List of countries by exports

International trade List of countries by imports List of countries by leading trade partners
Quartile map of amount of exports per country.

This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on multiple sources.[1][2][3]

Rank Country Exports
(millions of $)
Date of
information
% of GDP[4]
 European Union[n 1] 5,624,352[citation needed] 2017 EST.[n 2]
1  China 2,157,000 2017 EST. 18.4
2  United States 1,576,000 2017 EST. 11.7
3  Germany 1,401,000 2017 EST. 47.0
4  Japan 683,300 2017 EST. 18.5
5  South Korea 577,400 2017 EST. 42.2
6  France 551,800 2017 EST. 29.3
7  Netherlands 526,400 2017 EST. 82.4
8  Italy 600,000 2017 EST. 29.8
 Hong Kong 496,900 2017 EST. 177.3
9  Mexico 500,000 2020 EST. 62.7
10  United Kingdom 495,600 2019 EST. 28.3
11  Canada 433,000 2017 EST. 31.0
12  Singapore 372,900 2017 EST. 172.1
13  India 354,800 2017 EST. 13.7
14  Brazil 349,200 2017 EST. 67.9
15  Taiwan 344,600 2017 EST. 60.3
16  Russia 336,800 2017 EST. 25.7
17   Switzerland 336,800 2017 EST. 65.8
18  United Arab Emirates 314,700 2017 EST. 103.8
19  Belgium 309,100 2017 EST. 82.9
20  Spain 301,500 2017 EST. 32.9
21  Saudi Arabia 231,300 2017 EST. 30.7
22  Thailand 228,200 2017 EST. 68.9
23  Ireland 225,100 2017 EST. 121.6
24  Australia 224,500 2017 EST. 18.9
25  Poland 221,400 2017 EST. 52.3
26  Vietnam 214,000 2017 EST. 93.6 [6] [7]
27  Malaysia 188,200 2017 EST. 67.7
28  Sweden 169,700 2017 EST. 44.3
29  Indonesia 168,800 2017 EST. 19.1
30  Austria 161,800 2017 EST. 52.3
31  Czech Republic 157,400 2017 EST. 79.5
32  Turkey 157,300 2017 EST. 22.0
33  Denmark 113,200 2017 EST. 53.6
34  Norway 102,800 2017 EST. 34.1
35  Hungary 100,000 2017 EST. 89.5
36  Iran 91,990 2017 EST. 22.4
 Scotland 81,400[8] 2017 40.3
37  Slovakia 80,570 2017 EST. 94.6
38  South Africa 78,250 2017 EST. 30.3
 Puerto Rico 73,160 2017 EST. 68.4
39  Romania 64,920 2017 EST. 41.4
40  Chile 64,510 2017 EST. 28.5
41  Philippines 63,230 2017 EST. 28.0
42  Portugal 62,600 2017 EST. 40.1
43  Angola 61,000 2020 EST. 30.0
44  Israel 60,600 2017 EST. 30.3
45  Argentina 59,690 2017 EST. 12.8
46  Finland 59,600 2017 EST. 36.0
47  Iraq 56,740 2017 EST. 32.6
48  Qatar 56,260 2017 EST. 47.5
49  Kuwait 54,090 2017 EST. 48.2
50  Kazakhstan 49,290 2017 EST. 31.9
51  Peru 42,470 2017 EST. 22.4
52  Bangladesh 40,905 2017 EST. 16.6
53  Nigeria 40,810 2017 EST. 24.4
54  New Zealand 37,350 2017 EST. 26.4
55  Ukraine 36,850 2017 EST. 49.3
56  Colombia 34,300 2017 EST. 14.2
57  Algeria 33,150 2017 EST. 21.0
58  Bulgaria 32,050 2017 EST. 64.0
59  Oman 31,900 2017 EST. 41.6
60  Slovenia 30,230 2017 EST. 77.7
61  Belarus 30,000 2020 EST. 38.2
62  Greece 29,230 2017 EST. 30.5
63  Venezuela 29,160 2017 EST. 16.7
64  Lithuania 26,380 2017 EST. 74.5
65  Morocco 25,332 2017 EST. 39.1
66  Egypt 23,530 2017 EST. 10.3
67  Pakistan 21,940 2017 EST. 9.1
68  Libya 19,720 2017 EST. 64.8
69  Ecuador 19,120 2017 EST. 19.7
70  Luxembourg 18,400 2017 EST. 221.3
 Wales 17,200[9] 2018 23.5
71  Croatia 15,760 2017 EST. 49.7
72  Azerbaijan 15,690 2017 EST. 46.5
73  Panama 15,480 2017 EST. 44.8
74  Serbia 14,690 2017 EST. 50.0
75  Bahrain 14,330 2017 EST. 73.9
76  Tunisia 14,220 2017 EST. 39.6
77  Estonia 14,020 2017 EST. 79.0
78  Ghana 13,750 2017 EST. 40.7
79  Latvia 12,340 2017 EST. 60.0
80  Paraguay 11,530 2017 EST. 41.7
81  Uzbekistan 11,380 2017 EST. 18.8
82  Côte d'Ivoire 11,080 2017 EST. 32.4
83  Sri Lanka 10,930 2017 EST. 21.4
84  Costa Rica 10,550 2017 EST. 31.6
85  Guatemala 10,530 2017 EST. 19.5
86  Cambodia 10,450 2017 EST. 61.3
87  Dominican Republic 10,330 2017 EST. 25.2
88  Burma 10,070 2017 EST. 30.4
89  Trinidad and Tobago 9,668 2017 EST.
90  Papua New Guinea 9,526 2017 EST. 72.2
91  Uruguay 8,976 2017 EST. 21.4
92  Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,598 2017 EST. 23.7
93  Honduras 8,173 2017 EST. 42.7
94  Zambia 8,106 2017 EST. 35.1
95  Bolivia 7,986 2017 EST. 24.6
96  Jordan 7,734 2017 EST. 37.2
97  Botswana 7,580 2017 EST. 55.4
98  Turkmenistan 7,394 2017 EST. 22.7
99  Mongolia 6,201 2017 EST. 50.2
100  Kenya 5,798 2017 EST. 14.6
101  Brunei 5,776 2017 EST. 49.6
102  El Salvador 5,760 2017 EST. 24.9
103  Equatorial Guinea 5,412 2017 EST. 52.1
104  Republic of the Congo 5,238 2017 EST. 57.1
105  Tanzania 5,194 2017 EST. 19.5
106  Cameroon 5,158 2017 EST. 18.6
107  Gabon 5,078 2017 EST. 41.1
108  Macedonia 5,019 2018 EST. 49.2
109  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,803 2017 EST. 35.4
110  Mozambique 4,773 2017 EST. 34.8
111  Namibia 4,710 2017 EST. 42.2
112  Iceland 4,600 2017 EST. 48.4
113  Lebanon 4,051 2017 EST. 25.5
114  Sudan 3,808 2017 EST. 9.8
115  Zimbabwe 3,763 2017 EST. 24.7
116  Georgia 3,533 2017 EST. 43.6
117  Liechtenstein 3,217 2015 EST.
118  Ethiopia 3,076 2017 EST. 8.0
119  Mali 3,036 2017 EST. 22.9
120  North Korea 2,985 2016 EST.
121  Cyprus 2,905 2017 EST. 65.3
122  Uganda 2,902 2017 EST. 18.6
123  Laos 2,881 2017 EST. 35.1
124  Madagascar 2,801 2017 EST. 33.5
125  Burkina Faso 2,797 2017 EST. 27.7
126  Albania 2,660 2018 31.5
127  Malta 2,627 2017 EST. 139.6
128  Senegal 2,546 2017 EST. 29.0
129  Chad 2,438 2017 EST. 30.0
130  Moldova 2,425 2017 EST. 43.6
131  Mauritius 2,329 2017 EST. 44.5
132  Armenia 2,233 2017 EST. 33.1
 New Caledonia 2,207 2014 EST. 13.1
133  Guinea 2,115 2017 EST. 42.3
134  Suriname 1,976 2017 EST. 49.6
135  Palestine 1,955 2017 EST. 18.2
 U.S. Virgin Islands 1,810 2013 EST. 72.5
136  Syria 1,786 2017 EST. 39.6
137  Kyrgyzstan 1,768 2017 EST. 36.8
138  Benin 1,760 2017 EST. 30.5
139  South Sudan 1,710 2018 76.1
140  Swaziland 1,631 2017 EST. 49.5
141  Mauritania 1,606 2017 EST. 37.2
142  Guyana 1,474 2017 EST. 49.2
143  Malawi 1,443 2017 EST. 33.1
 Macau 1,380 2018 83.5
144  Jamaica 1,310 2017 EST. 31.4
 French Polynesia 1,245 2014 EST. 4.9
 Faroe Islands 1,184 2016 EST. 51.2
145  Cuba 1,180 2018 14.5
146  Niger 1,177 2017 EST. 17.2
 Greenland 1,110 2018 40.8
147  Lesotho 1,031 2017 EST. 42.2
 Cayman Islands 1,010 2018
148  Togo 1,000 2020 EST. 42.7
149  Monaco 964 2017 EST.
150  Haiti 960 2017 EST. 20.6
151  Bahamas 934 2017 EST. 35.1
152  Rwanda 908 2017 EST. 15.0
153  Sierra Leone 836 2017 EST. 23.7
154    Nepal 818 2017 EST. 9.5
155  Tajikistan 794 2017 EST. 15.7
156  Afghanistan 784 2016 EST. 7.8
157  Fiji 758 2017 EST. 26.2
158  Marshall Islands 661 2018 27.5
159  Eritrea 635 2017 EST. 18.2
160  Bhutan 580 2017 EST. 29.7
 Curaçao 551 2018 72.2
161  Yemen 501 2017 EST. 3.3
162  Seychelles 495 2017 EST. 68.9
163  Belize 483 2017 EST. 57.7
164  Somalia 483 2018 14.9
165  Barbados 482 2017 EST. 42.0
166  Montenegro 475 2018 40.5
 Kosovo 428 2016 EST. 22.5
167  Solomon Islands 319 2015 EST. 45.1
168  Falkland Islands 283 2018
169  Guinea-Bissau 281 2017 EST. 26.1
170  Burundi 272 2018 6.2
171  Maldives 256 2016 EST. 79.7
 Aruba 246 2017 EST.
172  Saint Lucia 204 2017 EST.
173  Liberia 202 2017 EST. 21.4
 Bermuda 199 2018 47.7
 British Virgin Islands 198 2018
174  Antigua and Barbuda 192 2018 41.7
175  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 178 2018 27.2
 Gibraltar 172 2018
176  Vanuatu 167 2018 48.6
177  Andorra 164 2018
178  Cape Verde 158 2017 EST. 50.9
179  San Marino 156 2018 168.8
180  Djibouti 155 2017 EST. 154.7
181  Kiribati 133 2018 11.1
 Niue 132 2018
182  Micronesia 129 2018 26.6
183  Central African Republic 118 2017 EST. 12.7
184  Gambia 109 2017 EST. 24.0
 United States Minor Outlying Islands 108 2019
185  Comoros 102 2018 15.9
 British Indian Ocean Territory 82.4 2019
186  Saint Kitts and Nevis 72.6 2018 63.7
 American Samoa 69.9 2018 65.0
187  Timor-Leste 67.3 2018 2.7
188  Samoa 66.1 2018 29.3
189  Dominica 54.2 2018 48.3
 Tokelau 48.5 2018
 Cook Islands 42.3 2018
190  Grenada 36.5 2018 56.1
 Bonaire 33.3 2019
 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 32.2 2018
191  Palau 30.3 2018 56.3
192  Tuvalu 29.4 2018
 Guam 28.6 2018 19.4
193  São Tomé and Príncipe 23.2 2018
194  Nauru 19.7 2018 48.8
 Turks and Caicos Islands 17.7 2018
 Christmas Island 17.1 2019
 Anguilla 13.4 2018
195  Tonga 12.9 2018 21.3
 French Southern and Antarctic Lands 11.9 2018
 Sint Maarten 11.8 2019
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 6.3 2018
 Montserrat 5.7 2018
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands 4.5 2019
 Northern Mariana Islands 3.4 2018 73.6
 Norfolk Island 3.0 2019
 Western Sahara 3.0 2019
 Netherlands Antilles 2.7 2018
 Pitcairn Islands 1.7 2018
 Wallis and Futuna 0.35 2018
 Bouvet Island 0.013 2019
 British Antarctic Territory 0.004 2019


This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on UN COMTRADE and ITC statistics.[10][11]


The world aggregation represents the sum of reporting and non reporting countries

The data in orange represents mirror figures based on partner data.

Rank Country Value exported in 2018 (USD thousand) Trade balance in 2018 (USD thousand) Share in world exports (%)
World 19,284,579,656 -380,698,790 100
1  China 2,494,230,195 359,242,930 12.9
2  United States 1,665,992,032 -946,387,125 8.6
3  Germany 1,556,744,351 269,365,684 8.1
4  Japan 738,188,768 -10,172,797 3.8
5  South Korea 605,169,190 69,996,799 3.1
6  Netherlands 585,622,815 64,170,398 3
7  Hong Kong 569,105,740 -58,221,291 3
8  France 568,974,863 -91,142,481 3
9  Italy 543,466,795 44,127,133 2.8
10  United Kingdom 487,069,299 -182,570,912 2.5
11  Brazil 477,655,766 45,455,766 1.9
12  Belgium 466,653,580 16,264,603 2.4
13  Canada 450,722,776 -9,116,416 2.3
14  Mexico 450,531,651 -13,736,819 2.3
15  Russia 449,347,157 211,195,782 2.3
16  Singapore 411,741,747 41,252,322 2.1
17  Taiwan 335,815,761 49,321,931 1.7
18  Spain 328,527,654 -47,657,432 1.7
19  India 323,056,409 -184,523,592 1.7
20  United Arab Emirates 316,922,502 55,411,745 1.6
21   Switzerland 310,524,275 31,858,719 1.6
22  Saudi Arabia 294,535,553 159,324,375 1.5
23  Poland 261,815,269 -5,884,618 1.4
24  Australia 253,827,863 26,543,719 1.3
25  Thailand 249,777,335 -1,113,960 1.3
26  Malaysia 247,285,745 29,834,025 1.3
27  Vietnam 242,969,228 6,131,813 1.3
28  Czech Republic 202,521,578 17,597,555 1.1
29  Indonesia 180,215,034 -8,496,138 0.9
30  Austria 176,991,971 -7,203,230 0.9
31  Turkey 167,923,862 -55,123,017 0.9
32  Republic of Ireland 167,017,888 60,086,815 0.9
33  Sweden 165,926,284 -4,228,163 0.9
34  Hungary 123,957,885 6,576,292 0.6
35  Norway 122,971,518 35,345,488 0.6
36  Denmark 107,969,443 6,333,295 0.6
37  Iraq 97,231,616 43,820,208 0.5
38  Iran 96,617,521 55,381,353 0.5
39  South Africa 94,421,532 997,626 0.5
40  Slovakia 94,294,380 108,298 0.5
41  Qatar 84,288,459 52,592,371 0.4
42  Romania 79,672,860 -18,220,407 0.4
43  Chile 75,481,714 1,294,391 0.4
44  Finland 75,258,290 -3,093,871 0.4
45  Portugal 74,135,906 -21,493,393 0.4
46  Kuwait 71,941,445 36,074,790 0.4
47  Philippines 67,487,668 -47,550,348 0.3
48  Israel 61,906,412 -14,677,698 0.3
49  Argentina 61,558,357 -3,882,609 0.3
50  Kazakhstan 60,956,233 28,422,697 0.3
51  Nigeria 52,913,529 16,453,303 0.3
52  Ukraine 47,334,680 -9,852,413 0.2
53  Peru 47,223,269 4,078,923 0.2
54  Bangladesh 45,126,995 -11,924,580 0.2
55  Oman 42,856,946 8,837,029 0.2
56  Angola 42,021,981 25,636,373 0.2
57  Colombia 41,769,699 -9,463,106 0.2
58  Algeria 41,763,120 -7,221,482 0.2
59  New Zealand 39,838,899 -3,897,347 0.2
60  Greece 39,490,521 -25,650,927 0.2
61  Slovenia 36,471,279 203941 0.2
62  Venezuela 35,055,271 23800595 0.2
63  Belarus 33,726,141 -4682771 0.2
64  Lithuania 33,334,577 -3166837 0.2
65  Bulgaria 33,314,360 -4638281 0.2
66  Libya 30,633,424 17704341 0.2
67  Egypt 29,383,962 -51608360 0.2
68  Morocco 29,330,296 -21921110 0.2
69  Pakistan 23,630,893 -36531969 0.1
70  Ecuador 21,606,134 -1413519 0.1
71  Cambodia 20,852,034 -6959065 0.1
72  Azerbaijan 19,458,633 7999238 0.1
73  Serbia 19,239,127 -6643508 0.1
74  Bahrain 17,867,675 -2723912 0.1
75  Croatia 17,210,469 -10902620 0.1
76  Estonia 17,197,365 -1363361 0.1
77  Ghana 17,099,588 5219117 0.1
78  Myanmar 16,671,612 -2673848 0.1
79  Tunisia 16,302,981 -4756845 0.1
80  Luxembourg 15,148,367 -7970453 0.1
81  Latvia 15,032,702 -3580613 0.1
82  Sri Lanka 12,281,010 -7899145 0.1
83  Trinidad and Tobago 12,029,296 6345918 0.1
84  Côte d'Ivoire 11,823,035 848978 0.1
85  Republic of the Congo 11,463,574 8691399 0.1
86  Costa Rica 11,255,809 -5310499 0.1
87  Papua New Guinea 11,218,527 6716034 0.1
88  Democratic Republic of the Congo 11,092,725 3707174 0.1
89  Uzbekistan 10,919,012 -6394940 0.1
90  Guatemala 10,863,493 -8791587 0.1
91  Turkmenistan 10,489,726 7666984 0.1
92  Dominican Republic 9,395,611 -12792241 0
93  Zambia 9,052,165 -409574 0
94  Paraguay 9,042,469 -4293552 0
95  Bolivia 8,964,856 -1031092 0
96  Jordan 7,752,962 -12565949 0
97  Uruguay 7,641,122 -1360500 0
98  Namibia 7,488,296 -800644 0
99  Bosnia and Herzegovina 7,182,146 -4445517 0
100  Mongolia 7,011,758 1136970 0
101  Macedonia 6,906,337 -2145340 0
102  Botswana 6,573,001 404047 0
103  Equatorial Guinea 6,543,444 5521962 0
104  Brunei 6,502,017 2397118 0
105  Gabon 6,434,669 4303682 0
106  Guinea 6,233,757 1813830 0
107  Kenya 6,050,421 -11326300 0
108  Laos 6,014,886 -886780 0
109  Panama 5,872,465 -37247344 0
110  Iceland 5,561,476 -2124557 0
111  Mozambique 5,160,904 -1658251 0
112  Cyprus 5,065,369 -5747203 0
113  Nicaragua 5,013,908 -2337092 0
114  Cameroon 4,817,419 -1086145 0
115  El Salvador 4,642,690 -6292799 0
116  Honduras 4,486,630 -4942205 0
117  Sudan 4,155,488 -3848223 0
118  Zimbabwe 4,037,203 -2221653 0
119  Malta 3,868,514 -3335510 0
120  Tanzania 3,795,725 -4714904 0
121  Senegal 3,623,243 -4448168 0
122  Georgia 3,354,491 -5768606 0
123  Burkina Faso 3,285,825 -1014801 0
124  Lebanon 3,275,050 -16704459 0
125  Uganda 3,087,274 -3642103 0
126  Madagascar 2,998,622 -928537 0
127  Togo 2,935,609 -8954060 0
128  Mali 2,902,523 -933484 0
129  Albania 2,875,860 -3065427 0
130  Moldova 2,706,818 -3057464 0
131  Ethiopia 2,583,344 -7048746 0
132  Armenia 2,383,414 -2466521 0
133  Mauritania 2,184,093 -999071 0
134  New Caledonia 2,125,448 -349893 0
135  Mauritius 1,963,917 -3293891 0
136  Jamaica 1,878,239 -4247730 0
137  Eswatini 1,851,122 -18091 0
138  Cuba 1,847,433 -4365004 0
139  Kyrgyzstan 1,835,179 -3456767 0
140  Afghanistan 1,769,009 -13044172 0
141  Chad 1,679,690 885139 0
142  South Sudan 1,661,773 1194111 0
143  Niger 1,564,628 -1081345 0
144  Yemen 1,528,136 -6589785 0
145  Suriname 1,502,817 -24081 0
146  Guyana 1,487,342 -2510598 0
147  Macau 1,446,650 -11056343 0
148  Liberia 1,432,809 -8348494 0
149  Faroe Islands 1,351,641 237579 0
150  Lesotho 1,284,402 -248559 0
151  Haiti 1,250,697 -2956649 0
152  Tajikistan 1,073,858 -2070488 0
153  Cayman Islands 1,043,321 -3972143 0
154  Rwanda 1,017,862 -1953657 0
155  Fiji 1,015,640 -1714968 0
156  Benin 952,224 -2325806 0
157  Malawi 879,975 -1827060 0
158  Seychelles 846,972 -289579 0
159    Nepal 772,360 -9448061 0
160  Curaçao 769,568 -2100499 0
161  Marshall Islands 720,049 -12425786 0
162  Syria 718,733 -6010172 0
163  Greenland 640,897 -188253 0
164  Solomon Islands 569,112 -32277 0
165  Bahamas 524,222 -2999852 0
166  Eritrea 515,981 107108 0
167  Montenegro 465,997 -2536867 0
168  Barbados 457,710 -1142201 0
169  British Virgin Islands 350,505 -1318823 0
170  Somalia 345,198 -2852528 0
171  North Korea 330,660 -1991158 0
172  Falkland Islands 303,104 171227 0
173  Bhutan 300,282 -513374 0
174  Belize 243,304 -714436 0
175  Sierra Leone 205,368 -781531 0
176  French Polynesia 191,506 -1440420 0
177  Maldives 181,711 -2779316 0
178  Gibraltar 180,568 -9302684 0
179  Vanuatu 177,139 -157202 0
180  Burundi 169,071 -624441 0
181  Djibouti 152,541 -5418448 0
182  Guinea-Bissau 150,108 -199217 0
183  Kiribati 136,551 34407 0
184  Niue 132,573 108400 0
185  Micronesia 130,316 -4895 0
186  Andorra 129,448 -1479946 0
187  Palestine 127,568 -828553 0
188  Dominica 124,441 -264551 0
189  Comoros 102,055 -245167 0
190  Saint Lucia 96,652 -1943572 0
191  Saint Kitts and Nevis 93,968 -252513 0
192  Timor-Leste 75,793 -403017 0
193  Cape Verde 75,271 -739334 0
194  Aruba 69,763 -1188107 0
195  Central African Republic 54,932 -329454 0
196  Tokelau 54,061 22495 0
197  Samoa 46,101 -316783 0
198  Cook Islands 44,561 -112110 0
199  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 43,666 -309961 0
200  Grenada 40,127 -216478 0
201  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 33,604 -4656 0
202  Tuvalu 30,673 -56642 0
203  Turks and Caicos Islands 24,954 -473931 0
204  Bermuda 22,912 -1047097 0
205  Nauru 21,415 -105331 0
206  Antigua and Barbuda 16,772 -787645 0
207  Anguilla 16,074 -124367 0
208  Tonga 13,795 -196090 0
209  São Tomé and Príncipe 12,087 -136219 0
210  Gambia 9,091 -592261 0
211  Palau 8,621 -145792 0
212  Montserrat 6,851 -22394 0
213  Northern Mariana Islands 3,633 -167836 0
214  Pitcairn Islands 2,015 -735 0
215  Wallis and Futuna 561 -38935 0


World Bank's World Integrated Trade Solution now provides list of countries and their share Top exporting countries

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The EU is included as a separate entity in The World Factbook of CIA because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[5] As the EU is not a country, China is the first ranked country on these lists.
  2. ^ The sum of all countries of the European Union appearing in this article.

References

  1. ^ "Trade Map". International Trade Centre.
  2. ^ "The Observatory of Economic Complexity". OEC.
  3. ^ "Country Comparison: Exports". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
  4. ^ "Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)". The World Bank.
  5. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.
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