Thesier, Kelly (January 25, 2011). "Twins great Perry gains entrance to club's Hall". Minnesota Twins. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
  142. ^ Bollinger, Rhett (January 25, 2012). "Pascual elected to Twins Hall of Fame". Minnesota Twins. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
  143. ^ "Minnesota Twins Hall of Fame adds Eddie Guardado, Tom Mee". Minnesota Twins. January 25, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
  144. ^ "Minnesota Sports Almanac". Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  145. ^ "Retired Uniform Numbers in the American League by Baseball Almanac". Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  146. ^ "Retired Numbers". Minnesota Twins. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  147. ^ "Twins Radio Network | twinsbaseball.com: Schedule". Minnesota Twins. MLB. June 19, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  148. ^ Venta, Lance (November 17, 2017). "Minnesota Twins Return To WCCO". Radio Insight. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  149. ^ Haudricourt, Tom. "Twins hire Provus, Gladden returns as analyst". JSOnline. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  150. ^ "Twins radio play-by-play man John Gordon will retire after season | MLB.com: News". Minnesota Twins. MLB. June 19, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  151. ^ "Twins hire Cory Provus for radio play-by-play/analyst position | twinsbaseball.com: News". Minnesota Twins. MLB. June 19, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  152. ^ "Twins Hall of Fame broadcaster dies of heart failure – MLB – ESPN". Sports.espn.go.com. April 1, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  153. ^ "FS-North, Twins announce TV schedule". Foxsportsnorth.com. February 16, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  154. ^ "Blyleven, Bert | Baseball Hall of Fame". Baseballhall.org. April 6, 1951. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  155. ^ "Minnesota Twins News, Photos and Video". FOXSportsNorth.com. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  156. ^ "Twins announcer Casey dies at age 79 | twinsbaseball.com: News". Minnesota Twins. MLB. June 19, 2012. Archived from the original on August 20, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  157. ^ "Home page". Play Ball! Minnesota. Minnesota Twins Community Fund. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
  158. ^ "McGuire on Media » Remembering the Homer Hanky, the Twins and the Star Tribune". Cronkite.asu.edu. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  159. ^ a b c d "Twins Auction: Grounds Crew for a Day". Fox Sports North. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  160. ^ Kepner, Tyler (January 6, 2011). "Bert Blyleven Is the Hall of Fame's Merry Prankster". The New York Times.
  161. ^ "Bert Blyleven Quotes". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved August 16, 2012.