Luigi Di Maio
Luigi Di Maio
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
|Assumed office |
5 September 2019
|Prime Minister||Giuseppe Conte|
|Preceded by||Enzo Moavero Milanesi|
|Deputy Prime Minister of Italy|
1 June 2018 – 5 September 2019
Serving with Matteo Salvini
|Prime Minister||Giuseppe Conte|
|Preceded by||Angelino Alfano (2014)|
|Minister of Economic Development|
1 June 2018 – 5 September 2019
|Prime Minister||Giuseppe Conte|
|Preceded by||Carlo Calenda|
|Succeeded by||Stefano Patuanelli|
|Minister of Labour and Social Policies|
1 June 2018 – 5 September 2019
|Prime Minister||Giuseppe Conte|
|Preceded by||Giuliano Poletti|
|Succeeded by||Nunzia Catalfo|
|Leader of the Five Star Movement|
23 September 2017 – 22 January 2020
|Preceded by||Beppe Grillo|
|Succeeded by||Vito Crimi|
|Member of the Chamber of Deputies|
|Assumed office |
15 March 2013
|Constituency||Campania 1 (2013–2018)|
|Born||6 July 1986|
|Political party||Five Star Movement|
|Domestic partner||Virginia Saba|
Luigi Di Maio (Italian pronunciation: [luˈiːdʒi di ˈmaːjo]; 6 July 1986) is an Italian politician who is serving as Minister of Foreign Affairs since 5 September 2019. He previously served as Deputy Prime Minister of Italy and Minister of Economic Development, Labour and Social Policies from 2018 to 2019, and as Vice President of the Chamber of Deputies in the XVII Italian legislature. From 2017 to January 2020, he was the leader of the Five Star Movement, an anti-establishment party founded by Beppe Grillo.
Luigi Di Maio was born in Avellino, in 1986; he was the eldest of three brothers. His father Antonio was a small real estate entrepreneur and local councilor for the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement (MSI), while his mother was a teacher of Italian and Latin.
Di Maio attended the Liceo classico and then he enrolled at the University of Naples Federico II to study engineering, but subsequently changed to jurisprudence. He was among the founders of student societies at both faculties. Di Maio never graduated from university.
In 2007, he was registered as an apprentice journalist, later briefly working as a webmaster and as a drinks seller (despite his claims of having been a steward) at the Stadio San Paolo in Naples.
On 12 July 2017, Di Maio was formally investigated for defamation following a complaint filed by Marika Cassimatis, former M5S mayoral candidate in Genoa, while, on 28 July 2017, the journalist Elena Polidori filed a complaint against him also for defamation. Di Maio invoked his parliamentary immunity; he had previously criticized that privilege and pledged never to avail himself of it.
In 2017, Beppe Grillo announced that he would campaign in the 2018 election, but he would not be the candidate for the position of Prime Minister. Di Maio was considered as the front runner and the most likely candidate for the premiership of Italy.
Di Maio had been often labeled as the most pragmatic and "institutional", but also the least populist Five Star politician; he is the son of a member of the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement and he is considered the leader of the moderate and "governmental" faction of the movement. No other leading members of the M5S, such as Alessandro Di Battista, a politician and personal friend of Di Maio, or Roberto Fico, leader of the M5S left-wing faction and rival of Di Maio and Di Battista, would run for the office.
Di Maio's opponents were the Senator Elena Fattori (Vice President of the 9th Permanent Senate Committee) and six other city councilors. Many of them were almost unknown and this led to a lot of criticism from the Democratic Party, Lega Nord and Forza Italia, which considered this ballot a false primary election, with the only aim of appointing Di Maio as M5S candidate without any real challenger.
2018 general election
In the 2018 general election, the M5S became the party with the largest number of votes and of parliamentary seats, while the centre-right alliance, in which Matteo Salvini's League emerged as the main political force, won a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate and the centre-left coalition, led by former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, came third. However, no political group or party won an outright majority, resulting in a hung parliament.
On 7 April, Di Maio made an appeal to the PD to "bury the hatchet" and consider a governing coalition with his party. 
On 7 May, President Mattarella held a third round of government formation talks, after which he formally confirmed the lack of any possible majority (M5S rejecting an alliance with the whole centre-right coalition, PD rejecting an alliance with both M5S and the centre-right coalition, and the League's Matteo Salvini refusing to start a government with M5S but without Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia party, whose presence in the government was explicitly vetoed by M5S's leader Luigi Di Maio); on the same circumstance, he announced his intention to soon appoint a "neutral government" (irrespective of M5S and League's refusal to support such an option) to take over from the Gentiloni Cabinet which was considered unable to lead Italy into a second consecutive election as it was representing a majority from a past legislature, and offering an early election in July (on what it would be the very first time for a summer general election in Italy) as a realistic option to take into consideration due to the deadlock situation. The Lega and M5S agreed to hold new elections on 8 July, an option that was however rejected by all other parties.
On 9 May, after a day of rumours surfaced, both Di Maio and Salvini officially requested President Mattarella to give them 24 more hours to strike a government agreement between the two parties. Later the same day, in the evening, Silvio Berlusconi publicly announced Forza Italia would not support a M5S-League government on a vote of confidence, but he would still maintain the centre-right alliance nonetheless, thus opening the doors to a possible majority government between the two parties.
On 13 May, 5 Star Movement and League reached an agreement in principle on a government program, likely clearing the way for the formation of a governing coalition between the two parties, but could not find an agreement regarding the members of a government cabinet, most importantly the prime minister. M5S and League leaders met with Italian President Sergio Mattarella on 14 May to guide the formation of a new government. On their meeting with President Mattarella, both parties asked for an additional week of negotiations to agree on a detailed government program and a prime minister to lead the joint government. Both M5S and the League announced their intention to ask their respective members to vote on the government agreement by the weekend.
On 21 May 2018, Di Maio and Salvini proposed the private law professor Giuseppe Conte, for the role of Prime Minister in the 2018 Italian government, despite reports in the Italian press suggesting that President Mattarella still had significant reservations about the direction of the new government. On 23 May 2018, Conte was invited to the Quirinal Palace to receive the presidential mandate to form a new cabinet. In the traditional statement after the appointment, Conte said that he would be the “defense lawyer of Italian people”.
However, Conte renounced to his office on 27 May due to contrasts between Salvini and President Mattarella. In fact, Salvini proposed the university professor Paolo Savona as Minister of Economy and Finances, but Mattarella strongly opposed him, considering Savona too Eurosceptic and anti-German. In his speech after Conte's resignation, Mattarella declared that the two parties wanted to bring Italy out of the Eurozone, and as the guarantor of Italian Constitution and country's interest and stability he could not allow this.
On the following day, Mattarella gave Carlo Cottarelli, a former director of the International Monetary Fund, the task of forming a new government. On 28 May 2018, the Democratic Party (PD) announced that it would abstain from voting the confidence to Cottarelli, while the Five Star Movement and the center-right parties Forza Italia (FI), Brothers of Italy (FdI) and the League announced their vote against.
Cottarelli was expected to submit his list of ministers for approval to President Mattarella on 29 May. However, on 29 May and 30 May he held only informal consultations with the President, waiting for the formation of a “political government”. Meanwhile, Matteo Salvini and Luigi Di Maio announced their willingness to restart the negotiations to form a political government, Giorgia Meloni, leader of FdI, gave her support to the initiative. On 31 May, M5S and the League reached an agreement to form a new government, without Paolo Savona as finance minister (he became minister of European affairs instead), and with Conte at its head.
Deputy Prime Minister
As minister, he implemented the so-called "citizens' income" (Italian: reddito di cittadinanza), a system of social welfare provision that provides a basic income and assistance in finding a job to poor people and families, which was one of the main proposal of the M5S 2018 campaign. The income was set to a maximum of €780 per month, and in its first year the program had almost 2.7 million applications.
In August 2019, Di Maio's co-serving Deputy Prime Minister, Salvini, announced a motion of no confidence against Conte, after growing tensions within the majority. Salvini's move came right after a vote in the Senate regarding the progress of the Turin–Lyon high-speed railway, in which the Lega voted against an attempt of the M5S to block the construction works. Many political analysts believe the no confidence motion was an attempt to force early elections to improve Lega's standing in Parliament, ensuring Salvini could become the next Prime Minister. On 20 August, following the parliamentary debate in which Conte harshly accused Salvini of being a political opportunist who "had triggered the political crisis only to serve his personal interest", the Prime Minister resigned his post to President Sergio Mattarella.
After Conte's resignation, the national board of the PD officially opened to the possibility of forming a new cabinet in a coalition with the M5S, based on pro-Europeanism, green economy, sustainable development, fight against economic inequality and a new immigration policy. Di Maio was initially contrary and rumors grew about the possibility of forming a second cabinet between M5S and Lega, with Di Maio himself as PM. However, the PD later accepted the M5S offer to keep Conte as head of the new government, and on 29 August President Mattarella formally invested Conte to do so.
On 1 September, Five Star's founder Beppe Grillo strongly endorsed an alliance with the PD, describing it as a "unique occasion" to reform the country. After two days, on 3 September, the members of the Five Star Movement voted in favor of an agreement with the Democrats, under the premiership of Giuseppe Conte, with more than 79% of favorable votes out of nearly 80,000 voters. On 5 September, Di Maio was sworn in as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the new government.
On 22 January 2020, Di Maio resigned as leader of the M5S, due to the incumbent role as Foreign Affairs Minister.
|2013||Chamber of Deputies||Campania 1||M5S||–[a]||Elected|
|2018||Chamber of Deputies||Campania 1 – Acerra||M5S||95,219||Elected|
- Elected in a closed list proportional representation system.
|2018 general election (C): Acerra|
|Luigi Di Maio||Five Star Movement||95,219||63.4|
|Vittorio Sgarbi||Centre-right coalition||30,596||20.4|
|Antonio Falcone||Centre-left coalition||18,018||12.0|
- Chi è Virginia Saba, la nuova fidanzata di Di Maio, www.dilei.it
- "Italy Challenges the Postwar Order - Alessandra Bocchi". First Things. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Di Maio candidato premier M5S con quasi 31mila voti". Il Sole 24 ORE. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Di Maio, ecco la foto di papà e lo strano segreto svelato: "Sapete con chi sta?" / Foto". Liberoquotidiano.it. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "M5s, i due padri fascisti antesignani del "vaffa": il lessico familiare di Di Maio e Di Battista". Repubblica.it. 23 June 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Scalfarotto attacca Di Maio: 'Vorrei vedere il suo curriculum, non è nemmeno laureato'". Tiscali Notizie. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Blog - M5s, conosciamo davvero Luigi Di Maio?". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Manuela Perrone (22 September 2017). "Luigi Di Maio, il più politico del M5S "scala" il Movimento anti-politica". Il Sole 24 Ore. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- "Di Maio? Un faccino pulito che ha fatto un solo mestiere: lo steward al San Paolo per vedersi il Napoli gratis". L’Huffington Post. 26 November 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Di Maio? Non steward ma venditore di bibite". NeXt Quotidiano. 5 December 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "L'ultima su Di Maio: "Steward allo stadio? No, vendeva bibite"". Giornalettismo.com. 5 December 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Stiglitz e Le Liste Civiche". Beppegrillo.it. 15 April 2009. Archived from the original on 27 February 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Di Maio, Luigi - M5S". Camera.it. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- Pino Neri (22 March 2013). "Luigi Di Maio, il ventiseienne napoletano, nuovo vicepresidente della Camera". Il Mattino. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Comunarie Genova, Di Maio indagato per diffamazione". Repubblica.it. 13 July 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- ""Di Maio non rinuncia all'immunità parlamentare", Pd attacca il candidato premier grillino". L’Huffington Post. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Aldo Giannuli, storico consigliere di Grillo e Casaleggio: "Primarie bulgare per far vincere Di Maio"". L’Huffington Post. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Cerami, Gabriella (18 September 2017). "Luigi Di Maio e i soliti ignoti" [Di Maio and the usual suspects]. Huffington Post Italia (in Italian). Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- Sannino, Conchita; Vechhio, Conceto (23 June 2017). "M5s, i due padri fascisti antesignani del "vaffa": il lessico familiare di Di Maio e Di Battista" [M5s, the two fascist pioneers of the "goscrews": the family lexicon of Di Maio and Di Battista]. La Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "M5s, no by Fico and Di Battista: 7 premier candidates challenge Di Maio" [M5s, the two fascist pioneers of the "goscrews": the family lexicon of Di Maio and Di Battista]. Giornale di Sicilia. 18 September 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "M5s, primarie in rete: 8 candidati premier. La senatrice Fattori sfida Di Maio. Rinunciano Fico, Morra e Di Battista". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 18 September 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "M5S. Oggi si vota il candidato premier. Sette 'sconosciuti' sfidano Di Maio". rainews. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Napolitano, Pasquale. "Un nome forte e percentuali bulgare: primarie M5s copiate (male) da Pd e Lega". ilGiornale.it. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "M5s, Di Maio eletto candidato premier e nuovo capo politico. Ma alle primarie votano solo in 37 mila". Repubblica.it. 23 September 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Elezioni politiche: vincono M5s e Lega. Crollo del Partito democratico. Centrodestra prima coalizione. Il Carroccio sorpassa Forza Italia". Repubblica.it. 4 March 2018.
- Sala, Alessandro (2018). "Elezioni 2018: M5S primo partito, nel centrodestra la Lega supera FI". Corriere.it.
- "Five Star Movement (M5S) courts Democratic Party (PD) for Italian coalition". Dw.com. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Italian president says 'neutral' government should lead until end of year". The Guardian. 7 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "Staatspräsident erklärt Regierungsbildung für gescheitert". DIE ZEIT. 7 May 2018.
- "Regierungsbildung ist gescheitert – Italien steht vor Neuwahlen". Handelsblatt. 7 May 2018.
- Giorgio, Massimiliano Di. "Italy repeat election looms in July as parties still far apart". U.K. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
- "Italy's populist parties given 24 hours to avert fresh elections". Financial Times. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "Governo M5S-Lega, Berlusconi: nessun veto all'intesa ma no alla fiducia". La Repubblica (in Italian). 9 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "Italy's populist 5 Star, League parties reach deal on government program". MarketWatch.com. 13 May 2018.
- "Chi è Giuseppe Conte, scelto da Luigi Di Maio per la possibile squadra di governo". formiche.net (in Italian). 28 February 2018. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- "Italy populist government pact: Candidate for prime minister named". BBC News. 21 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
- "Italian president in talks as populist parties put forward novice for PM". The Guardian.
- "Italy's Populists Move Closer to Power, With Little-Known Pick for Prime Minister". The New York Times.
- "The Latest: Premier-designate confirms Italy's place in EU". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- "Di Battista all'attacco di Mattarella: "Non si opponga agli italiani". La lunga giornata del Colle". Repubblica.it. 23 May 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- "Governo, Conte incaricato da Mattarella: "Sarò lʼavvocato difensore degli italiani"". Tgcom24.com. Archived from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- "Governo, il giorno della rinuncia di Conte. Ecco come è fallita la trattativa su Savona". Repubblica.it. 27 May 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- "L'ora più buia di Mattarella: la scelta obbligata di difendere l'interesse nazionale dopo il no dei partiti alla soluzione Giorgetti per l'Economia". Huff Post. 27 May 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- "Governo, firme e tweet di solidarietà a Mattarella. Ma spuntano anche minacce di morte". Repubblica.it. 27 May 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- "Cottarelli accetta l'incarico: "Senza fiducia il Paese al voto dopo agosto"". Repubblica.it (in Italian). 28 May 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- "Berlusconi: "No alla fiducia e centrodestra unito al voto". Ma Salvini: "Alleanza con Fi? Ci penserò"". Repubblica.it (in Italian). 28 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "Pd, Martina: "Fiducia a Cottarelli". Renzi: "Salviamo il Paese". E i dem: manifestazione nazionale a Roma il 1° giugno". Repubblica.it (in Italian). 28 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- Online, Redazione. "Incontro informale in corso tra Cottarelli e MattarellaI tre scenari possibili". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Governo, Cottarelli vede Mattarella. Ora al lavoro alla Camera. Riparte la trattativa giallo-verde". Repubblica.it (in Italian). 30 May 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Di Maio: "Impeachment non più sul tavolo". E si riapre l'ipotesi di un governo Lega-M5s". Repubblica.it (in Italian). 29 May 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Governo, Conte accetta l'incarico e presenta la lista: 18 ministri, 5 le donne. Tria all'Economia". rEpubblica.it. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- "Nasce il governo Conte. Presentata a Mattarella la lista dei ministri. Di Maio e Salvini vicepremier". RaiNews (in Italian). 1 June 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- Churm, Philip Andrew (6 June 2018). "Italy's new government: Who's who?". euronews. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
- "Italy's government launches 'citizens' income' website". thelocal.it. 4 February 2019. Archived from the original on 31 October 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
- Giuffrida, Angela (6 March 2019). "Italy rolls out 'citizens' income' for the poor amid criticisms". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 November 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
- Hurst, Luke (6 March 2019). "What is Italy's new 'Citizens' Income' scheme? | Euronews Answers". euronews. Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
- "2.7 million people apply for Italy's basic income scheme". thelocal.it. 24 April 2019. Archived from the original on 25 September 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
- "La Lega presenta al Senato una mozione di sfiducia a Conte. M5S attacca Salvini: "Giullare"". rainews.
- "Il Senato ha bocciato la mozione del M5S sulla TAV". Il Post (in Italian). 7 August 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- Squires, Nick (9 August 2019). "Italy's League files no confidence motion in prime minister in bid to trigger election". The Telegraph – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- "Italian Senate to set date for no-confidence vote as Salvini pushes for elections". France 24. 13 August 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- Giuffrida, Angela (12 August 2019). "Italian senate to set date for no-confidence vote in government". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- Giuffrida, Angela (20 August 2019). "Italian PM resigns with attack on 'opportunist' Salvini". The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
- Horowitz, Jason (20 August 2019). "Italy's Government Collapses, Turning Chaos Into Crisis". The New York Times.
- Giuffrida, Angela (20 August 2019). "Italian PM resigns with attack on 'opportunist' Salvini" – via www.theguardian.com.
- "Governo, Zingaretti: "I 5 punti per trattare con il M5S. No accordicchi, governo di svolta"". Repubblica.it. 21 August 2019.
- "Di Maio: «La Lega mi ha offerto di fare il premier, rifiuto con gratitudine»". www.ilmessaggero.it (in Italian). 28 August 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
- "Conte wins crucial support for new Italian govt coalition". Washington Post.
- "Il Presidente Mattarella ha conferito l'incarico al Prof. Conte di formare il Governo". Quirinale (in Italian). Retrieved 29 August 2019.
- "L'appello di Grillo ai "ragazzi del Pd": "È il vostro momento"". Agi.
- "Governo, via libera di Rousseau all'intesa M5s-Pd con il 79% dei voti. Conte domattina al Quirinale". Repubblica.it. 3 September 2019.
- Amante, Angelo; Jones, Gavin (4 September 2019). "Factbox: The main ministers in Italy's new government". Reuters. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
- M5s, Di Maio si dimette da capo politico: "Bisogna rifondarsi, i peggiori nemici sono all'interno. Basta pugnalate alle spalle", la Repubblica
- Lowen, Mark (12 March 2020). "Italy says lockdown can work as deaths top 1,000". BBC News. Retrieved 12 March 2020.