Member of the Legislative Assembly (India)

Communist Party of India (Marxist) Nationalist Congress Party Bahujan Samaj Party

A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district (constituency) to the legislature of State government in the Indian system of government. From each constituency, the people elect one representative who then becomes a member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA). Each state has between seven and nine MLAs for every Member of Parliament (MP) that it has in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of India's bicameral parliament. There are also members in three unicameral legislatures in Union Territories: the Delhi Legislative Assembly, Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly Puducherry Legislative Assembly.


In states where there are two houses there is a State Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad), and a State Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). In such a case, the Legislative Council is the upper house, while Legislative Assembly is the lower house of the state legislature.

The Governor shall not be a member of the Legislature or Parliament, shall not hold any office of profit, and shall be entitled to emoluments and allowances. (Article 158 of Indian constitution).

The Legislative Assembly consists of not more than 500 members and not fewer than 60. The biggest state, Uttar Pradesh, has 404 members in its Assembly. States which have small populations and are small in size have a provision for having an even lesser number of members in the Legislative Assembly. Puducherry has 33 members. Mizoram and Goa have only 40 members each. Sikkim has 32. All members of the Legislative Assembly are elected on the basis of adult franchise, and one member is elected from one constituency. (Just as the President has the power to nominate two Anglo Indians to the Lok Sabha #repealed on 26/01/2020#), the Governor has the power to nominate one member[1] from the Anglo Indian community as he/she deems fit, if he/she is of the opinion that they are not adequately represented in the Assembly.


The qualifications to become a member of the Legislative Assembly are largely similar to the qualifications to be a member of Parliament.

i) The person should be a citizen of India

ii) not less than 25 years of age[2] to be a member of the Legislative Assembly and not less than 30 years as per Article 173 of Indian Constitution to be a member of the Legislative Council.

No person can become a member of the Legislative Assembly or the Legislative Council of any state, unless the individual is a voter from any constituency of the state. Those who cannot become members of Parliament also cannot become members of the state legislature.

The member is elected by the people of that particular constituency and represents those people in the legislative assembly and debates on issues related to his or her constituency. The MLA's position is like an MP, but the difference is only that MLA is in the state level and the MP is in the national level.


The term of the Legislative Assembly is five years. However, it may be dissolved earlier than that by the Governor on the request of the Chief Minister. The term of the Legislative Assembly may be extended during an emergency,[citation needed] but not more than six months at a time. The Legislative Council is the upper house in the State. Just like the Rajya Sabha it is a permanent House. The members of the state's upper house are selected based on the strength of each party in the lower house and by state gubernatorial nomination. The term of is six years, and a third of the members of the House retire after every two years. The upper house of a state assembly, unlike the upper house of the Parliament, can be abolished by the lower house, if it passes a specific law bill, which states to dissolve the upper house, and gets it attested in both houses of parliament and then signed by the president into law. Only Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh have their upper houses in existence with 6 year term, J&K also has 6 year term lower house. All other states have abolished the upper house by the above-mentioned method, as the upper house causes unnecessary problems and issues.[3]


The most important function of the legislature is law making. The state legislature has the power to make laws on all items on which Parliament cannot legislate. Some of these items are police, prisons, irrigation, agriculture, local governments, public health, Pilgrimage, and burial grounds. Some topics on which both Parliament and states can make laws are education, marriage and divorce, forests, and the protection of wild animals and birds.

As regards money bills, the position is the same. Bills can originate only in the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Council can either pass the bill within 14 days of the date of the receipt of the Bill or suggest changes in it within 14 days. These changes may or may not be accepted by the Assembly.

The state legislature, besides making laws, has one electoral power, in electing the President of India. Elected members of the Legislative Assembly along with the elected members of Parliament are involved in this process.

Some parts of the Constitution can be amended by Parliament with the approval of half of state legislatures. Thus the state legislatures take part in the process of amendment of the Constitution.

MLA party memberships as of 17 Aug 2020

State name Total BJP NDA INC UPA Others Ind. Vacant
Andhra Pradesh 175 YSRCP 151, TDP 23, JSP 1
Arunachal Pradesh 60 41 JDU 7, NPP 4 4 PPA 1 3
Assam 126 60 AGP 14, BPF 12 23 AIUDF 14 1 2
Bihar 243 54 JDU 70, LJP 2 26 RJD 80, HAM 1 CPI-ML 3, AIMIM 1 5 1
Chhattisgarh 90 14 69 JCC 4, BSP 2 1
Goa 40 27 5 NCP 1 GFP 3, MGP 1 3
Gujarat 182 103 65 BTP 2, NCP 1 1 10
Haryana 90 40 JJP 10 30 INLD 1, HLP 1 7 1
Himachal Pradesh 68 44 21 CPM 1 2
Jammu and Kashmir 90 90
Jharkhand 81 26 AJSU 2 17 JMM 29, RJD 1, NCP 1 CPI(ML)(L) 1 2 2
Karnataka 224 117 68 JD(S) 34 3 2
Kerala 140 1 KJ(S) 1 21 IUML 18, KCM 5, KCJ 1 CPM 59, CPI 19, JDS 3, NCP 2, CMP(KSC) 1, C(S) 1, NSC 1, KCB 1 4 2
Madhya Pradesh 230 107 90 SP 1, BSP 2 4 26
Maharashtra 288 105 RSP 1 44 SS 56, NCP 54, BVA 3, PWPI 1, SWP 1 CPM 1, SP 2, AIMIM 2, MNS 1, PJP 2, JSS 1, KSP 1 13
Manipur 60 18 NPP 4, LJP 1 NPF 4 20 AITC 1 1 11
Meghalaya 60 2 NPP 21, UDP 8, PDP 4, HSPDP 2 19 NCP 1 KHNAM 1 2
Mizoram 40 1 MNF 27 5 ZPM 7
Nagaland 60 13 NDPP 20 NPF 26 1
Odisha 147 22 9 BJD 112, CPM 1 1 2
Punjab 117 2 80 AAP 19, SAD 14, LIP 2
Rajasthan 200 72 RLP 3 107 BTP 2, RLD 1 CPM 2 13
Sikkim 32 12 SKM 19 SDF 1
Tamil Nadu 234 000 AIADMK 125 7 DMK 96, IUML 1 AMMK 1 3
Telangana 119 1 6 TRS 103, AIMIM 7, TDP 1 1
Tripura 60 36 IPFT 8 CPM 16
Uttar Pradesh 403 308 ADS 9 7 SP 48, BSP 18, SBSP 4 3 6
Uttarakhand 70 56 11 3
West Bengal 294 15 GJM 2 25 AITC 221, CPM 21, RSP 2, AIFB 2, CPI 1 5
Delhi 70 8 AAP 62
Puducherry 30 AINRC 7, AIADMK 4 14 DMK 3 1 1
Total 4123 1305 391 793 394 1001 73 166

See also


  1. ^ "Indian Government Structure at State Level". KKHSOU.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-10-05. Retrieved 2010-02-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ MLA Post Tenure