H. A. L. Fisher
|Member of Parliament|
for Sheffield Hallam
23 December 1916 – 14 December 1918
|Preceded by||Charles Stuart-Wortley|
|Succeeded by||Douglas Vickers|
|President of the Board of Education|
10 December 1916 – 19 October 1922
|Prime Minister||David Lloyd George|
|Preceded by||The Marquess of Crewe|
|Succeeded by||E. F. L. Wood|
|Born||21 March 1865|
|Died||18 April 1940(aged 75)|
|Spouse(s)||Lettice Fisher (1875–1956)|
|Relatives||Herbert William Fisher (father)
Florence Henrietta Fisher (sister)
Arthur Alexander Fisher (brother)
Emmeline Mary Fisher (sister)
Adeline Maria Fisher (sister)
Edmund Fisher (brother)
Hervey George Stanhope Fisher (brother)
William Wordsworth Fisher (brother)
Charles Dennis Fisher (brother)
Cordelia Fisher (sister)
Edwin Fisher (brother)Mary Bennett (daughter)
|Alma mater||New College, Oxford|
Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher  (21 March 1865 – 18 April 1940) was an English historian, educator, and Liberal politician. He served as President of the Board of Education in David Lloyd George's 1916 to 1922 coalition government.
Background and education
Fisher was born in London, the eldest son of Herbert William Fisher (1826–1903), author of Considerations on the Origin of the American War and his wife Mary Louisa Jackson (1841–1916). His sister Adeline Maria Fisher was the first wife of the composer Ralph Vaughan Williams, another sister Florence Henrietta Fisher married both Frederic William Maitland and Francis Darwin. Fisher was a first cousin of Virginia Woolf and her sister Vanessa Bell (the children of his mother's sister Julia). He was educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford, where he graduated with a first class degree in 1888 and was awarded a fellowship.
Fisher was a tutor in modern history at the University of Oxford. His publications include Bonapartism (1908), The Republican Tradition in Europe (1911) and Napoleon (1913). In September 1912, he was appointed (with Lord Islington, Lord Ronaldshay, Justice Abdur Rahim, and others) as a member of the Royal Commission on the Public Services in India of 1912–1915. Between 1913 and 1917 he was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sheffield.
In December 1916 Fisher was elected Member of Parliament for Sheffield Hallam and joined the government of David Lloyd George as President of the Board of Education. He was sworn of the Privy Council the same month. In this post he was instrumental in the formulation of the Education Act 1918, which made school attendance compulsory for children up to the age of 14. Fisher was also responsible for the School Teachers (Superannuation) Act 1918, which provided pension provision for all teachers.
Fisher resigned his seat in parliament through appointment as Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds on 15 February 1926, retiring from politics to take up the post of warden of New College, Oxford, which he held until his death. There he published a three-volume History of Europe (ISBN 0-00-636506-X) in 1935. He served on the British Academy, the British Museum, the Rhodes Trustees, the National Trust, the Governing Body of Winchester, the London Library and the BBC. He was awarded the 1927 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for his biography James Bryce, Viscount Bryce of Dechmont, O.M. and received the Order of Merit in 1937.
Fisher died in St Thomas's Hospital, London, on 18 April 1940 after having been knocked down by a lorry and seriously injured the previous week, while on his way to sit on a Conscientious Objectors' Tribunal during the blackout. Some of his possessions, including his library and some of his clothing, remained at New College.
In 1943, Operation Mincemeat, a British Intelligence operation to deceive enemy forces, undertook the invention of a false Royal Marines officer, whose body was to be dropped at sea in the hope the false intelligence it carried would be believed. As the fictitious Major Martin was to be a man of some means, he required quality underwear, but with rationing this was difficult to obtain, and the intelligence officers were unwilling to donate their own. Fisher's was obtained, and the corpse used in the deception, dressed in Fisher's quality woollen underpants, succeeded in misleading German Intelligence.
A portrait drawing of Fisher by Catharine Dodgson and an oil portrait portrait by William Nicholson (artist) hang at New College, Oxford. The College also possess a conversation piece by Berthe Noufflard of Fisher, Lettice Ilbert, and Mary Bennett.
- Frederic William Maitland
- Henry James Sumner Maine
- Paul Vinogradoff
- Liberalism in the United Kingdom
- The Medieval Empire, Vol. 2, Macmillan & Co., 1898.
- Studies in Napoleonic Statesmanship: Germany, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1903.
- The History of England, from the Accession of Henry VII to the Death of Henry VIII, 1485–1547, Longmans, Green & Co., 1906.
- Bonapartism; Six Lectures Delivered in the University of London, Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1908.
- The Republican Tradition in Europe, Methuen & Co., 1911.
- Napoleon, H. Holt and Company, 1913 [1st Pub. 1912].
- Studies in History and Politics, Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1920.
- The Common Weal, Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924.
- Our New Religion, Ernest Benn, 1929. An examination of Christian Science.
- "Fustel de Coulanges," The English Historical Review, Vol. V, 1890.
- "The Political Writings of Rousseau," The Edinburgh Review, Vol. CCXXIV, N°. 457, July 1916.
- The Value of Small States, Oxford Pamphlets, N°. 17, Oxford University Press, 1914.
- The British Share in the War, T. Nelson & Sons, 1915.
- Political Prophecies. An Address to the Edinburg Philosophical Society Delivered Nov. 5, 1918, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1919.
- The Place of the University in National Life, Oxford University Press, 1919.
- Paul Valéry, Oxford, The Clarendon Press, 1927.
- What to Read on Citizenship, Leeds, Jowett & Sowry Ltd., 1928.
- Murray, G. (1941). "Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher. 1865-1940". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 3 (10): 518–526. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1941.0019.
- H.A.L. Fisher: A History of Europe, Volume II: From the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century to 1935, Glasgow: Fontana/Collins, 1984, p. i.
- Herbert Fisher
- "No. 28642". The London Gazette. 6 September 1912. p. 6631.
- Helen Mathers: Steel City Scholars: The Centenary History of the University of Sheffield, London: James & James, 2005
- "THE HOUSE OF COMMONS CONSTITUENCIES BEGINNING WITH "H"". Leighrayment.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- "No. 29865". The London Gazette. 15 December 1916. p. 12227.
- "No. 29875". The London Gazette. 22 December 1916. p. 12471.
- Joyce, Rosaleen. Outdoor Learning: Past And Present: Past and Present. Books.google.co.uk. p. 81. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- "THE HOUSE OF COMMONS CONSTITUENCIES BEGINNING WITH "C"". Leighrayment.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- "Obituaries." Times [London, England] 19 April 1940: 9. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 29 May 2012
- "Biography winners Winners of the James Tait Black Prize for Biography". The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- "Order of Merit". Leighrayment.com. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- Rachel Barker: Conscience, Government and War, Routledge, 1982
- Randolph Spencer Churchill; Martin Gilbert (1983). Winston S. Churchill: 1922–1939, the prophet of youth. Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Macintyre, Ben (14 January 2010). "Operation Mincemeat: full story of how corpse tricked the Nazis". The Times.
- Operation Mincemeat, BBC Four, 22 February 2011
- This particular copy from the Wellcome Library belonged to Charles Kellaway, complete with a Sydney bookseller's stamp.