Sino-Latvian relations date back to August 16, 1923 when the Republic of China recognized Latvia de jure. After the Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940, the ROC is one of the few countries that did not recognize Latvia's incorporation into the Soviet Union. 
After restoring its independence in 1991, Latvia pursued an ambiguous policy towards the issue of China, at one point in 1991 and 1992 briefly having established relations with both the ROC and the People's Republic of China, until the PRC froze ties with Latvia in 1992. This policy was partly due to Latvian hopes of receiving development aid from Taiwan, which, however, did not fully materialize. This, coupled with changes in the Latvian government and other factors, led to the establishment of full diplomatic ties with the PRC and the closure of the consulate-general of the ROC in Riga in 1994. Ever since, however, in its place, Latvia operates the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in Riga as the Taipei Mission in the Republic of Latvia.
Today, bilateral relations are positive, with established economic ties, a visa-free travel regime in place between the two nations and the support of some Latvian parliamentarians towards the participation of the ROC in organizations such as the World Health Organization.
- Mälksoo, Lauri (2003). Illegal Annexation and State Continuity: The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR. Leiden – Boston: Brill. ISBN 90-411-2177-3.
- Made, Vahur (2012). "ETIS - To Be Anti-Communist or Anti-Soviet? The People's Republic of China as a Dilemma for the Estonian Exiled Diplomats during the Cold War Period". www.etis.ee. Retrieved 2019-12-31.
- About the Mission - Taipei Mission in the Republic of Latvia. "The Republic of China never recognized the incorporation of the three Baltic States into the Soviet Union and is very proud of the fact being correctly reflected in exposition at the Museum of the Occupation of Latvia. The National flag of the Republic of China, which is red with a navy blue canton bearing a white sun with twelve triangular rays, is placed amid the flags of other countries that didn't recognize the incorporation into the USSR."
- Vitas, Robert A. (1989). "U.S. Nonrecognition of the Soviet Occupation of Lithuania". Loyola University Chicago ECommons: Dissertations.
- "Latvia-China–Taiwan: Triangle or Circle?". www.liia.lv. Retrieved 2019-12-31.
- Tubilewicz, Czeslaw (7 August 2007). Taiwan and Post-Communist Europe: Shopping for Allies. Routledge. pp. 76–94. ISBN 9781134100842.
- China (Taiwan), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of (2019-05-02). "MOFA thanks Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania parliamentarians for supporting Taiwan's WHO participation". Taiwan Today. Retrieved 2019-12-31.