List of current senators of Canada

Justin Trudeau Stephen Harper List of Quebec senators

The Senate Chamber, located in the Centre Block of Parliament Hill

This is a list of current members of the Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada), the upper house of the Canadian Parliament. Unlike the Members of Parliament in the House of Commons, the 105 senators are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the prime minister.[1] Senators originally held their seats for life; however, under the British North America Act, 1965, members may not sit in the Senate after reaching the age of 75. Prime ministers normally choose members of their own parties to be senators, though they sometimes nominate non-affiliated senators or members of opposing parties.

Seats are allocated on a regional basis, each of the four major regions receives 24 seats, and the remainder of the available seats being assigned to smaller regions. The four major regions are Ontario, Quebec, the Maritime provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island), and the Western provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan). The seats for Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut are assigned apart from these regional divisions.[2] The province of Quebec has 24 Senate divisions that are constitutionally mandated. In all other provinces, a Senate division is strictly an optional designation of the senator's own choosing, and has no real constitutional or legal standing. A senator who does not choose a special senate division is considered a senator for the province at large.[2] The distribution of seats has been criticized for not being proportional per region. For example, Ontario has 40 percent of Canada's population but only 24 seats, while the smaller Atlantic provinces have a combined 30,[3] and British Columbia, the third most populous province, only has six seats.[4]

As of 24 August 2020, there are 95 sitting senators. Of the sitting senators: 47 are members of the Independent Senators Group, 21 are members of the senate caucus of the Conservative Party of Canada, 13 are members of the Canadian Senators Group, 9 are members of the Progressive Senate Group, and 5 are non-affiliated.[5] Ten seats are currently vacant.[6]

The pattern of political affiliation in the Senate in the most recent era is distinct in several key respects from what has been the case historically. Since November 4, 2015, there has been no government caucus in the Senate because the Senate Liberal Caucus, which existed from 2014 until 2019, was not affiliated with the governing Liberal Party of Canada. On December 6, 2016, for the first time in Canadian history the number of senators without a partisan affiliation exceeded that of the largest caucus of senators with a partisan affiliation.

Active senators have been appointed on the advice of four different prime ministers: Justin Trudeau, Stephen Harper, Paul Martin, and Jean Chrétien. George Furey is the longest-serving current senator; he was appointed on the advice of Jean Chretien in 1999. As of 24 August 2020, there are 47 women in the Senate.[7]

Current senators

[8] Name Senate political affiliation Province (Division)[a] Date appointed Appointed on the advice of Mandatory retirement date Titles and notes
  Margaret Dawn Anderson Independent Senators Group Northwest Territories December 12, 2018   Trudeau, J. April 14, 2042
  Salma Ataullahjan Conservative Ontario July 9, 2010   Harper April 29, 2027
  Denise Batters Conservative Saskatchewan January 25, 2013   Harper June 18, 2045
  Diane Bellemare Independent Senators Group Quebec (Alma) September 6, 2012   Harper October 13, 2024 Legislative Deputy to Government Representative Peter Harder until she joined the ISG, November 14, 2019.
  Wanda Thomas Bernard Progressive Senate Group Nova Scotia November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. August 1, 2028
  Lynn Beyak Non-affiliated Ontario January 25, 2013   Harper February 18, 2024
  Doug Black Canadian Senators Group Alberta January 25, 2013   Harper May 10, 2027
  Robert Black Canadian Senators Group Ontario (Centre Wellington) February 15, 2018   Trudeau, J. March 27, 2037
  Peter Boehm Independent Senators Group Ontario October 3, 2018   Trudeau, J. April 26, 2029
  Pierre-Hugues Boisvenu Conservative Quebec (La Salle) January 29, 2010   Harper February 12, 2024
  Gwen Boniface Independent Senators Group Ontario November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. August 5, 2030
  Patricia Bovey Progressive Senate Group Manitoba November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. May 15, 2023
  Yvonne Boyer Independent Senators Group Ontario March 15, 2018   Trudeau, J. October 25, 2028
  Patrick Brazeau Independent Senators Group Quebec (Repentigny) January 8, 2009   Harper November 11, 2049
  Bev Busson Independent Senators Group British Columbia September 24, 2018   Trudeau, J. August 23, 2026
  Larry Campbell Canadian Senators Group British Columbia (Vancouver) August 2, 2005   Martin February 28, 2023
  Claude Carignan Conservative Quebec (Mille Isles) August 27, 2009   Harper December 4, 2039
  Daniel Christmas Independent Senators Group Nova Scotia December 6, 2016   Trudeau, J. September 10, 2031
  Jane Cordy Progressive Senate Group Nova Scotia June 9, 2000   Chrétien July 2, 2025 Progressive Senate Group Leader
  René Cormier Independent Senators Group New Brunswick November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. April 27, 2031
  Brent Cotter Independent Senators Group Saskatchewan January 31, 2020   Trudeau, J. December 18, 2024
  Mary Coyle Independent Senators Group Nova Scotia (Antigonish) December 4, 2017[9]   Trudeau, J. November 5, 2029
  Jean-Guy Dagenais Canadian Senators Group Quebec January 17, 2012   Harper February 2, 2025
  Pierre Dalphond Progressive Senate Group Quebec (De Lorimier) June 6, 2018   Trudeau, J. May 1, 2029
  Donna Dasko Independent Senators Group Ontario June 6, 2018   Trudeau, J. August 19, 2026
  Dennis Dawson Progressive Senate Group Quebec (Lauzon) August 2, 2005   Martin September 28, 2024 Progressive Senate Group Deputy Leader
  Colin Deacon Independent Senators Group Nova Scotia June 15, 2018   Trudeau, J. November 1, 2034
  Martha Deacon Independent Senators Group Ontario (Waterloo) February 15, 2018   Trudeau, J. April 23, 2033
  Tony Dean Independent Senators Group Ontario November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. August 26, 2028
  Percy Downe Canadian Senators Group Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown) June 26, 2003   Chrétien July 8, 2029
  Norman Doyle Conservative Newfoundland and Labrador January 6, 2012   Harper November 11, 2020
  Mike Duffy Independent Senators Group Prince Edward Island (Cavendish) January 2, 2009   Harper May 27, 2021
  Pat Duncan Independent Senators Group Yukon December 12, 2018   Trudeau, J. April 8, 2035
  Renée Dupuis Independent Senators Group Quebec (The Laurentides) November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. January 17, 2024
  Éric Forest Independent Senators Group Quebec (Gulf) November 21, 2016   Trudeau, J. April 6, 2027
  Josée Forest-Niesing Independent Senators Group Ontario October 11, 2018   Trudeau, J. December 18, 2039
  Brian Francis Independent Senators Group Prince Edward Island October 11, 2018   Trudeau, J. September 28, 2032
  Linda Frum Conservative Ontario August 27, 2009   Harper January 13, 2038
  George Furey Non-affiliated Newfoundland and Labrador August 11, 1999   Chrétien May 12, 2023 Speaker
  Raymonde Gagné Non-affiliated Manitoba April 1, 2016   Trudeau, J. January 7, 2032 Legislative Deputy to Government Representative Marc Gold as of January 31, 2020[10]
  Rosa Galvez Independent Senators Group Quebec (Bedford) December 6, 2016   Trudeau, J. June 21, 2042
  Marc Gold Non-affiliated Quebec (Stadacona) November 25, 2016   Trudeau, J. June 30, 2025 Representative of the Government in the Senate as of January 24, 2020[11]
  Stephen Greene Canadian Senators Group Nova Scotia (Halifax — The Citadel) January 2, 2009   Harper December 8, 2024
  Diane Griffin Canadian Senators Group Prince Edward Island November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. March 18, 2022
  Peter Harder Progressive Senate Group Ontario (Ottawa) March 23, 2016   Trudeau, J. August 25, 2027 Was the Representative of the Government in the Senate from March 23, 2016 to December 31, 2019.
  Nancy Hartling Independent Senators Group New Brunswick November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. February 1, 2025
  Leo Housakos Conservative Quebec (Wellington) January 8, 2009   Harper January 10, 2043
  Mobina Jaffer Independent Senators Group British Columbia June 13, 2001   Chrétien August 20, 2024
  Judith Keating Independent Senators Group New Brunswick January 31, 2020   Trudeau, J. March 19, 2032
  Marty Klyne Independent Senators Group Saskatchewan September 24, 2018   Trudeau, J. March 6, 2032
  Stan Kutcher Independent Senators Group Nova Scotia December 12, 2018   Trudeau, J. December 16, 2026
  Patti LaBoucane-Benson Non-affiliated Alberta October 3, 2018   Trudeau, J. February 20, 2044 Government Liaison (whip) as of January 31, 2020[10]
  Frances Lankin Independent Senators Group Ontario April 1, 2016   Trudeau, J. April 16, 2029
  Tony Loffreda Independent Senators Group Quebec July 23, 2019   Trudeau, J. August 14, 2037 joined the ISG on November 7, 2019[12]
  Sandra Lovelace Nicholas Progressive Senate Group New Brunswick September 21, 2005   Martin April 15, 2023
  Michael L. MacDonald Conservative Nova Scotia (Dartmouth) January 2, 2009   Harper May 4, 2030
  Fabian Manning Conservative Newfoundland and Labrador May 25, 2011   Harper May 21, 2039
  Elizabeth Marshall Conservative Newfoundland and Labrador January 29, 2010   Harper September 7, 2026
  Yonah Martin Conservative British Columbia (Vancouver) January 2, 2009   Harper April 11, 2040 Opposition Deputy Leader
  Sabi Marwah Independent Senators Group Ontario November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. July 12, 2026
  Paul Massicotte Independent Senators Group Quebec (De Lanaudière) June 26, 2003   Chrétien September 10, 2026
  Mary Jane McCallum Independent Senators Group Manitoba December 4, 2017[9]   Trudeau, J. May 1, 2027
  Elaine McCoy Canadian Senators Group Alberta (Calgary) March 24, 2005   Martin March 7, 2021
  Marilou McPhedran Independent Senators Group Manitoba November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. July 22, 2026
  Marie-Françoise Mégie Independent Senators Group Quebec (Rougemont) November 21, 2016   Trudeau, J. September 25, 2025
  Terry Mercer Progressive Senate Group Nova Scotia (Northend Halifax) November 7, 2003   Chrétien May 6, 2022 Whip of the Progressive Senate Group
  Julie Miville-Dechêne Independent Senators Group Quebec (Inkerman) June 20, 2018   Trudeau, J. July 10, 2034
  Percy Mockler Conservative New Brunswick (St. Leonard) January 2, 2009   Harper April 14, 2024
  Lucie Moncion Independent Senators Group Ontario November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. October 25, 2033
  Rosemary Moodie Independent Senators Group Ontario December 12, 2018   Trudeau, J. November 24, 2031
  Jim Munson Progressive Senate Group Ontario (Ottawa/Rideau Canal) December 10, 2003   Chrétien July 14, 2021
  Thanh Hai Ngo Conservative Ontario September 6, 2012   Harper January 3, 2022
  Victor Oh Conservative Ontario January 25, 2013   Harper June 10, 2024
  Ratna Omidvar Independent Senators Group Ontario April 1, 2016   Trudeau, J. November 5, 2024
  Kim Pate Independent Senators Group Ontario November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. November 10, 2034
  Dennis Patterson Conservative Nunavut August 27, 2009   Harper December 30, 2023
  Chantal Petitclerc Independent Senators Group Quebec (Grandville) April 1, 2016   Trudeau, J. December 15, 2044
  Don Plett Conservative Manitoba (Landmark) August 27, 2009   Harper May 14, 2025 Opposition Leader
  Rose-May Poirier Conservative New Brunswick (Saint-Louis-de-Kent) February 28, 2010   Harper March 2, 2029
  Mohamed-Iqbal Ravalia Independent Senators Group Newfoundland and Labrador June 1, 2018   Trudeau, J. August 15, 2032
  David Adams Richards Canadian Senators Group New Brunswick August 30, 2017   Trudeau, J. October 17, 2025
  Pierrette Ringuette Independent Senators Group New Brunswick December 12, 2002   Chrétien December 31, 2030
  Raymonde Saint-Germain Independent Senators Group Quebec (De la Vallière) November 25, 2016   Trudeau, J. October 7, 2026
  Judith Seidman Conservative Québec (De la Durantaye) August 27, 2009   Harper September 1, 2025 Opposition Whip as of November 14, 2019
  Paula Simons Independent Senators Group Alberta October 3, 2018   Trudeau, J. September 7, 2039
  Murray Sinclair Independent Senators Group Manitoba April 2, 2016   Trudeau, J. January 24, 2026
  Larry Smith Conservative Quebec (Saurel) May 25, 2011   Harper April 28, 2026
  Carolyn Stewart-Olsen Conservative New Brunswick August 27, 2009   Harper July 27, 2021
  Scott Tannas Canadian Senators Group Alberta March 25, 2013   Harper February 25, 2037 In an interview with The Hill Times in July 2017, Senator Tannas "...has made it clear he will stay no longer than a decade." which would put his retirement date no later than March 25, 2023.[13]
  Josée Verner Canadian Senators Group Quebec (Montarville) June 13, 2011   Harper December 30, 2034
  Pamela Wallin Canadian Senators Group Saskatchewan January 2, 2009   Harper April 10, 2028
  David Wells Conservative Newfoundland and Labrador January 25, 2013   Harper February 28, 2037
  Howard Wetston Independent Senators Group Ontario November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. June 3, 2022
  Vernon White Canadian Senators Group Ontario February 20, 2012   Harper February 21, 2034 Upon his appointment, Senator White said that he would step down after nine years (no later than February 20, 2021).[14]
  Yuen Pau Woo Independent Senators Group British Columbia November 10, 2016   Trudeau, J. March 2, 2038 Facilitator of the Independent Senators Group

Vacancies and pending appointments

Province (Division) Seat Last Held By Affiliation Reason for Vacancy Vacant since
  Quebec (Rigaud) Jacques Demers Independent Senators Group Mandatory Retirement August 25, 2019 397 days
  Quebec (De Salaberry) André Pratte Independent Senators Group Resigned October 21, 2019 340 days
  British Columbia Richard Neufeld Conservative Mandatory Retirement November 6, 2019 324 days
  Ontario Nicole Eaton Conservative Mandatory Retirement January 21, 2020 248 days
  New Brunswick Joseph A. Day Progressive Senate Group Mandatory Retirement January 24, 2020 245 days
  Quebec (Kennebec) Serge Joyal Progressive Senate Group Mandatory Retirement February 1, 2020 237 days
  Saskatchewan David Tkachuk Conservative Mandatory Retirement February 18, 2020 220 days
  Nova Scotia Tom McInnis Conservative Mandatory Retirement April 9, 2020 169 days
  Alberta Grant Mitchell Non-affiliated Resigned April 24, 2020 154 days
  Saskatchewan Lillian Dyck Progressive Senate Group Mandatory Retirement August 24, 2020 32 days

Standings

Seating plan of the Canadian Senate

Members of the Senate of Canada may sit[15] as representatives of a political party if agreed by themselves and their party.
The current party standings in the Senate of Canada are as follows:

Party standing of the Senate by province
Party BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Total
Independent Senators Group   3 1 2 3 14 11 4 4 2 1 1 1 0 47
Conservative   1 0 1 1 4 5 3 1 0 4 0 0 1 21
Canadian Senators Group   1 3 1 0 2 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 13
Progressive Senate Group   0 0 0 1 2 2 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 9
Non-affiliated   0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5
Vacant   1 1 2 0 1 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 10
Total 6 6 6 6 24 24 10 10 4 6 1 1 1 105

Party standings since the last election

Date Name Province Affiliation before Affiliation after Reason
October 21, 2019 André Pratte Quebec (De Salaberry) Independent Senators Group vacant Resigned
November 2, 2019 Paul McIntyre New Brunswick Conservative Mandatory retirement
November 4, 2019 Doug Black Alberta Independent Senators Group Canadian Senators Group Joined new caucus group
Robert Black Ontario (Centre Wellington)
Larry Campbell British Columbia (Vancouver)
Stephen Greene Nova Scotia (Halifax — The Citadel)
Diane Griffin Prince Edward Island
Elaine McCoy Alberta (Calgary)
Josée Verner Quebec (Montarville)
David Adams Richards New Brunswick Non-affiliated
Scott Tannas Alberta Conservative
Pamela Wallin Saskatchewan
Vernon White Ontario
November 6, 2019 Richard Neufeld British Columbia vacant Mandatory retirement
November 7, 2019 Diane Bellemare Quebec (Alma) Non-affiliated Independent Senators Group Changed affiliation
November 14, 2019 Jane Cordy Nova Scotia Senate Liberal Caucus Progressive Senate Group Joined new caucus group
Dennis Dawson Quebec (Lauzon)
Joseph A. Day New Brunswick (Saint John-Kennebecasis)
Percy Downe Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown)
Lillian Dyck Saskatchewan (North Battleford)
Serge Joyal Quebec (Kennebec)
Sandra Lovelace Nicholas New Brunswick
Terry Mercer Nova Scotia (Northend Halifax)
Jim Munson Ontario (Ottawa/Rideau Canal)
November 18, 2019 Percy Downe Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown) Progressive Senate Group Canadian Senators Group Changed affiliation
Jean-Guy Dagenais Quebec (Victoria) Conservative
January 21, 2020 Nicole Eaton Ontario vacant Mandatory retirement
January 24, 2020 Joseph A. Day New Brunswick (Saint John-Kennebecasis) Progressive Senate Group
January 24, 2020 Marc Gold Quebec (Stadacona) Independent Senators Group Non-affiliated Change in parliamentary group affiliation following appointment to Representative of the Government in the Senate
January 31, 2020 Raymonde Gagné Manitoba Change in parliamentary group affiliation following appointment as Legislative Deputy to the Government Representative
Patti LaBoucane-Benson Alberta Change in parliamentary group affiliation following appointment as Government Liaison
Brent Cotter Saskatchewan vacant Non-affiliated Appointed to Senate
Judith Keating New Brunswick
February 1, 2020 Serge Joyal Quebec (Kennebec) Progressive Senate Group vacant Mandatory retirement
February 6, 2020 Brent Cotter Saskatchewan Non-affiliated Independent Senators Group Changed affiliation
Judith Keating New Brunswick
February 18, 2020 David Tkachuk Saskatchewan Conservative vacant Mandatory retirement
April 9, 2020 Tom McInnis Nova Scotia
April 24, 2020 Grant Mitchell Alberta Non-affiliated vacant Resigned
May 8, 2020 Patricia Bovey Manitoba Independent Senators Group Progressive Senate Group Changed affiliation
May 14, 2020 Peter Harder Ontario (Ottawa) Non-affiliated
May 21, 2020 Pierre Dalphond Quebec (De Lorimier) Independent Senators Group
July 8, 2020 Wanda Thomas Bernard Nova Scotia Independent Senators Group
August 24, 2020 Lillian Dyck Saskatchewan Progressive Senate Group vacant Mandatory retirement
Number of members
per group by date
2019 2020
Oct 21 Nov 2 Nov 4 Nov 6 Nov 7 Nov 14 Nov 18 Jan 21 Jan 24 Jan 31 Feb 1 Feb 6 Feb 18 Apr 9 Apr 24 May 8 May 14 May 21 Jul 8 Aug 24
Independent Senators Group 57 49 50 51 50 48 50 49 48 47
Conservative 29 28 26 25 24 23 22 21
Senate Liberal Caucus 9 0
Non-affiliated 7 6 5 4 5 9 7 6 5
  Canadian Senators Group 0 11 13
Progressive Senate Group 0 9 8 7 6 7 8 9 10 9
  Total members 102 101 100 99 98 100 99 98 97 96 95
Vacant 3 4 5 6 7 5 6 7 8 9 10

Appointment breakdown

Prime Minister Term ISG Cons. CSG PSG N-A Total
  Jean Chrétien 1993–2003 3 0 1 3 1 8
  Paul Martin 2003–2006 0 0 2 2 0 4
  Stephen Harper 2006–2015 3 21 7 0 1 32
  Justin Trudeau 2015–present 41 0 3 4 3 51
Total 47 21 13 9 5 95

Upcoming retirements

Fourteen current senators are scheduled to retire before the end of 2023:

  1. Norman Doyle, November 11, 2020, Conservative (Harper) - Newfoundland and Labrador
  2. Elaine McCoy, March 7, 2021, Canadian Senators Group (Martin) - Alberta (Calgary)
  3. Mike Duffy, May 27, 2021, Independent Senators Group (Harper) - Prince Edward Island (Cavendish)
  4. Jim Munson, July 14, 2021, Progressive Senate Group, (Chrétien) - Ontario (Ottawa/Rideau Canal)
  5. Carolyn Stewart-Olsen, July 27, 2021, Conservative (Harper) - New Brunswick
  6. Thanh Hai Ngo, January 3, 2022, Conservative (Harper) - Ontario
  7. Diane Griffin, March 18, 2022, Independent Senators Group (J. Trudeau) - Prince Edward Island
  8. Terry Mercer, May 6, 2022, Progressive Senate Group (Chrétien) - Nova Scotia (Northend Halifax)
  9. Howard Wetston, June 3, 2022, Independent Senators Group (J. Trudeau) - Ontario
  10. Larry Campbell, February 28, 2023, Canadian Senators Group (Martin) - British Columbia (Vancouver)
  11. Sandra Lovelace Nicholas, April 15, 2023, Progressive Senate Group (Martin) - New Brunswick
  12. George Furey, May 12, 2023, Non-affiliated (Chrétien) - Newfoundland and Labrador
  13. Patricia Bovey, May 15, 2023, Progressive Senate Group (J. Trudeau) - Manitoba
  14. Dennis Patterson, December 30, 2023, Conservative (Harper) - Nunavut

Longevity

Furthest year of retirement of existing senators, by prime minister

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Quebec is the only province with Senate divisions that are constitutionally mandated. In all other provinces, a Senate division is strictly an optional designation of the senator's own choosing, and has no real constitutional or legal standing. A senator who does not choose a special senate division is considered a senator for the province at large.

References

  1. ^ Makarenko, Jay (June 1, 2007). "The Canadian Senate: Role, Powers & Operation". MapleLeafWeb. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
  2. ^ a b "A Legislative and Historical Overview of the Senate of Canada". Parliament of Canada. May 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
  3. ^ "Western premiers urge further Senate reform". The Globe and Mail. May 30, 2006. Retrieved November 24, 2008.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Knox, Jack (November 27, 2008). "Barack hasn't called, so I'm aiming for Canadian Senate seat". Times-Colonist. Archived from the original on September 23, 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2008.
  5. ^ Tasker, John Paul (November 18, 2019). "Two more senators defect to upstart group, one citing Scheer's leadership". CBC News. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  6. ^ https://sencanada.ca/en/senators/#senate-standings-table
  7. ^ "Women in the Senate". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  8. ^ "Senators: 42nd Parliament of Canada". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved November 5, 2015.[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ a b "Prime Minister announces the appointment of two new Senators". pm.gc.ca (Press release). PMO. December 4, 2017.
  10. ^ a b "With two new Senate appointments, Trudeau has now appointed half of the upper house". CBC News. January 31, 2020. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  11. ^ "Trudeau appoints constitutional lawyer Marc Gold as government leader in the Senate". CBC News. January 24, 2020. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
  12. ^ Loffreda, Senator Tony (November 7, 2019). "Senator Tony Loffreda on Twitter: The Senate plays a crucial role in the Canadian parliamentary system, I am looking forward to leveraging the experiences that I've accumulated throughout my career as we attempt to improve legislation, as well as the lives of Canadians. Thank you!". Twitter. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
  13. ^ "Tory Senators divided over whether they really agreed to term limits". Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  14. ^ "Sen. White vows to step down after nine years, even if Senate reforms not passed". Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  15. ^ The Senate Chamber (PDF). Senate of Canada. February 19, 2019. pp. 1–2. Retrieved November 18, 2019.