PipiWiki

List of heads of state by diplomatic precedence

Regent Elizabeth II Andorra

Protocol holds that a head of state takes precedence over all other officials, and that heads of state rank in the order that they took office. The following list contains the heads of state for all United Nations member states and non-member observer states.

Commonwealth realms, other than the United Kingdom, each have a local governor-general appointed to represent the monarch in the realm's government. Governors-general are frequently accorded the status and privileges of a head of state at diplomatic events when considered as representing their absentee monarch, but not as themselves heads of state. The princes of Andorra each have a representative as well. Hereditary Prince Alois is permanent representative for exercising the sovereign powers due to Liechtenstein Prince Hans-Adam II.[1] They are included in the list and are highlighted in blue.

However, in many cases it is not this neutral principle but national rules of protocol that are acted upon, usually by an international event's host nation, as in many bilateral and even certain multilateral occasions. Various international organisations have a system for internal use. Even in the presence of one or more Heads of State, certain occasions are governed by specific protocol, e.g. military. Thus in many cases precedence is given to monarchs over republican heads of state, mostly in monarchies; in some nations, the Pope (himself a monarchical head of state) ranks above secular heads of state, especially in Roman Catholic countries.

States recognised by the United Nations

Current

Title Name Assumed office Country
Queen Elizabeth II 6 February 1952  Australia
Queen  Canada
Queen  New Zealand
Queen  United Kingdom
Queen 6 August 1962  Jamaica
Queen 30 November 1966  Barbados
Queen Margrethe II 14 January 1972  Denmark
Queen Elizabeth II 10 July 1973  The Bahamas
King Carl XVI Gustaf 15 September 1973  Sweden
Queen Elizabeth II 7 February 1974  Grenada
Queen 16 September 1975  Papua New Guinea
Queen 7 July 1978  Solomon Islands
Queen 1 October 1978  Tuvalu
Queen 22 February 1979  Saint Lucia
President[2] Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo[3] 3 August 1979  Equatorial Guinea
Queen Elizabeth II 27 October 1979  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Queen 21 September 1981  Belize
Queen 1 November 1981  Antigua and Barbuda
President Paul Biya[4] 6 November 1982  Cameroon
Queen Elizabeth II 19 September 1983  Saint Kitts and Nevis
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah 1 January 1984[5]  Brunei
President[6] Yoweri Museveni 26 January 1986  Uganda
King Mswati III 25 April 1986  Eswatini[7]
Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei[8] 4 June 1989  Iran[9]
Reigning Prince Hans-Adam II[10][11] 13 November 1989  Liechtenstein
President[12] Idriss Déby 2 December 1990  Chad
King Harald V[13][14] 17 January 1991  Norway
President Emomali Rahmon 20 November 1992  Tajikistan
President Isaias Afwerki 24 May 1993[15]  Eritrea
(Governor-General) Sir Colville Young 17 November 1993  Belize
President Alexander Lukashenko 20 July 1994  Belarus
King Letsie III[16] 7 February 1996  Lesotho
President Denis Sassou Nguesso[17] 25 October 1997  Republic of the Congo
King Abdullah II 7 February 1999  Jordan
King[18] Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa 6 March 1999  Bahrain[19]
President Ismaïl Omar Guelleh[20] 8 May 1999  Djibouti
King Mohammed VI 23 July 1999  Morocco
President Paul Kagame 24 March 2000[21]  Rwanda
President Bashar al-Assad[22] 17 July 2000  Syria
Grand Duke Henri[23] 7 October 2000  Luxembourg
Co-Prince Archbishop Joan Enric Vives i Sicília 12 May 2003  Andorra
President Ilham Aliyev[24][25] 31 October 2003  Azerbaijan
Prince Regent Hereditary Prince Alois[11] 15 August 2004  Liechtenstein
King Norodom Sihamoni 14 October 2004  Cambodia
President Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan[26] 3 November 2004  United Arab Emirates
President Mahmoud Abbas 15 January 2005  Palestine
Prince Albert II[27] 31 March 2005  Monaco
President Faure Gnassingbé[28][29] 4 May 2005  Togo
Emir Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah[30] 29 January 2006  Kuwait
King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck 15 December 2006  Bhutan
President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow 21 December 2006  Turkmenistan
President Daniel Ortega[31] 10 January 2007  Nicaragua
(Governor-General) Sir Patrick Allen 26 February 2009  Jamaica
President Ali Bongo Ondimba[32] 16 October 2009  Gabon
(Governor-General) Sir Iakoba Italeli 16 April 2010  Tuvalu
President Alpha Condé 21 December 2010  Guinea
President Mahamadou Issoufou[33] 7 April 2011  Niger
President Alassane Ouattara[34] 11 April 2011  Ivory Coast
President Salva Kiir Mayardit 9 July 2011  South Sudan
President Jorge Carlos Fonseca 9 September 2011  Cape Verde
President Michael D. Higgins 11 November 2011  Ireland
President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi 23 November 2011  Yemen
President Sauli Niinistö 1 March 2012  Finland
King Tupou VI[35] 18 March 2012  Tonga
President Macky Sall[36] 2 April 2012  Senegal
President Vladimir Putin[37] 7 May 2012  Russia
President János Áder 10 May 2012  Hungary
(Representative of the Episcopal Co-Prince) Josep Maria Mauri 20 July 2012  Andorra
President Borut Pahor[38] 22 December 2012  Slovenia
President Tommy Remengesau[39][40] 15 January 2013  Palau
President Nicos Anastasiades 28 February 2013  Cyprus
President Nicolás Maduro 5 March 2013[41]  Venezuela
President Miloš Zeman[42] 8 March 2013  Czech Republic
Sovereign Pope Francis 13 March 2013   Vatican City[43]
President Xi Jinping 14 March 2013  China
President Abdul Hamid 20 March 2013[44]  Bangladesh
President Uhuru Kenyatta[45] 9 April 2013  Kenya
King Willem-Alexander 30 April 2013  Netherlands
(Governor-General) Dame Cécile La Grenade 7 May 2013  Grenada
Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani 25 June 2013  Qatar
King Philippe 21 July 2013  Belgium
President Hassan Rouhani 3 August 2013  Iran[9]
President Charles Savarin 2 October 2013  Dominica
President Juan Orlando Hernández 27 January 2014  Honduras
President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi 8 June 2014  Egypt
King Felipe VI 19 June 2014  Spain
President Reuven Rivlin 24 July 2014  Israel
(Governor-General) Sir Rodney Williams 14 August 2014  Antigua and Barbuda
President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan[46] 28 August 2014  Turkey
President Ashraf Ghani 29 September 2014  Afghanistan
President Joko Widodo 20 October 2014  Indonesia
President Klaus Iohannis 21 December 2014  Romania
President Filipe Nyusi 15 January 2015  Mozambique
King Salman 23 January 2015  Saudi Arabia
President Edgar Lungu 25 January 2015  Zambia
President Sergio Mattarella 3 February 2015  Italy
President Hage Geingob[47] 21 March 2015  Namibia
(Governor-General) Sir Tapley Seaton 20 May 2015  Saint Kitts and Nevis
President Muhammadu Buhari[48] 29 May 2015  Nigeria
President Andrzej Duda 6 August 2015  Poland
President Bidhya Devi Bhandari 29 October 2015    Nepal
President John Magufuli 5 November 2015  Tanzania
President Jioji Konrote 12 November 2015  Fiji
President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré[49] 29 December 2015  Burkina Faso
President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa 9 March 2016  Portugal
President Taneti Maamau 11 March 2016  Kiribati
Chairman of the Presidential Council Fayez al-Sarraj 12 March 2016  Libya
President Faustin-Archange Touadéra[50] 30 March 2016  Central African Republic
President Patrice Talon 6 April 2016  Benin
President Bounnhang Vorachith[51] 20 April 2016  Laos
President Azali Assoumani[52] 26 May 2016  Comoros
Chairman of the State Affairs Commission Kim Jong-un[53] 29 June 2016  North Korea[54]
President Rodrigo Duterte 30 June 2016  Philippines
President Guðni Th. Jóhannesson 1 August 2016  Iceland
President Evaristo Carvalho[55] 3 September 2016  São Tomé and Príncipe
President Shavkat Mirziyoyev[56] 8 September 2016  Uzbekistan
(Governor-General) Dame Patsy Reddy 28 September 2016  New Zealand
President Kersti Kaljulaid 10 October 2016  Estonia
King Maha Vajiralongkorn 13 October 2016  Thailand[57]
President Danny Faure 16 October 2016  Seychelles
President Michel Aoun[58] 31 October 2016  Lebanon
President Igor Dodon 23 December 2016  Moldova
President Nana Akufo-Addo[59] 7 January 2017  Ghana
President Adama Barrow 19 January 2017  The Gambia
President Donald Trump 20 January 2017  United States
President Rumen Radev 22 January 2017  Bulgaria
Federal President Alexander Van der Bellen 26 January 2017  Austria
President Jovenel Moïse 7 February 2017  Haiti
President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed[60] 8 February 2017  Somalia
(Governor-General) Sir Bob Dadae 28 February 2017  Papua New Guinea
Federal President Frank-Walter Steinmeier 19 March 2017  Germany
President Moon Jae-in 10 May 2017  South Korea
President Emmanuel Macron 14 May 2017  France
Co-Prince  Andorra
(Representative of the French Co-Prince) Patrick Strzoda 15 May 2017  Andorra
President Francisco Guterres 20 May 2017  East Timor
President Lenín Moreno 24 May 2017  Ecuador
President Aleksandar Vučić[61] 31 May 2017  Serbia
President Tallis Obed Moses 6 July 2017  Vanuatu
President Khaltmaagiin Battulga 10 July 2017  Mongolia
O le Ao o le Malo Va'aletoa Sualauvi II 21 July 2017  Samoa
President Ilir Meta[62] 24 July 2017  Albania
President Ram Nath Kovind 25 July 2017  India
President Halimah Yacob 14 September 2017  Singapore
President João Lourenço 21 September 2017  Angola[63]
(Governor General) Julie Payette 2 October 2017  Canada
President Sooronbay Jeenbekov[64] 24 November 2017  Kyrgyzstan
President Emmerson Mnangagwa  Zimbabwe
(Governor-General) Dame Sandra Mason[65] 8 January 2018  Barbados
(Governor-General) Sir Neville Cenac[66] 12 January 2018  Saint Lucia
President George Weah 22 January 2018  Liberia
President Cyril Ramaphosa 15 February 2018  South Africa
President Sebastián Piñera[67] 11 March 2018  Chile
President Paula-Mae Weekes 19 March 2018  Trinidad and Tobago
President Martín Vizcarra 23 March 2018  Peru
President Win Myint 30 March 2018  Myanmar
President Mokgweetsi Masisi 1 April 2018  Botswana
President Julius Maada Bio[68] 4 April 2018  Sierra Leone
President Armen Sarkissian[69] 9 April 2018  Armenia
President of the Council of State Miguel Díaz-Canel 19 April 2018  Cuba
President Carlos Alvarado Quesada 8 May 2018  Costa Rica
President Milo Đukanović[70] 20 May 2018  Montenegro
President Iván Duque Márquez 7 August 2018  Colombia
President Mario Abdo Benítez 15 August 2018  Paraguay
President Arif Alvi 9 September 2018  Pakistan
President Barham Salih 2 October 2018  Iraq
President Nguyễn Phú Trọng 23 October 2018  Vietnam
President Sahle-Work Zewde 25 October 2018  Ethiopia
President Ibrahim Mohamed Solih 17 November 2018  Maldives
President Andrés Manuel López Obrador 1 December 2018  Mexico
President Salome Zourabichvili 16 December 2018  Georgia
President Jair Bolsonaro 1 January 2019  Brazil
President Andry Rajoelina[71] 17 January 2019  Madagascar
President Félix Tshisekedi[72] 24 January 2019  Democratic Republic of the Congo
Yang di-Pertuan Agong Abdullah 31 January 2019  Malaysia
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev 20 March 2019  Kazakhstan
President George Vella 4 April 2019  Malta
President of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly Choe Ryong-hae 11 April 2019  North Korea[54]
Emperor Naruhito 1 May 2019  Japan
President David W. Panuelo 11 May 2019  Micronesia
President Stevo Pendarovski 12 May 2019  North Macedonia
President Volodymyr Zelensky 20 May 2019  Ukraine
President Nayib Bukele 1 June 2019  El Salvador
President Zuzana Čaputová 15 June 2019  Slovakia
(Governor General) Cornelius A. Smith 28 June 2019  The Bahamas
(Governor-General) David Hurley 1 July 2019  Australia
President Laurentino Cortizo 1 July 2019  Panama
(Governor-General) David Vunagi 7 July 2019  Solomon Islands
President Egils Levits 8 July 2019  Latvia
President Gitanas Nausėda 12 July 2019  Lithuania
President Mohamed Ould Ghazouani 1 August 2019  Mauritania
Governor-General Susan Dougan 1 August 2019  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Chairman of the Sovereignty Council Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan 21 August 2019  Sudan
President Lionel Aingimea 27 August 2019  Nauru
President Kaïs Saïed 23 October 2019  Tunisia
Interim President Jeanine Áñez 12 November 2019  Bolivia
President Gotabaya Rajapaksa[73] 18 November 2019  Sri Lanka
President Prithvirajsing Roopun 2 December 2019  Mauritius
President Alberto Fernández 10 December 2019  Argentina
President Abdelmadjid Tebboune[74] 19 December 2019  Algeria
President Simonetta Sommaruga 1 January 2020   Switzerland[75]
Sultan Haitham bin Tariq[76] 11 January 2020  Oman
President David Kabua[77] 13 January 2020  Marshall Islands
President Alejandro Giammattei 14 January 2020  Guatemala
President Zoran Milanović[78] 18 February 2020  Croatia
President Umaro Sissoco Embaló[79] 27 February 2020  Guinea-Bissau
President Luis Lacalle Pou[80] 1 March 2020  Uruguay
President Katerina Sakellaropoulou 13 March 2020  Greece
Chairman of the Presidency Šefik Džaferović 20 March 2020  Bosnia and Herzegovina[81]
Captains Regent Alessandro Mancini[82] 1 April 2020  San Marino
Grazia Zafferani[83]
President Évariste Ndayishimiye 18 June 2020  Burundi
President Lazarus Chakwera 28 June 2020  Malawi
President Chan Santokhi 16 July 2020  Suriname
President Irfaan Ali 2 August 2020  Guyana
President Luis Abinader 16 August 2020  Dominican Republic
Chairman of the National Committee for the Salvation of the People: 19 August 2020 – 27 August 2020
Head of State: 27 August 2020 – present
Assimi Goïta 19 August 2020  Mali


States with limited recognition

Current

Title Name Assumed office Country
President Mustafa Akıncı 30 April 2015  Northern Cyprus
President Hashim Thaçi[84] 7 April 2016  Kosovo
President Tsai Ing-wen 20 May 2016  Republic of China (Taiwan)
President Brahim Ghali 12 July 2016  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
President Vadim Krasnoselsky 16 December 2016  Transnistria
President Anatoly Bibilov 21 April 2017  South Ossetia
President Muse Bihi Abdi 13 December 2017  Somaliland
President Aslan Bzhania 23 April 2020  Abkhazia
President Arayik Harutyunyan[85] 21 May 2020  Republic of Artsakh

Disputed governments

Current

Title Name Assumed office Country
President Riad Seif 6 May 2017 Syria Syria
President of the Supreme Political Council Mahdi al-Mashat 25 April 2018  Yemen

See also

References

  1. ^ Hereditary Prince Alois Archived 21 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo was titled President of the Supreme Military Council until 25 August 1979.
  3. ^ Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo is the nephew of the previous president, Francisco Macías Nguema.
  4. ^ Paul Biya was previously Prime Minister between 30 June 1975 – 6 November 1982.
  5. ^ Hassanal Bolkiah has been Sultan of Brunei since 4 October 1967, but Brunei was a protectorate of the United Kingdom until 1 January 1984.
  6. ^ Yoweri Museveni was titled Chairman of the National Resistance Council until 29 January 1986
  7. ^ The country was the Kingdom of Swaziland before 2018.
  8. ^ Ali Khamenei was previously President of Iran from 2 October 1981 – 4 June 1989.
  9. ^ a b In Iran, the Supreme Leader is the head of state and the President is the head of government.
  10. ^ Hans-Adam II was previously Regent from 26 August 1984 – 13 November 1989.
  11. ^ a b Hereditary Prince Alois has been Regent for Hans-Adam II since 15 August 2004.
  12. ^ Idriss Déby was titled President of the Council of State until 4 March 1991.
  13. ^ Harald V was previously Prince-Regent from 1 June 1990 – 17 January 1991.
  14. ^ Haakon was Prince-Regent from 25 November 2003 – 13 April 2004 and 29 March 2005 – 7 June 2005.
  15. ^ Isaias Afwerki has been the leader of Eritrea (initially titled Secretary-general of the Provisional Government) from 29 May 1991, but the country only became independent on 24 May 1993.
  16. ^ Letsie III was previously King of Lesotho between 12 November 1990 – 25 January 1995.
  17. ^ Denis Sassou Nguesso was previously President of the People's Republic of the Congo (as the country was named then) between 8 February 1979 – 31 August 1992.
  18. ^ The monarch was titled Emir until 14 February 2002.
  19. ^ The country was the State of Bahrain before 2002.
  20. ^ Ismaïl Omar Guelleh is the nephew of the previous president, Hassan Gouled Aptidon.
  21. ^ Paul Kagame was Acting President until 22 April 2000.
  22. ^ Bashar al-Assad is the son of the previous president, Hafez al-Assad.
  23. ^ Henri was previously Regent from 3 March 1998 – 7 October 2000.
  24. ^ Ilham Aliyev was previously Prime Minister between 4 August 2003 – 4 November 2003.
  25. ^ Ilham Aliyev is the son of the previous president, Heydar Aliyev.
  26. ^ Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan is the son of the previous president, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan.
  27. ^ Albert II was previously Regent from 31 March 2005 – 6 April 2005.
  28. ^ Faure Gnassingbé was previously President between 5 February 2005 – 25 February 2005.
  29. ^ Faure Gnassingbé is the son of the previous president, Gnassingbé Eyadéma.
  30. ^ Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah was previously Prime Minister between 13 July 2003 – 30 January 2006.
  31. ^ Daniel Ortega was previously President between 10 January 1985 – 25 April 1990.
  32. ^ Ali Bongo Ondimba is the son of the previous president, Omar Bongo.
  33. ^ Mahamadou Issoufou was previously Prime Minister between 17 April 1993 – 28 September 1994.
  34. ^ Alassane Ouattara was previously Prime Minister between 7 November 1990 – 9 December 1993.
  35. ^ Tupou VI – then titled Prince 'Ulukalala Lavaka Ata – was previously Prime Minister between 3 January 2000 – 11 February 2006.
  36. ^ Macky Sall was previously Prime Minister between 21 April 2004 – 19 June 2007.
  37. ^ Vladimir Putin was previously President between 31 December 1999 – 7 May 2008, and Prime Minister between 9 August 1999 – 7 May 2000 and 8 May 2008 – 7 May 2012.
  38. ^ Borut Pahor was previously Prime Minister between 21 November 2008 – 10 February 2012.
  39. ^ Tommy Remengesau was previously President between 1 January 2001 – 15 January 2009.
  40. ^ Tommy Remengesau is the son of a former president, Thomas Remengesau Sr.
  41. ^ Maduro was Acting President until 19 April 2013.
  42. ^ Miloš Zeman was previously Prime Minister between 22 July 1998 – 15 July 2002.
  43. ^ It is the Holy See and not the Vatican City state that maintains diplomatic relations with states and participates in international organisations. The Holy See and the Vatican City state are two separate and distinct entities. Foreign embassies are accredited to the Holy See, not to the Vatican City state, and it is the Holy See that establishes treaties and concordats with other sovereign entities. Also it is the Holy See that has United Nations Observer status not the Vatican City state.
  44. ^ Hamid was Acting President until 24 April 2013.
  45. ^ Uhuru Kenyatta is the son of a former president, Jomo Kenyatta.
  46. ^ Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was previously Prime Minister between 14 March 2003 – 28 August 2014.
  47. ^ Hage Geingob was previously Prime Minister between 4 December 2012 – 20 March 2015.
  48. ^ Muhammadu Buhari was previously head of state (titled Head of the Federal Military Government) between 31 December 1983 – 27 August 1985.
  49. ^ Roch Marc Christian Kaboré was previously Prime Minister between 22 March 1994 – 6 February 1996.
  50. ^ Faustin-Archange Touadéra was previously Prime Minister between 22 January 2008 – 17 January 2013.
  51. ^ Bounnhang Vorachith was previously Prime Minister between 27 March 2001 – 8 June 2006.
  52. ^ Azali Assoumani was previously President between 26 May 2001 – 26 May 2006.
  53. ^ Kim Jong-un is the son and grandson of the two previous supreme leaders, Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung.
  54. ^ a b The Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly and Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea share head of state powers while the deceased Kim Il-sung is recognised in the Constitution as the Eternal President
  55. ^ Evaristo Carvalho was previously Prime Minister between 7 July 1994 – 25 October 1994 and 26 September 2001 – 28 March 2002.
  56. ^ Shavkat Mirziyoyevwas Interim President until 14 December 2016 and was previously Prime Minister between 12 December 2003 – 14 December 2016.
  57. ^ Prem Tinsulanonda was Regent of Thailand from 13 October 2016 – 1 December 2016.
  58. ^ Michel Aoun was previously disputed acting President and Prime Minister between 22 September 1988 – 13 October 1990.
  59. ^ Nana Akufo-Addo is the son of a former president, Edward Akufo-Addo.
  60. ^ Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed was previously Prime Minister between 1 November 2010 – 19 June 2011.
  61. ^ Aleksandar Vučić was previously Prime Minister between 27 April 2014 – 30 May 2017.
  62. ^ Ilir Meta was previously Prime Minister between 29 October 1999 – 22 February 2002.
  63. ^ The country was the People's Republic of Angola before 1992.
  64. ^ Sooronbay Jeenbekov was previously Prime Minister between 13 April 2016 – 22 August 2017.
  65. ^ Sandra Mason was previously acting Governor-General between 30 May and 1 June 2012.
  66. ^ Sir Neville Cenac is the brother of former Prime Minister Winston Cenac.
  67. ^ Sebastián Piñera was previously President between 11 March 2010 – 11 March 2014.
  68. ^ Julis Maada Bio was Head of State of Sierra Leone (as Leader of the Supreme Council of State) from 16 January 1996 – 29 March 1996.
  69. ^ Armen Sarkissian was previously Prime Minister between 4 November 1996 – 20 March 1997.
  70. ^ Milo Đukanović was President between 15 January 1998 – 25 November 2002 (before independence), and Prime Minister between 15 February 1991 – 5 February 1998 (before independence) and again between 8 January 2003 – 10 November 2006 (before independence), and again between 29 February 2008 – 29 December 2010 and again between 4 December 2012 – 28 November 2016.
  71. ^ Andry Rajoelina was Head of State of Madagascar as President of the High Transitional Authority from 17 March 2009 - 25 January 2014.
  72. ^ Félix Tshisekedi is the son of former Prime Minister Étienne Tshisekedi
  73. ^ Gotabaya Rajapaksa is the brother of a former prime minister and president, Mahinda Rajapaksa.
  74. ^ Abdelmadjid Tebboune was Prime Minister of Algeria from 25 May 2017 – 15 August 2017.
  75. ^ The seven-member Swiss Federal Council is the head of state collectively, with the presidency rotating every year.
  76. ^ Haitham bin Tariq is the cousin of the former Sultan Qaboos bin Said.
  77. ^ David Kabua is the son of former President Amata Kabua.
  78. ^ Zoran Milanović was Prime Minister of Croatia from 23 December 2011 – 22 January 2016.
  79. ^ Umaro Sissoco Embaló was Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau from 18 November 2016 – 30 January 2018.
  80. ^ Luis Lacalle Pou is the son of former President Luis Alberto Lacalle.
  81. ^ The three-member Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the head of state collectively, with the chairmanship rotating every eight months.
  82. ^ Alessandro Mancini was a Captain Regent of San Marino from 1 April 2007 – 1 October 2007.
  83. ^ Grazia Zafferani is the granddaughter of an earlier Captain Regent, Luigi Zafferani.
  84. ^ Hashim Thaçi was Prime Minister between 2 April 1999 – 1 February 2000 and 9 January 2008 – 9 December 2014.
  85. ^ Arayik Harutyunyan was Prime Minister from 14 September 2007 – 25 September 2017. The country was called the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh until 10 March 2017.