Lithuanian Canadians

Lithuanian language Romuva (religion) Northwestern European Canadians
Lithuanian Canadians
Kanados lietuviai
Total population
46,6901(2006)[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Ontario[2]29,315 (2011)
 Alberta5,310
 Quebec5,155
 British Columbia5,740
 Manitoba1,495
 Saskatchewan735
 Nova Scotia955
 New Brunswick255
Languages
Canadian English, Lithuanian, Québécois French
Religion
Roman Catholicism, Romuva, Lutheranism, Judaism
Related ethnic groups
Lithuanians, Prussian Lithuanians
1 *11,425 solely of Lithuanian origin, 35,260 of mixed origin.

Lithuanian Canadians (Lithuanian: Kanados lietuviai) are Canadians who are of full or partial Lithuanian descent. Over two-thirds of Lithuanian Canadians reside in Toronto,[3] with other much smaller populations scattered around most of the Canadian provinces and territories.

History

The first documented Lithuanians in Canada were Lithuanians who fought in the British Army in Canada (1813-1815). Lithuanian immigrants to Canada came primarily for economic reasons, arriving between 1905-1940. The second wave of Lithuanians came after World War II,[4] with most of the immigrants seeking to escape Communism after the unilateral Soviet incorporation of Lithuania into its boundaries. The third wave of immigrants began after the restoration of Lithuania's independence (1990), and have continued to arrive.[2]

Concentration

The majority of Lithuanian Canadians reside in Toronto.[2][5] Other well-rooted populations of moderate size can be found in urban Ontario (particularly Mississauga and Hamilton), Montreal in Quebec, Alberta, Manitoba,[2] and Nova Scotia. Lithuanian Canadians are present in 37 Canadian municipalities.[2] Other groups have migrated to British Columbia, New Brunswick, Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories, and Yukon.

Organization

The Lithuanian Canadian Community (Lithuanian: Kanados Lietuvių Bendruomenė), the largest Lithuanian Canadian association in Canada, has 17 chapters throughout Canada.[6]

Religion

The descendants of the first and second waves of Lithuanian immigration are predominantly Roman Catholic, while a minority are Romuva or Evangelical Lutheran. A considerable percentage of Lithuanian Canadians have reverted to the indigenous Lithuanian religion (which has been revived as Romuva), particularly third-wave immigrants.[7] There are two Roman Catholic parishes for Lithuanian Canadians,[2] two Romuva groups,[7] one Evangelical Lutheran congregation,[2] and some minorities of Lithuanian-Jewish descent.

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ "2006 Census of Canada: Topic-based tabulations | Ethnic Origin (247), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data". 2.statcan.ca. 2011-04-07. Retrieved 2011-08-30.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Irena Ross (5 February 2004). "Lithuanians create cultural hub in Canada". The Baltic Times. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
  3. ^ Powell, John (2005). "Lithuanian immigration". Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Facts on File. p. 178. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  4. ^ Danys, Milda (1986). DP, Lithuanian immigration to Canada after the second World War. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario. ISBN 0-919045-28-6.
  5. ^ "Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija - Lithuania's Cooperation with Canada". Urm.lt. Retrieved 2011-08-30.
  6. ^ "About the LCC - Kanados Lietuvių Bendruomenė".
  7. ^ a b Modern paganism in world cultures: comparative perspectives By Michael Strmiska, pg. 278-279