Kaiju (Japanese: 怪獣, Hepburn: kaijū, lit. "strange beast") is a Japanese genre of films featuring giant monsters. The term kaiju (which comes from the Chinese text Classic of Mountains and Seas) can refer to the giant monsters themselves, which are usually depicted attacking major cities and engaging the military, or other kaiju, in battle. The kaiju genre is a subgenre of tokusatsu (特撮, "special filming") entertainment.
The 1954 film Godzilla is commonly regarded as the first kaiju film. Kaiju characters are often somewhat metaphorical in nature; Godzilla, for example, serves as a metaphor for nuclear weapons, reflecting the fears of post-war Japan following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Lucky Dragon 5 incident. Other notable examples of kaiju characters include Rodan, Mothra, King Ghidorah, and Gamera.
The Japanese word kaijū originally referred to monsters and creatures from ancient Japanese legends; it earlier appeared in the Chinese Classic of Mountains and Seas. After sakoku had ended and Japan was opened to foreign relations in the mid 19th century, the term kaijū came to be used to express concepts from paleontology and legendary creatures from around the world. For example, in 1908 it was suggested that the extinct Ceratosaurus was alive in Alaska, and this was referred to as kaijū. However, there are no traditional depictions of kaiju or kaiju-like creatures in Japanese folklore; but rather the origins of kaiju are found in film.
The first appearance within a film title of kaijū was in 1953 with Genshi Kaijū ga Arawareru (原子怪獣現れる), literally "An Atomic Kaiju Appears", and the title in Japan of The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms. However, Gojira (transliterated as Godzilla) is commonly regarded as the first kaiju film in the west and was released in 1954. Tomoyuki Tanaka, a producer for Toho Studios in Tokyo, needed a film to release after his previous project was halted. Seeing how well the Hollywood giant monster movie genre films King Kong and The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms had done in Japanese box offices, and himself a fan of these films, he set out to make a new movie based on them and created Godzilla. Tanaka aimed to combine Hollywood giant monster movies with the re-emerged Japanese fears of atomic weapons that arose from the Daigo Fukuryū Maru fishing boat incident; and so he put a team together and created the concept of a radioactive giant creature emerging from the depths of the ocean, a creature that would become the monster Godzilla. Godzilla initially had commercial success in Japan, inspiring other kaiju movies.
The term kaijū translates literally as "strange beast", but the term should not be misconstrued, veritably. Kaiju are science fiction and fantasy creatures, generally "Godzillian" in size and character. They can be antagonistic, protagonistic, or a neutral force of nature, but more specifically as preternatural creatures of divine power. Succinctly, they are not merely, "big animals." Godzilla, for example, from its first appearance in the initial 1954 entry in the Godzilla franchise, has manifest all of these aspects. Other examples of kaiju include Rodan, Mothra, King Ghidorah, Anguirus, King Kong, Gamera, Daimajin, Gappa, Guilala and Yonggary. There are also subcategories including Mecha Kaiju (Meka-Kaijū), featuring mechanical or cybernetic characters, including Mogera, Mechani-Kong, Mechagodzilla, M.O.G.U.E.R.A., which are an off-shoot of kaiju. Likewise, the collective sub-category Ultra Kaiju (Urutora-Kaijū) is a separate strata of kaijū, which specifically originate in the long-running Ultra Series franchise, but can also be referred to simply by kaijū. As a noun, kaijū is an invariant, as both the singular and the plural expressions are identical.
Daikaijū (大怪獣) literally translates as "giant kaiju" or "great kaiju". This hyperbolic term was used to denote greatness of the subject kaiju; the prefix dai- emphasizing great size, power, and/or status. The first known appearance of the term daikaiju in the 20th Century was in the publicity materials for the original 1954 release of Godzilla. Specifically, in the subtitle on the original movie poster, Suibaku Daikaiju Eiga (水爆大怪獣映画), lit. "H-Bomb Giant Monster Movie" (in proper English, "The Giant H-Bomb Monster Movie").
Kaijin (怪人 lit. "strange person") refers to distorted human beings or humanoid-like creatures. The origin of kaijin goes back to the early 20th Century Japanese literature, starting with Rampo Edogawa's 1936 novel, The Fiend with Twenty Faces. The story introduced Edogawa's master detective, Kogoro Akechi's arch-nemesis, the eponymous "Fiend," a mysterious master of disguise, whose real face was unknown; the Moriarty to Akechi's Sherlock. Catching the public's imagination, many such literary and movie (and later television) villains took on the mantle of kaijin. To be clear, kaijin is not an offshoot of kaiju. The first ever kaijin that appeared on film was the great Buddha appears a lost film, made in 1934.
After the Pacific War, the term was modernized when it was adopted to describe the bizarre, genetically-engineered and cybernetically-enhanced evil humanoid spawn conceived for the Kamen Rider Series in 1971. This created a new splinter of the term, which quickly propagated through the popularity of superhero programs produced from the 1970s, forward. These kaijin possess rational thought and the power of speech, as do human beings. A successive kaijin menagerie, in diverse iterations, appeared over numerous series, most notably the Super Sentai programs premiering in 1975 (later carried over into Super Sentai's English iteration as Power Rangers in the 1990s).
This created yet another splinter, as the kaijin of Super Sentai have since evolved to feature unique forms and attributes (i.e. gigantism), existing somewhere between kaijin and kaiju.
Seijin (星人), literally "star people", appears within Japanese words for extraterrestrial aliens, such as Kaseijin (火星人), which means "Martian". Aliens can also be called uchūjin (宇宙人) which means "beings from space". But they only best well known in the Ultra Series.
Kaijū eiga (怪獣映画, "kaiju movie") is a film featuring one or more kaiju.
Toho has produced a variety of kaiju films over the years (many of which feature Godzilla, Rodan and Mothra); but other Japanese studios contributed to the genre by producing films and shows of their own: Daiei Film (Kadokawa Pictures), Tsuburaya Productions, and Shochiku and Nikkatsu Studios.
Eiji Tsuburaya, who was in charge of the special effects for Gojira, developed a technique to animate the kaiju that became known colloquially as "suitmation". Where Western monster movies often used stop motion to animate the monsters, Tsubaraya decided to attempt to create suits, called "creature suits", for a human (suit actor) to wear and act in. This was combined with the use of miniature models and scaled-down city sets to create the illusion of a giant creature in a city. Due to the extreme stiffness of the latex or rubber suits, filming would often be done at double speed, so that when the film was shown, the monster was smoother and slower than in the original shot. Kaiju films also used a form of puppetry interwoven between suitmation scenes which served for shots that were physically impossible for the suit actor to perform. From the 1998 release of Godzilla, American-produced kaiju films strayed from suitmation to computer-generated imagery (CGI). In Japan, CGI and stop-motion have been increasingly used for certain special sequences and monsters, but suitmation has been used for an overwhelming majority of kaiju films produced in Japan of all eras.
- The Lost World (1925)
- King Kong (1933)
- Son of Kong (1933)
- Wasei Kingu Kongu (1933)
- King Kong Appears in Edo (1938)
- The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms (1953)
- Godzilla series (1954–present)
- Godzilla (1954)
- Godzilla Raids Again (1955)
- King Kong vs. Godzilla (1962)
- Mothra vs. Godzilla (1964)
- Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (1964)
- Invasion of Astro-Monster (1965)
- Ebirah, Horror of the Deep (1966)
- Son of Godzilla (1967)
- Destroy All Monsters (1968)
- All Monsters Attack (1969)
- Godzilla vs. Hedorah (1971)
- Godzilla vs. Gigan (1972)
- Godzilla vs. Megalon (1973)
- Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla (1974)
- Terror of Mechagodzilla (1975)
- The Return of Godzilla (1984)
- Godzilla vs. Biollante (1989)
- Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah (1991)
- Godzilla vs. Mothra (1992)
- Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla II (1993)
- Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla (1994)
- Godzilla vs. Destoroyah (1995)
- Godzilla 2000: Millennium (1999)
- Godzilla vs. Megaguirus (2000)
- Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack (2001)
- Godzilla Against Mechagodzilla (2002)
- Godzilla: Tokyo S.O.S. (2003)
- Godzilla: Final Wars (2004)
- Shin Godzilla (2016)
- Godzilla: Planet of the Monsters (2017)
- Godzilla: City on the Edge of Battle (2018)
- Godzilla: The Planet Eater (2018)
- Half Human (1955)
- Tarantula (1955)
- It Came from Beneath the Sea (1955)
- Rodan (1956)
- The Deadly Mantis (1957)
- The Mysterians (1957)
- Kronos, Destroyer of the Universe (1957)
- 20 Million Miles to Earth (1957)
- The Black Scorpion (1957)
- Varan the Unbelievable (1958)
- The Giant Behemoth (1959)
- The Three Treasures (1959)
- Konga (1961)
- Konga TNT (2020)
- Reptilicus (1961)
- Mothra (1961)
- Gorgo (1961)
- Gorath (1962)
- Atragon (1963)
- Dogora (1964)
- Frankenstein Conquers the World (1965)
- Gamera: The Giant Monster (1965)
- The Magic Serpent (1966)
- Daimajin (1966)
- The War of the Gargantuas (1966)
- Ultra Series (1966 – present)
- Ultraman (1967)
- Ultraman, Ultraseven: Great Violent Monster Fight (1969)
- The 6 Ultra Brothers vs. the Monster Army (1974)
- Ultraman (1979)
- Ultraman: Great Monster Decisive Battle (1979)
- Ultraman Zoffy: Ultra Warriors vs. the Giant Monster Army (1984)
- Ultraman Story (1984)
- Ultraman: The Adventure Begins (1987)
- Ultra Q The Movie: Legend of the Stars (1990)
- Ultraman Zearth (1996)
- Ultraman Tiga & Ultraman Dyna: Warriors of the Star of Light (1998)
- Ultraman Gaia: The Battle in Hyperspace (1999)
- Ultraman Tiga: The Final Odyssey (2000)
- Ultraman Cosmos: The First Contact (2001)
- Ultraman Cosmos 2: The Blue Planet (2002)
- Ultraman Cosmos vs. Ultraman Justice: The Final Battle (2003)
- Ultraman: The Next (2004)
- Ultraman Mebius & Ultraman Brothers (2006)
- Superior Ultraman 8 Brothers (2008)
- Mega Monster Battle: Ultra Galaxy Legends (2009)
- Ultraman Zero: The Revenge of Belial (2010)
- Ultraman Saga (2012)
- Ultraman Ginga Theater Special (2013)
- Ultraman Ginga Theater Special: Ultra Monster Hero Battle Royal! (2014)
- Ultraman Ginga S The Movie (2015)
- Ultraman X The Movie (2016)
- Ultraman Orb The Movie (2017)
- Ultraman Geed The Movie (2018)
- Ultraman R/B The Movie (2019)
- Ultraman Taiga The Movie (2020)
- The X from Outer Space (1967)
- Gappa: The Triphibian Monster (1967)
- King Kong Escapes (1967)
- Yongary: Monster from the Deep (1967)
- Latitude Zero (1969)
- The Mighty Gorga (1969)
- Space Amoeba (1970)
- Daigoro vs. Goliath (1972)
- Jumborg Ace & Giant (1974)
- The Super Inframan (1975)
- King Kong (1976)
- King Kong Lives (1986)
- A*P*E (1976)
- Queen Kong (1976)
- The Last Dinosaur (1977)
- Legend of Dinosaurs & Monster Birds (1977)
- The Mighty Peking Man (1977)
- Q - The Winged Serpent (1982)
- Pulgasari (1985)
- Princess from the Moon (1987)
- Yamato Takeru (1994)
- Gamera: Guardian of the Universe (1995)
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie (1995)
- Rebirth of Mothra (1996)
- Zarkorr! The Invader (1996)
- Kraa! The Sea Monster (1998)
- Godzilla (1998)
- Yonggary (1999)
- Garuda (2004)
- King Kong (2005)
- Chousei Kantai Sazer-X the Movie: Fight! Star Warriors (2005)
- Negadon: The Monster from Mars (2005)
- Gamera the Brave (2006)
- The Host (2006)
- D-War (2007)
- Big Man Japan (2007)
- Deep Sea Monster Reigo (2008 Japan, 2020, America)
- Cloververse series (2008 - present)
- Mega Shark Versus Giant Octopus (2009)
- Reptisaurus (2009)
- Death Kappa (2010)
- Pacific Rim (2013)
- Pacific Rim: Uprising (2018)
- Atlantic Rim (film) (2013)
- Atlantic Rim: Resurrection (2018)
- Earth Defense Widow (2014)
- MonsterVerse series (2014–present)
- Outerman (2015)
- Queen Crab (2015)
- Attack on Titan(2015)
- Kaiju Mono (2016)
- Colossal (2017)
- Rampage (2018)
- The Asylum's Monster Island (2019)
- The Great Buddha Arrival (2019)
- Notzilla (2019)
- Howl From Beyond The Fog (2019)
- Monster Seafood Wars (2020)
- Nezura 1964 (2020 later 2021)
- Rumble (2021)
- Cloverfield/Kishin (Kadokawa Shoten; 2008)
- Go Nagai Creator of Kaijus
- Attack on Titan (Kodansha; 2009–present)
- Kaiju Girl Caramelise (2018)
- Neon Genesis Evangelion (Kadokawa Shoten; 1994 – 2013)
- ULTRAMAN (Shogakukan; 2011–present)
- 8Kaiju (Shonen Jump; 2020–present)
- Nemesis Saga by Jeremy Robinson (St Martins Press/Breakneck Media; 2013–2016). A series of six novel featuring Nemesis, Karkinos, Typhon, Scylla, Drakon, Scryon, Giger, Lovecraft, Ashtaroth and Hyperion (Mechakaiju)
- Godzilla comics (Toho; 1976–present)
- Tokyo Storm Warning (Wildstorm; 2003)
- Kaijumax (Oni Press; 2015–present)
- The Stone King (ComiXology Original; 2018–present)
- Dinosaurs Attack! (Topps Comics/IDW; 1988, 2013)
- The Nemesis Saga comics by Jeremy Robinson and Matt Franks (American Gothic Press/IDW Publishing; 2015–2016)
- Giant Nakedman Againts Evil Bot, Monsters (Selection Others; 2021)
- Godzilla video games (Toho; 1983–present)
- Ultraman video games (Tsuburaya; 1984–present)
- Gamera Video games (Kadokawa of Games; 1995–present as North American released)
- Time Gal (Taito; 1985)
- Simulator Kaiju Destroy and Combats (name owned by its Other Published; 2021, 2022)
- King of the Monsters (SNK; 1991)
- Rampage (1986) (formerly owned by Midway Games and now owned by its successor Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment; 2021)
- Dawn of the Monsters (13AM Games, 2021)
- GigaBash (Passion Republic, 2020, 2021)
- Giant Animals Enormous to RageCombats (name owned by its Other Published; 2021, 2022)
- Third KaijuTeam Multiversal World for Switch (Kaijuworld Pubilsher; 2021, 2022)
- Robot Alchemic Drive (Sandlot; 2002)
- Titan Beastrage for Switch (Atypical Games; 2021)
- War of the Monsters (Sony, Incognito Entertainment; 2003)
- Peter Jackson's King Kong (2005)
- Pacific Rim video game (Yuke's/Reliance; 2013)
- City Shrouded in Shadow (Bandai Namco Entertainment; 2017)
- Colossal Kaiju Combat (Sunstone Games; 2015) – was Replaced and Spiritual Successor Title game by Gigabash
- Fight Crab (2020-21, – stage City rampage)
- DAIKAIJU DAIKESSEN (2019, 2021, OneSecretPseudo)
- Fight Giant Animals (2021–22,)
- Marine Kong (Nisan Productions; April 3 – September 25, 1960)
- Ultra Series (Tsuburaya Productions; January 2, 1966 – present)
- Ambassador Magma (P Productions; July 4, 1966 – September 25, 1967)
- The King Kong Show (Toei Animation; September 10, 1966 – August 31, 1969)
- Kaiju Booska (Tsuburaya Productions; November 9, 1966 – September 27, 1967)
- Captain Ultra (Toei Company; April 16 – September 24, 1967)
- Kaiju Ouji (P Productions; October 2, 1967 – March 25, 1968)
- Giant Robo (Toei Company; October 11, 1967 – April 1, 1968)
- Giant Phantom Monster Agon (Nippon Television; January 2 – 8, 1968)
- Mighty Jack (Tsuburaya Productions; April 6 – June 29, 1968)
- Spectreman (P Productions; January 2, 1971 – March 25, 1972)
- Kamen Rider (Toei Company; April 3, 1971 – present)
- Silver Kamen (Senkosha Productions; November 28, 1971 – May 21, 1972)
- Mirrorman (Tsuburaya Productions; December 5, 1971 – November 26, 1972)
- Redman (Tsuburaya Productions; April 3 – September 8, 1972)
- Thunder Mask (Nippon Television; October 3, 1972 – March 27, 1973)
- Ike! Godman (Toho Company; October 5, 1972 – April 10, 1973)
- Assault! Human!! (Toho Company; October 7 – December 30, 1972)
- Iron King (Senkosha Productions; October 8, 1972 – April 8, 1973)
- Jumborg Ace (Tsuburaya Productions; January 17 – December 29, 1973)
- Fireman (Tsuburaya Productions; January 17 – July 31, 1973)
- Zone Fighter (Toho Company; April 2 – September 24, 1973)
- Super Robot Red Baron (Nippon Television; July 4, 1973 – March 27, 1974)
- Kure Kure Takora (Toho Company; October 1, 1973 – September 27, 1974)
- Ike! Greenman (Toho Company; November 12, 1973 – September 27, 1974)
- Super Robot Mach Baron (Nippon Television; October 7, 1974 – March 31, 1975)
- Super Sentai (Toei Company; April 5, 1975 – present)
- Dinosaur War Izenborg (Tsuburaya Productions; October 17, 1977 – June 30, 1978)
- Spider-Man (Toei Company; May 17, 1978 – March 14, 1979)
- Godzilla (Hanna-Barbera; September 9, 1978 – December 8, 1979)
- Megaloman (Toho Company; May 7 – December 24, 1979)
- Metal Hero Series (Toei Company; March 5, 1982 – January 24, 1999)
- Godzilland (Toho Company; 1992 – 1996)
- Denkou Choujin Gridman (Tsuburaya Productions; April 3, 1993 – January 8, 1994)
- Power Rangers (Hasbro; August 28, 1993 – present)
- Superhuman Samurai Syber-Squad (DIC Entertainment; September 12, 1994 – April 11, 1995)
- Neon Genesis Evangelion (Gainax; October 4, 1995 – March 27, 1996)
- Godzilla Kingdom (Toho Company; October 1, 1996 – August 15, 1997)
- Godzilla Island (Toho Company; October 6, 1997 – September 30, 1998)
- Godzilla: The Series (Sony Pictures Television; September 12, 1998 – April 22, 2000)
- Godzilla TV (Toho Company; October 1999 – March 2000)
- Kong: The Animated Series (BKN; September 9, 2000 – March 26, 2001)
- Tekkōki Mikazuki (Media Factory; October 23, 2000 – March 24, 2001)
- SFX Giant Legend: Line (Independent; April 25 – May 26, 2003)
- Chouseishin Series (Toho Company; October 4, 2003 – June 24, 2006)
- Bio Planet WoO (Tsuburaya Productions; April 9 – August 13, 2006)
- Geharha: The Dark and Long Hair Monster (2009)
- Daimajin Kanon (Kadokawa Pictures; April 2 – October 1, 2010)
- SciFi Japan TV (ACTV Japan; August 10, 2012 – present)
- Kong: King of the Apes (Netflix; April 15, 2016 – May 4, 2018)
- SSSS.Gridman (Tsuburaya Productions; October 7 – December 23, 2018)
- Godziban (Toho Company; August 9, 2019 – present)
- Batholith The Summit Kaiju (Summit Kaiju International; July 07, 2017 – present)
- Steven Spielberg cited Godzilla as an inspiration for Jurassic Park (1993), specifically Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956), which he saw in his youth. During its production, Spielberg described Godzilla as "the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was really happening." One scene in the second movie (The Lost World: Jurassic Park), the T-Rex is rampaging through San Diego, One scene shows Japanese businessmen fleeing. One of them states that they left Japan to get away from this, hinting that Godzilla shares the same universe as the Jurassic Park movies. Godzilla also influenced the Spielberg film Jaws (1975).
- In the Japanese language original of Cardcaptor Sakura anime series, Sakura's brother Toya likes to tease her by regularly calling her "kaiju", relating to her noisily coming down from her room for breakfast every morning.
- The Polish cartoon TV series Bolek and Lolek makes a reference to the kaiju film industry in the mini-series "Bolek and Lolek's Great Journey" by featuring a robot bird (similar to Rodan) and a saurian monster (in reference to Godzilla) as part of a Japanese director's monster star repertoire.
- Alternate versions of several kaiju - Godzilla, Mothra, Gamera, King Ghidorah and Daimajin - appear in the Usagi Yojimbo "Sumi-e" story arc.
- In the second season of Star Wars: The Clone Wars, there is a story arc composed of two episodes entitled "The Zillo Beast" and "The Zillo Beast Strikes Back", mostly influenced by Godzilla films, in which a huge reptilian beast is transported from its homeworld Malastare to the city-covered planet Coruscant, where it breaks loose and goes on a rampage.
- In Return of the Jedi, the rancor was originally to be played by an actor in a suit similar to the way how kaiju films like Godzilla were made. However, the rancor was eventually portrayed by a puppet filmed in high speed.
- In The Simpsons episode "Treehouse of Horror VI" segment "Attack of the 50-Foot Eyesores", Homer goes to Lard Lad Donuts; unable to get a "Colossal Doughnut" as advertised, he steals Lard Lad's donut, awakening other giant advertising statues that come to life to terrorize Springfield. When Lard Lad awakes, he makes a Godzilla roar. Guillermo del Toro directed the Treehouse of Horror XXIV couch gag which made multiple references to Godzilla and other kaiju-based characters, including his own Pacific Rim characters.
- The South Park episode "Mecha-Streisand" features parodies of Mechagodzilla, Gamera, Ultraman, and Mothra.
- Aqua Teen Hunger Force Colon Movie Film for Theaters features the "Insanoflex", a giant robot exercise machine rampaging downtown.
- In the 2009 film Crank: High Voltage, there is a sequence parodying kaiju films using the same practical effects techniques used for tokusatsu films such as miniatures and suitmation.
- The Japanese light novel series Gate makes use of the term kaiju as a term for giant monsters - specifically an ancient Fire Dragon - in the Special Region. Also, one of the Japanese protagonists refers to the JSDF's tradition to fight such monsters in the films, as well as comparing said dragon with King Ghidorah at one point.
- Godzilla and Gamera had been referenced and appear many times throughout the Dr. Slump series.
- In Penn Zero: Part-Time Hero, there is a dimension that is filled with giant monsters that live on one island where they co-exist with humans that live on a city island.
- On 18 May 2018, US artist Space Laces released a Bass House song title "Kaiju", released by Never Say Die Records as a part of his album Overdrive.
- In "Sorcerous Stabber Orphen" series kaiju are sent as a form of punishment for the breakage of everlasting laws of the world by the Goddesses of Fate.
- In the "Nemesis Saga" series of novels, Kaiju, also known as Gestorumque, are genetic weapons sent by an alien race.
- "Introduction to Kaiju [in Japanese]". dic-pixiv. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- "A Study of Chinese monster culture - Mysterious animals that proliferates in present age media [in Japanese]". Hokkai-Gakuen University. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- Glanzman, Sam. Red Range: A Wild Western Adventure. Joe R. Lansdale. IDW Publishing. ISBN 978-1684062904. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
- "怪世界 : 珍談奇話". NDL Digital Collections.
- Foster, Michael (1998). The Book of Yokai: Mysterious Creatures of Japanese Folklore. Oakland: University of California Press.
- Mustachio, Camille. Giant Creatures in Our World: Essays on Kaiju and American Popular Culture. Jason Barr. McFarland. ISBN 978-1476668369. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
- Martin, Tim (May 15, 2014). "Godzilla: Why the Japanese original is no joke". Telegraph. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Harvey, Ryan (December 16, 2013). "A History of Godzilla on Film, Part 1: Origins (1954–1962)". Black Gate. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- Ryfle, Steve (1998). Japan's Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. ECW Press.
- Yoda, Tomiko; Harootunian, Harry (2006). Japan After Japan: Social and Cultural Life from the Recessionary 1990s to the Present. Duke University Press Books. p. 344. ISBN 9780822388609.
- Weinstock, Jeffery (2014) The Ashgate Encyclopedia of Literary and Cinematic Monsters. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.
- Godziszewski, Ed (September 5, 2006). "Making of the Godzilla Suit". Classic Media 2006 DVD Special Features. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Allison, Anne (2006) Snake Person Monsters: Japanese Toys and the Global Imagination. Oakland: University of California Press
- Failes, Ian (October 14, 2016). "The History of Godzilla Is the History of Special Effects". Inverse. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Ryfle, Steve (1998). Japan's Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. ECW Press. p. 15. ISBN 9781550223484.
- Ryfle, Steve (1998). Japan's Favorite Mon-star: The Unauthorized Biography of "The Big G". ECW Press. p. 17. ISBN 9781550223484.
- Freer, Ian (2001). The Complete Spielberg. Virgin Books. p. 48. ISBN 9780753505564.
- Derry, Charles (1977). Dark Dreams: A Psychological History of the Modern Horror Film. A. S. Barnes. p. 82. ISBN 9780498019159.
- Cardcaptor Sakura, season 1 episode 1: "Sakura and the Mysterious Magic Book"; season 1 episode 15: "Sakura and Kero's Big Fight"
- Usagi Yojimbo Vol.3 #66-68: "Sumi-e, Parts 1-3"
- ""The Zillo Beast" Episode Guide". Archived from the original on July 4, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- ""The Zillo Beast Strikes Back" Episode Guide". Archived from the original on June 28, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- "The Cinema Behind Star Wars: Godzilla". Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- Gate: Jieitai Kano Chi nite, Kaku Tatakaeri, book I: "Contact", chapters II and V
- Gate: Jieitai Kano Chi nite, Kaku Tatakaeri (anime series) episode 2: "Two Military Forces", episode 3: "Fire Dragon", and episode 4: "To Unknown Lands"
- "Kaiju (Original Mix) by Space Laces on Beatport". www.beatport.com. Retrieved 2018-07-11.
- Mizuno, Ryou (2019). Sorcerous Stabber Orphen Anthology. Commentary (in Japanese). TO Books. p. 236. ISBN 9784864728799.