Hostage diplomacy

Wolf warrior diplomacy Economic diplomacy Diplomacy

Hostage diplomacy, also hostage-diplomacy,[1] is the taking of hostages for diplomatic purposes.

Overview

Hostage diplomacy is the taking of hostages for diplomatic purposes.[2] It is an asymmetric tool of diplomacy.[3][better source needed]

Modern examples

China

From 1967 to 1969 the PRC kept two dozen British diplomats and civilians as de facto hostages. The British were able to effect the release of their personnel by decoupling the hostage situation from broader political and economic issues through protracted negotiation.[2]

It is widely believed that China detained two Canadians in response to the arrest of Meng Wanzhou.[4][5][6] In 2019, Australian Yang Hengjun's detention was also linked to a renewed effort at hostage diplomacy in response to the arrest of Meng Wanzhou. Prior to Hengjun's detention Australian government had sharply criticized the Chinese government for detaining the two Canadians.[7][8][9] The 2020 arrest of the Australian news anchor Cheng Lei has been viewed as a possible incidence of hostage diplomacy.[10]

The Lowy Institute has concluded that China’s use of hostage diplomacy, among other things, undermine’s their “peaceful rise” narrative.[11] The Taiwanese government has expressed concerns that the Hong Kong national security law will be used to facilitate further Chinese hostage diplomacy.[12]

Turkey

According to Eric Edelman and Aykan Erdemir of the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, hostage diplomacy has been widely used by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.[13] The case of Andrew Brunson, an American pastor working in Turkey imprisoned in 2016, has been widely referred to as a case of diplomatic hostage taking.[14]

Iran

Modern Iranian hostage diplomacy began soon after the Iranian revolution with the Iran hostage crisis.[15]

Iran's government has used hostage diplomacy as a key diplomatic tool. Hostages have included, Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe, Jolie King, Kylie Moore-Gilbert, Morad Tahbaz, Kamal Foroughi, Aras Amiri, Kameel Ahmady, and Anousheh Ashouri.[16]

North Korea

North Korea has made wide use of hostage diplomacy as a tool against the USA, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia and various European nations.[17][18][19] Those held hostage are often tourists or exchange students who are either charged with minor offenses or espionage.[20] In recent years it has been speculated that the regime of Kim Jong Un had evolved from using hostages to gain leverage to using hostages to gain leverage and as human shields to protect against a feared American intervention.[21] The case of Otto Warmbier, which ended in Warmbier’s death soon after his release, is a particularly well known example of North Korean hostage diplomacy.[17][18]

See also

References

  1. ^ Osofsky, Hari M. (1998). "Understanding "Hostage-Diplomacy": e Release of Wei Jingsheng and Wang Dan". Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal. 1 (1): 143–147. Archived from the original on 18 December 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  2. ^ a b Mark, Chi-Kwan (2009). "Hostage Diplomacy: Britain, China, and the Politics of Negotiation, 1967–1969". Diplomacy & Statecraft. 20 (3): 473–493. doi:10.1080/09592290903293803.
  3. ^ Rezaian, Jason. "Iran's hostage factory". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  4. ^ Fullerton, Jamie (2019-12-08). "Canadians mark one year in Chinese detention as 'diplomatic hostages'". The Telegraph. The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 25 December 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  5. ^ Ong, Lynette. "China Is Shooting Itself in the Foot Over Huawei". foreignpolicy.com. Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  6. ^ Kuo, Lily (2019-01-15). "'Hostage' diplomacy: Canadian's death sentence in China sets worrying tone, experts say". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  7. ^ Medcalf, Rory. "Arrest of Yang Hengjun drags Australia into China's hostage diplomacy". nsc.crawford.anu.edu.au. Australian National University. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  8. ^ Dixon, Robyn (2019-01-24). "China's arrest of Australian writer is called 'hostage diplomacy'". latimes.com. The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  9. ^ Panda, Ankit. "China's 'Hostage Diplomacy' Cannot Be Allowed to Stand". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  10. ^ "'Tit-for-tat': China's detention of Australian Cheng Lei is ringing alarm bells". the Guardian. 2020-09-05. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  11. ^ MICHAEL J. MAZARR, ALI WYNE and. "The real US–China competition: Competing theories of influence". The real US–China competition: Competing theories of influence. The Lowy Institute. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  12. ^ "Taiwan fears China 'hostage diplomacy' through Hong Kong security law". channelnewsasia.com. CNA. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  13. ^ Eric Edelman, Aykan Erdemir &. "Erdogan's Hostage Diplomacy: Western Nationals in Turkish Prison" (PDF). s3.us-east-2.amazonaws.com. Foundation for the Defense of Democracy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  14. ^ CUPOLO, DIEGO (2018-05-06). "Turkey's Dangerous Game of 'Hostage Diplomacy'". theatlantic.com. The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  15. ^ Philip, Catherine. "Kylie Moore-Gilbert: Iran uses crises to get what it wants". thetimes.co.uk. The Times. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  16. ^ Staff, Foreign (2019-09-11). "Iran's 'hostage diplomacy': All the known detainees with British links". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  17. ^ a b Bock Clark, Doug. "The Untold Story of Otto Warmbier an American Hostage". gq.com. GQ. Archived from the original on 1 August 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  18. ^ a b Sang-Hun, Choe (2017-06-20). "Otto Warmbier's Death a New Wedge Between U.S. and North Korea". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  19. ^ "North Korea is holding our citizens hostage, says Malaysia's PM Najib, after tit-for-tat travel bans". scmp.com. South China Morning Post. 2017-03-07. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  20. ^ Min-yong, Lee. "https://thediplomat.com/2017/05/countering-north-koreas-hostage-diplomacy/". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019. External link in |title= (help)
  21. ^ Saphora Smith, Stella Kim and. "North Korea's 'Hostage Diplomacy': Kim Uses Detained Americans as Leverage". nbcnews.com. NBC News. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019.