(by ancestry, 2016 Census)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Mostly Quebec, with smaller populations in Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia|
|Predominantly Roman Catholicism and Protestantism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Haitians, French Canadians, Black Canadians, Haitian Americans|
Citizens from the Francophone Caribbean island nation of Haiti began immigrating to Canada in the 1960s, settling predominantly in Montreal, Laval, Ottawa and smaller cities in Quebec. Their choice to settle in Quebec is mainly due to their fluency in French. The Canada 2016 Census showed a total population of 165,095 Haitian-Canadians residing in Canada.
Haitian Migration to Canada
Immigration from Haiti to Quebec started in 1963. Haitian settlement in the Quebec municipality Montreal increased about 40% between the late 1960s and the early 1970s. Immigration data from 1968 shows that Haiti placed fifteenth in overall origin countries outputting migrants to Quebec; in addition, Haiti had 1.6% of the total immigration percentage of Quebec in 1968. In the span of five years, Haiti became the 2nd overall source country for Quebec immigration, possessing 8.4% of the total immigration percentage of Quebec in 1973.
The impact of Nationalism and Political Tension in Haiti on Immigration
The migration of Haitian immigrants between 1969 and 1974 can be understood through the political institutions in place within Haiti at the time. Haiti was governed by way of a dictatorship, led by Francois Duvalier. Duvalier had been contested by the left-leaning Unified Party of Haitian Communists, who failed in resisting Duvalier's authoritarian regime. Duvalier's death and the subsequent succession of his son Jean-Claude Duvalier led to the notion of “patriotic action”, a declaration of nationalism directed towards Haitian Canadian and Haitian American immigrants, as well as a call to action in assisting their Haitian brethren. Haitian Canadians joined forces with their home country brethren in some cases to assist in the "“resolution of the Haitian crisis” and to attempt to establish greater leftist political power. The idea of “patriotic action” finalized with the potential deportation faced by around 700 Haitian Canadians from 1972 to 1973. These Haitian Québécois joined forces under a protest movement in regards to their rights as citizens; these protests were organized by the Christian community of Haitians of Montreal.
|Number of Haitian nationals granted permanent residence in Canada by year|
|Year||Number of Haitian nationals admitted||Total number of permanent residents admitted||Proportion of permanent residents admitted|
Notable Haitian Canadians
- Canada–Haiti relations
- Haitian diaspora
- Haitian Americans
- List of Haitians
- List of Haitian Americans
- Black Canadians in Montreal
- Statistics Canada. "Census Profile, 2016 Census (Canada [Country])". Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- Jadotte, Herard (June 1977). "Haitian Immigration to Quebec". Journal of Black Studies. 7 (4): 485–500. doi:10.1177/002193477700700407. JSTOR 2783949.
- Thérien, Jean-Phillipe; Mace, Gordon (Summer 2013). "Identity and Foreign Polity: Canada as a Nation of the Americas". Latin American Politics and Society. 55 (2): 150–168. doi:10.1111/j.1548-2456.2013.00197.x. JSTOR 43286320.
- "Facts and figures 2011 – Immigration overview: Permanent and temporary residents". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Archived from the original on December 30, 2012.