Minister without portfolio

Chairman of the Conservative Party Conservative Party (UK) Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

A minister without portfolio is either a government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister who does not head a particular ministry. The sinecure is particularly common in countries ruled by coalition governments and a cabinet with decision-making authority wherein a minister without portfolio, while he or she may not head any particular office or ministry, still receives a ministerial salary and has the right to cast a vote in cabinet decisions. In some countries where the executive branch is not composed of a coalition of parties and, more often, in countries with purely presidential systems of government, such as the United States, the position of minister without portfolio (or an equivalent position) is uncommon.


Willie Kelly was given the title in the Cook Ministry from June 1913 to September 1914.

Stanley Bruce was given the title of minister without portfolio when he took up his position in 1932 as the Commonwealth Minister in London. He was given the title by Lyon's Cabinet so that he could better represent the PM and his colleagues free from the limitations of a portfolio. In this case the title was a promotion and carried considerable responsibilities.[1]


Bangladesh appoints ministers without portfolio during cabinet reshuffles or fresh appointments. Ministers are not usually appointed without portfolio as a coalition negotiation – all long run ministers end up with a portfolio. Suranjit Sengupta was a minister without portfolio in Sheikh Hasina's second government.[2]



While the minister without portfolio is seen by some as a mere sinecure appointment, it has been a role that numerous political notables have played over time, including former Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, who filled the role in a Pearson cabinet in the 1960s; John Turner also "kept a seat warm" in a Pearson cabinet. Notable Conservatives who filled the role include R. B. Bennett, and Arthur Meighen; however, Meighen served this role after he had been prime minister.

The title of minister without portfolio has been used off and on; in recent times, though, the title has fallen out of favour, and the last minister without portfolio, Gilles Lamontagne, was promoted to postmaster general in 1978. The practice has continued under the guise of ministers of state without responsibilities in the ministers' titles.

The position has also been filled on the federal or provincial level by experienced politicians near the end of their careers as a way of allowing them to counsel the government and take on projects without the burdens associated with administering a government department.



Three "control ministers" served as ministers without portfolio during World War I.

After the Liberation of Denmark in May 1945, the first Danish cabinet included four ministers without portfolio. Among these were Danish ambassador to the U.S. Henrik Kauffmann, who had conducted his own foreign policy throughout the war and refused to follow orders from Copenhagen as long as Denmark remained occupied by a foreign power. Kauffmann served in this capacity from 12 May to 7 November 1945. The three other holders of this title had joined the cabinet a few days before – Aksel Larsen (Communist Party of Denmark), Kr. Juul Christensen (Danish Unity) and Frode Jakobsen (Social Democrats).

Lise Østergaard held a position as minister without portfolio with special attention to foreign policy issues in Anker Jørgensen's cabinet from 26 February 1977 to 28 February 1980.

Anders Fogh Rasmussen appointed Bertel Haarder to Minister without Portfolio, but effectively Minister for European Affairs. Haarder served in this capacity from 27 November 2001 to 18 February 2005. The reason for appointing a minister without a ministry was the Danish European Union Presidency of 2002. Haarder was considered the most experienced Danish politician on European affairs.



Since 1949, a Federal Minister for Special Affairs (Bundesminister für besondere Aufgaben) is a member of the Federal Government that does not have charge of a Federal Ministry, although some have simultaneously been Chief of the Federal Chancellor's Office.




Since the inception of the state, Indonesia had ministers without portfolio, usually given the title Menteri Negara ('State Minister'). The number was not fixed, entirely depended on the behest of the President. Below is the list of Ministers without Portfolio in each Cabinet.

Presidential Cabinet (19 August – 14 November 1945)

First Sjahrir Cabinet (11 November 1945 – 28 February 1946)

Third Sjahrir Cabinet (5 October 1946 – 27 July 1947)

Sixth Development Cabinet (6 June – 1 October 1997)

The cabinet was unique, with President Suharto moved the Minister of Information Harmoko to the office of State Minister of Special Affairs (Indonesian: Menteri Negara Urusan Khusus) on 6 June 1997. The Ministry of Special Affairs was dissolved on 1 October 1997, following the inauguration of next-term's parliament and the appointment of Harmoko as its speaker.


The Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 1939 allows a Minister to be a member of the Government of Ireland who does not have charge of a Department of State, such a person to be known as a "Minister without portfolio".[6] Such a minister may be given a specific style or title. The only substantive minister without portfolio has been Frank Aiken, the Minister for the Co-ordination of Defensive Measures during World War II.[7] By the Emergency Powers Act 1939 then in force, the Minister for Defence was able to delegate some competences to him.[8][9] Such delegation is now done instead[citation needed] with Ministers of State: "junior ministers" who are not members of the government. Junior ministers can be given a right to sit at cabinet; in this case, they often known colloquially as "super-juniors". This allows the Government to circumvent the Constitutional limit of fifteen on the number of Government Ministers.

On a number of occasions a minister has been appointed to an incoming government with the title of a new Department of State. Between the date of appointment and the date of creation of the department, such a minister is formally a minister without portfolio.[10]

Title Govt Minister Appt to govt Dept created Dept
Minister for Economic Planning and Development 15th Martin O'Donoghue 8 July 1977[11] 13 December 1977[12][13] Department of Economic Planning and Development
Minister for Public Expenditure and Reform 29th Brendan Howlin 9 March 2011[14] 6 July 2011[15][16] Department of Public Expenditure and Reform
Minister for Rural and Community Development 31st Michael Ring 14 June 2017[17] 19 July 2017[18] Department of Rural and Community Development
Minister for Further and Higher Education, Research, Innovation and Science 32nd Simon Harris 27 June 2020[19] 2 August 2020[20] Department of Further and Higher Education, Research, Innovation and Science


It is common practice in Israel to appoint ministers without portfolio as part of the coalition negotiations. All cabinets in recent years have had at least some such appointment. The Governance Law passed in 2013 forbade Ministers Without Portfolio effectively ending the practice, however in spite of some objections, after the 2015 elections this issue was revisited in the Knesset and it was allowed for the practice to resume. The full alphabetical list of Ministers without Portfolio since 1949 is:


In the Italian government, Ministers without Portfolio are nominated by the President of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) and formally appointed by the President of the Republic to lead particular departments directly under the Presidency (or Presidium) of the Council of Ministers. Unlike the office of State Undersecretary to the Presidency, who fulfils duties in the Prime Minister's remit, Ministers without Portfolio enjoy the full status of ministers but do not lead an independent ministry. Departments on equalities, European affairs and relations with regions, for example, are usually led by ministers without portfolio.

The Monti Cabinet had 6 ministers without portfolio:

The Letta Cabinet had 8 ministers without portfolio:

The Renzi Cabinet had 3 ministers without portfolio:

North Macedonia

As of 2017, ministers without portfolio (министер без ресор) are:



Dr. Ram Sharan Mahat.[25]


A minister without portfolio in the Netherlands is a minister that does not head a specific ministry, but assumes the same power and responsibilities as a minister that does. The minister is responsible for a specific part of another minister's policy field. In that sense, a minister without portfolio is comparable to a staatssecretaris (state secretary or junior minister) in Dutch politics, who also falls under another ministry and is responsible for a specific part of that minister's policy field. However, one distinct difference is that a minister without portfolio is a member of the council of ministers and can vote in it, whereas a state secretary is not. The minister for development cooperation has always been a minister without portfolio.

In the second Balkenende cabinet there were three ministers without portfolio: Agnes van Ardenne (Development Cooperation), Rita Verdonk (Integration and Immigration) and Alexander Pechtold (Government Reform and Kingdom Relations).

In the fourth Balkenende cabinet there were three ministers without portfolio: Eberhard van der Laan (Housing, Neighbourhoods and Integration), Bert Koenders (Development Cooperation) and André Rouvoet, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Youth and Family.

The second Rutte cabinet had two ministers without portfolio: Stef Blok (Housing and the Central Government Sector) and Lilianne Ploumen (Development Cooperation).

The third Rutte cabinet has four ministers without portfolio: Sigrid Kaag (Development Cooperation), Sander Dekker (Legal Protection), Martin van Rijn (Medical Care), and Arie Slob (Primary and Secondary Education and Media).

New Zealand

In the First Labour Government from 1935 Mark Fagan was a "Minister without Portfolio" from 1935 to 1939, as was David Wilson from 1939 to 1949. They were appointed to the upper house and made a "minister without portfolio" to add them to the cabinet although neither were elected to a seat in Parliament.

In the Third National Government, Keith Holyoake was made a Minister of State 1975–77 after he had retired as party leader, and in the Fourth National Government Robin Gray was made a Minister of State 1993–96 after he was replaced as Speaker (though he was also Associate Minister of Foreign Affairs). Both appointments were considered sinecures to avoid their return as 'backbenchers'.

The following were appointed to the Executive Council as Ministers without Portfolio.[26]


  Liberal   Reform   United   Labour   National
†: Died in office

Name Portrait Term of Office Prime Minister
James Carroll JamesCarroll1914.jpg 16 March 1892 20 February 1896 Ballance
Alfred Cadman Alfred Jerome Cadman (Cropped).jpg 21 December 1899 9 May 1901
William Montgomery William Montgomery 01.jpg 19 July 1893 7 November 1895
Mahuta Tāwhiao Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero (15015383640).jpg 22 May 1903 6 August 1906
Āpirana Ngata ApiranaNgata05.jpg 7 January 1909 28 March 1912 Ward
Peter Buck RangiHiroa1904.jpg 28 March 1912 10 July 1912 Mackenzie
Thomas Buxton Thomas Buxton.jpg 28 March 1912 10 July 1912
Māui Pōmare Maui Pomare.jpg 10 July 1912 3 May 1916 Massey
William Fraser William Fraser MP.jpg 27 July 1920 16 July 1923†
David Guthrie David Guthrie.jpg 25 June 1924 31 March 1927†
Heaton Rhodes Robert Heaton Rhodes Jr (1915).jpg 18 January 1926 10 December 1928
Francis Bell Sir Francis Henry Dillon Bell, ca 1924.jpg 24 May 1926 25 August 1928
Sir Joseph Ward Joseph Ward c. 1906.jpg 28 May 1930 8 July 1930† Forbes
Robert Masters Robert Masters, 1922.jpg 20 August 1930 22 September 1931
Mark Fagan Mark Fagan.jpg 6 December 1935 18 July 1939 Savage
David Wilson David Wilson MLC.jpg 18 November 1939 30 May 1940
Paraire Karaka Paikea Paraire Karaka Paikea.jpg 21 January 1941 6 May 1943†
Eruera Tirikatene Eruera Tirikatene.jpg 26 May 1943 13 December 1949
Adam Hamilton Adam Hamilton (1926).jpg 16 July 1940 5 October 1942
Gordon Coates Joseph Gordon Coates, 1931.jpg 16 July 1940 5 October 1942
William Polson William John Polson.jpg 15 March 1950 12 December 1950 Holland
Sidney Holland Sidney George Holland (1953) 2.png 20 September 1957 12 December 1957 Holyoake
David Seath David Seath.jpg 24 January 1962 20 December 1963
Hugh Watt Hugh Watt.jpg 13 March 1975 12 December 1975 Rowling


From 2009 to 2013 Karl Eirik Schjøtt-Pedersen (Labour) was a Minister without Portfolio and Chief of Staff in the Prime Ministers Office, where his job was to co-ordinate within government.


During the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines, then-Senate President Manuel Roxas was appointed Minister without Portfolio by the Japanese Government.[citation needed]


Following the Carnation revolution, several politicians were made ministers without portfolio:


From 2007 to 2008, Dragan Đilas was a "minister without portfolio" in charge of the National Investment Plan.


In the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China, there are several such ministers, at one time. Currently, the ministers without portfolio are:[27]


In Singapore, the appointment holder is known as a 'Minister in the Prime Minister's Office'.



President Jakaya Kikwete appointed Professor Mark Mwandosya as a minister without portfolio in 2012.


Since 2015, the cabinet list has included a minister without portfolio:

United Kingdom

United Kingdom
Minister without Portfolio
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
Royal Arms as used by Her Majesty's Government
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Official portrait of Amanda Milling MP crop 2.jpg
Amanda Milling

since 13 February 2020
Cabinet Office
StyleThe Right Honourable
Reports toThe Prime Minister
NominatorThe Prime Minister
AppointerThe British Monarch
on the advice of the Prime Minister
Term lengthNo fixed term
Inaugural holderWilliam Cavendish
FormationJanuary 1805

In the United Kingdom, it is often a cabinet position, and is sometimes used to enable people such as the Chairman of the Conservative Party or the Chair of the Labour Party to attend cabinet meetings (if so, they hold the title of "Party chairman"). The sinecure positions of Lord Privy Seal and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster which have few responsibilities and have a higher rank in the Order of Precedence than Minister without Portfolio can also be used for similar effect.

19th century

Name Portrait Concurrent office(s) Tenure Political party Prime Minister
William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland 3rd Duke of Portland crop.jpg January 1805 – February 1806 Whig William Pitt the Younger
William Fitzwilliam, 4th Earl Fitzwilliam 2ndEarlFitzwilliam.jpg October 1806 – March 1807 William Grenville
(Ministry of All the Talents)
William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland 3rd Duke of Portland crop.jpg 4 – 30 October 1809 Tory Spencer Perceval
Dudley Ryder, 1st Earl of Harrowby 1stEarlOfHarrowby.jpg November 1809 – June 1812 Tory (Pittite)
John Pratt, 2nd Earl Camden (created 1st Marquess Camden, August 1812) 1stMarquessCamden.JPG 8 April – December 1812 Tory
Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool
Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave by Sir William Beechey.jpg January 1819 – May 1820
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne Lord Henry Petty.jpg April – July 1827 Whig George Canning
William Bentinck, 4th Duke of Portland 4th-Duke-of-Portland.gif July – September 1827 Tory (Canningite)
George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle 22 November 1830 – 5 June 1834 Whig Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington Sir Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington.png 3 September 1841 – July 1846 Conservative Robert Peel
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne Lord Henry Petty.jpg 28 December 1852 – 21 February 1858 Whig George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen
(until February 1855)
Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston
Lord John Russell Lord John Russell.jpg February 1853 – June 1854 George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen
Spencer Horatio Walpole Spencer Horatio Walpole.JPG May 1867 – February 1868 Conservative Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby
Michael Hicks Beach St Aldwyn Michael Edward Hicks-Beach (1st Earl).jpg 7 March 1887 – 20 February 1888 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury

Edwardian and wartime

Name Portrait Concurrent office(s) Tenure Political party Prime Minister
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne Marquess of Lansdowne crop.jpg 25 May 1915 – December 1916 Liberal Unionist H. H. Asquith
Arthur Henderson 1910 Arthur Henderson.jpg Member of the War Cabinet 10 December 1916 – 12 August 1917 Labour David Lloyd George
Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner Lord Milner.jpg 10 December 1916 – 18 April 1918 Conservative
Jan Smuts Jan Smuts 1947.jpg 22 June 1917 – 10 January 1919 South African Party
Edward Carson Sir Edward Carson, bw photo portrait seated.jpg 17 July 1917 – 21 January 1918 Ulster Unionist Party (Irish Unionist)
George Barnes George Nicoll Barnes in 1916.jpg Member of the War Cabinet (until October 1919) 13 August 1917 – 27 January 1920 Labour
Austen Chamberlain Austen Chamberlain nobel.jpg Member of the War Cabinet 18 April 1918 – 10 January 1919 Conservative
Eric Campbell Geddes Sir Eric Campbell-Geddes in 1917.jpg 10 January – 31 October 1919
Laming Worthington-Evans Laming Worthington Evans.jpg Member of the War Cabinet (until October 1919) 10 January 1919 – 13 February 1921
Christopher Addison Christopher Addison, 1st Viscount Addison.jpg 1 April – 14 July 1921 Liberal
Anthony Eden Minister for League of Nations affairs 7 June – 22 December 1935 Conservative Stanley Baldwin
Eustace Percy Portrait of Lord Eustace Percy.jpg 7 June 1935 – 31 March 1936
Leslie Burgin Leslie burgin.jpg Minister of Supply-designate 21 April – 14 July 1939 National Liberal Party Neville Chamberlain
Maurice Hankey Maurice Hankey.jpg Member of the War Cabinet September 1939 – 10 May 1940 no party Neville Chamberlain
Arthur Greenwood 11 May 1940 – 22 February 1942 Labour Winston Churchill
William Jowitt William Allen Jowitt c1945.jpg 30 December 1942 – 8 October 1944


Name Portrait Concurrent office(s) Tenure Political party Prime Minister
A. V. Alexander INF3-62 A V Alexander Artist's signature E A B.jpg 4 October – 20 December 1946 Labour Co-operative Clement Attlee
Arthur Greenwood 17 April – 29 September 1947 Labour
Geoffrey FitzClarence, 5th Earl of Munster 18 October 1954 – 1957 Conservative Winston Churchill
Anthony Eden
Stormont Mancroft, 2nd Baron Mancroft 11 June 1957 – 1958 Harold Macmillan
Henry Scrymgeour-Wedderburn, 11th Earl of Dundee 23 October 1958 – 1961 Unionist
Percy Mills, 1st Baron Mills Deputy Leader of the House of Lords 9 October 1961 – 14 July 1962 Conservative
Bill Deedes 13 July 1962 – 16 October 1964
Alec Douglas-Home
Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington Peter Carington 1984.jpg Leader of the House of Lords 20 October 1963 – 16 October 1964
Eric Fletcher 19 October 1964 – 6 April 1966 Labour Harold Wilson
Arthur Champion, Baron Champion Deputy Leader of the House of Lords 21 October 1964 – 7 January 1967
Douglas Houghton 6 April 1966 – 7 January 1967
Edward Shackleton, Baron Shackleton Deputy Leader of the House of Lords 7 January 1967 – 16 January 1968
Patrick Gordon Walker Patrick Gordon Walker.jpg 7 January – 21 August 1967
George Thomson 17 October 1968 – 6 October 1969
Peter Shore 6 October 1969 – 19 June 1970
Niall Macpherson, 1st Baron Drumalbyn 15 October 1970 – 1974 Unionist Edward Heath
Morys Bruce, 4th Baron Aberdare 8 January – March 1974 Conservative
David Young, Baron Young of Graffham Lord young of Graffham.jpg advising on unemployment 11 September 1984 – 3 September 1985 Margaret Thatcher
Jeremy Hanley Chairman of the Conservative Party 20 July 1994 – 5 July 1995 John Major
Brian Mawhinney 5 July 1995 – 2 May 1997
Peter Mandelson Lord Mandelson Allan Warren.JPG called the "Dome Secretary" 2 May 1997 – 27 July 1998 Labour Tony Blair

21st century

Name Portrait Concurrent office(s) Tenure Political party Prime Minister
Charles Clarke CharlesClarke2014.jpg Labour Party Chair 9 June 2001 – October 2002 Labour Tony Blair
John Reid ReidTaormina crop.jpg 24 October 2002 – April 2003
Ian McCartney Minister of State for Trade, UK, Mr. Ian McCartney, in New Delhi on November 27, 2006 (cropped).jpg 4 April 2003 – May 2006
Hazel Blears Hazel Blears, June 2009 2 cropped.jpg 5 May 2006 – June 2007
no appointment 28 June 2007 – May 2010 Gordon Brown
Sayeeda Warsi, Baroness Warsi Official portrait of Baroness Warsi crop 2.jpg Co-Chairman of the Conservative Party 12 May 2010 – September 2012 Conservative David Cameron
Grant Shapps Official portrait of Grant Shapps crop 2.jpg 4 September 2012 – May 2015
Kenneth Clarke Official portrait of Mr Kenneth Clarke crop 2.jpg Trade envoy 4 September 2012 – July 2014
John Hayes Official portrait of Mr John Hayes crop 2.jpg Senior Parliamentary Adviser to the Prime Minister (Cabinet Office) 28 March 2013 – July 2014
Robert Halfon Official portrait of Robert Halfon crop 2.jpg Deputy Chairman of the Conservative Party 11 May 2015 – 17 July 2016 David Cameron
no appointment 17 July 2016 - 8 January 2018 Theresa May
Brandon Lewis Official portrait of Brandon Lewis crop 2.jpg Chairman of the Conservative Party 8 January 2018 – 24 July 2019
James Cleverly Official portrait of James Cleverly crop 2.jpg 24 July 2019 – 13 February 2020 Boris Johnson
Amanda Milling Official portrait of Amanda Milling MP crop 2.jpg 13 February 2020 – present

United States

In the United States, an individual who has great influence on government affairs without holding formal office might be described as a "minister without portfolio". Such an appellation is completely unofficial (possibly intended jokingly or disparagingly) and merely serves to underscore the extent of the individual's already-existing influence; it does not grant any new influence or power. Examples include Bernard Baruch,[29] Arthur Burns,[30] and Ivanka Trump.[31]


  1. ^ "Mr Bruce to be Minister without Portfolio". Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  2. ^ "Bangladesh's PM Sheikh Hasina keeps Home, Foreign Affairs, Defence portfolios". PTI. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  3. ^ a b "Just what is a minister without portfolio?". Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  4. ^ "Vajpayee reinducts Mamata Banerjee as cabinet minister without portfolio". India Today. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  5. ^ "Congress: 'Minister without portfolio' is giving 'gyan': Congress hits back at Jaitley's blog". The Times of India.
  6. ^ "Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 1939, Section 4: Minister without portfolio". Irish Statute Book. 21 December 1939. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  7. ^ Chubb, Basil (1982). Government & Politics of Ireland (2nd ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 170. ISBN 0-8047-1115-1.
  8. ^ "Emergency Powers Act 1939; §6 Delegation of statutory powers and duties". Irish Statute Book. 3 September 1939. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
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  10. ^ "Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Bill 1977: Fifth Stage". Dáil debates. Oireachtas. 10 November 1977. Retrieved 8 May 2012. The Minister for Economic Planning and Development is a member of the Government not having charge of a Department of State, who is therefore, under section 4 (2) of the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 1939 a Minister without portfolio. His title is not derived from the title of a Department of which he is head, because it does not exist, but it is a title that has been assigned to him by the Government pursuant to section 4 (3) of the 1939 Act.
  11. ^ "Appointment of Taoiseach and Nomination of Members of Government – Dáil Éireann (21st Dáil) – Tuesday, 5 July 1977". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  12. ^ "Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1977 Section 2". Irish Statute Book. Attorney General. 6 December 1977. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
  13. ^ "Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 1977 (Appointed Day) Order 1977". Irish Statute Book. Attorney General. 9 December 1977. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  14. ^ "Appointment of Ministers and Ministers of State – Dáil Éireann (31st Dáil) – Tuesday, 15 March 2011". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  15. ^ "Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 2011, Section 7". Irish Statute Book. Dublin: Attorney General. 4 July 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  16. ^ "Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 2011 (Appointed Day) Order 2011". Irish Statute Book. Dublin: Attorney General. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
  17. ^ "Appointment of Members of Government and Ministers of State – Dáil Éireann (32nd Dáil) – Tuesday, 20 June 2017". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 2017, Section 1: Department of Rural and Community Development". Irish Statute Book. 19 July 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  19. ^ "Appointment of Ministers and Ministers of State – Dáil Éireann (33rd Dáil) – Tuesday, 7 July 2020". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  20. ^ "Ministers and Secretaries and Ministerial, Parliamentary, Judicial and Court Offices (Amendment) Act 2020". Irish Statute Book. 2 August 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  21. ^ "Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 30 gennaio 2015 – Accettazione delle dimissioni della dott.ssa Maria Carmela LANZETTA dalla carica di Ministro senza portafoglio. (15A00810) (GU Serie Generale n.27 del 3-2-2015)". The official website of the Gazzetta Ufficiale.
  22. ^ "Official: New Cabinet appointed – huge overhaul as only five ministers keep places - The Malta Independent". Retrieved 2020-02-15.
  23. ^ "Updated (3): Konrad Mizzi, Keith Schembri to remain at Castille; Mallia returns to Cabinet - The Malta Independent". Retrieved 2017-04-27.
  24. ^ "Parlament Ta' Malta". Archived from the original on 2017-03-26. Retrieved 2017-04-27.
  25. ^ "Congress leader Mahat to join cabinet". 2014-02-11. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
  26. ^ Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  27. ^ "Premier-designate finalizes his Cabinet lineup". 2016-04-28. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
  28. ^ "Olof Palme". Government Offices of Sweden. 27 February 2016. he was a minister without portfolio from 1963 to 1965
  29. ^ Bauman, Michael (1984-06-27). "Mysterious Baruch". Milwaukee Journal. p. 18. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  30. ^ "The Administration: Minister Without Portfolio". Time. 1969-02-07. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  31. ^ Mahnken, Kevin (2020-07-06). "The Veepstakes Is Taking Over, But the Education World Wants to Know: Who Will Replace DeVos?". The 74. Retrieved 2020-07-09.