Implementation Force

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Implementation Force
Insignia NATO Army IFOR.svg
Pocket badge of the IFOR
Active1995–1996
Country32 countries
TypeCommand
Part ofNATO

The Implementation Force (IFOR) was a NATO-led multinational peace enforcement force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour.

Background

NATO was responsible to the United Nations (UN) for carrying out the Dayton Peace Accords. The Dayton Peace Accords were started on 22 November 1995 by the presidents of Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia, on behalf of Serbia and the Bosnian Serb Republic. The actual signing happened in Paris on 14 December 1995. The peace accords contained a General Framework Agreement and eleven supporting annexes with maps. The accords had three major goals: ending of hostilities, authorization of military and civilian program going into effect, and the establishment of a central Bosnian government while excluding individuals that serve sentences or under indictment by the International War Crimes Tribunals from taking part in the running of the government. IFOR's specific role was to implement the military Annexes of The General Framework Agreement for Peace (GFAP) in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[1]

IFOR relieved the UN peacekeeping force UNPROFOR, which had originally arrived in 1992, and the transfer of authority was discussed in Security Council Resolution 1031. Almost 60,000 NATO soldiers in addition to forces from non-NATO nations were deployed to Bosnia. Operation Decisive Endeavor (SACEUR OPLAN 40105), beginning 6 December 1995, was a subcomponent of Joint Endeavor.[2]

The Dayton Agreement resulted from a long series of events. Notably, the failures of EU-led peace plans, the August 1995 Croat Operation Storm and expelling 200.000 Serb civilians, the Bosnian Serb war crimes, in particular the Srebrenica massacre, and the seizure of UNPROFOR peace-keepers as human shields against NATO's Operation Deliberate Force.[3]

Admiral Leighton W. Smith, Jr. (Commander in Chief Allied Forces Southern Europe [CINCSOUTH]) acted as the Joint Force Commander for the operation (also known as Commander IFOR (COMIFOR)). He commanded the operation from HQs in Zagreb and later from March 1996 from the Residency in Sarajevo.[4] Lt Gen Michael Walker, Commander Allied Rapid Reaction Corps (ARRC) acted as the Land Component Commander for the Operation, commanding from HQ ARRC (Forward) based initially in Kiseljak and from late January 1996 from HQ ARRC (Main) Ilidža. This was NATO's first ever out-of-area land deployment. The Land Component's part of the operation was known as Operation Firm Endeavour.[5]

At its height, IFOR involved troops from 32 countries and numbered some 54,000 soldiers in-country (BiH) and around 80,000 involved soldiers in total (with support and reserve troops stationed in Croatia, Hungary, Germany, and Italy and also on ships in the Adriatic Sea). In the initial phases of the operation, much of the initial composition of IFOR consisted of units which had been part of UNPROFOR but remained in place and simply replaced their United Nations insignia with IFOR insignia.[citation needed]

Components

Map of the International Sectors under the Peace Agreement.

NATO member states that contributed forces included Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Non-NATO nations that contributed forces included; Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, the Czech Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden, Russia, and Ukraine.[6]

The tasks of the Land Component were carried out by three Multi National Divisions:

On 20 December 1996, the task of IFOR was taken over by SFOR.[13] In turn, SFOR was replaced by the European EUFOR Althea force in 2004.[14]

NATO began to create service medals once it began to support peacekeeping in the former Yugoslavia, which led to the award to IFOR troops of the NATO Medal.[15]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The General Framework Agreement for Peace (GFAP) in Bosnia and Herzegovina
  2. ^ Federation of American Scientists Archived 26 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "NATO AIRCRAFT ATTACK BOSNIAN-SERB TANK" (Press release). NATO. 22 September 1994.
  4. ^ SFOR leaves Residency Compound
  5. ^ Operational Analysis Support to NATO IFOR/SFOR Operations
  6. ^ Clark, A.L. (1996). Bosnia: What Every American Should Know. New York: Berkley Books.
  7. ^ The Multinational Division South-East in Bosnia Archived 28 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "British Forces Bosnia". Hansard. 18 July 1996. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
  9. ^ "Army senior appointments". United Kingdom Government News. 23 July 2002. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
  10. ^ Lord, p. 304
  11. ^ An account of the interactions of the Americans and Russians in Bosnia in 1996 may be found in James Nelson, Bosnia Journal: An American Civilian's Account of His Service With the 1st Armored Division and the Russian brigade in Bosnia.
  12. ^ Baumann, Robert F.; George W. Gawrych; Walter E. Kretchik (2004). Armed Peacekeepers in Bosnia. DIANE Publishing. p. 192. ISBN 1-4289-1020-4. via Google Books
  13. ^ "History of the NATO-led Stabilisation Force (SFOR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina". NATO. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
  14. ^ Hawton, Nick (October 23, 2004). "EU troops prepare for Bosnia swap". BBC News. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
  15. ^ "NATO Medal for Former Yugoslavia (NATO-FY)". National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces. July 22, 2015. Retrieved December 18, 2018.