Gwangju

Gyeonggi Seoul Incheon

Gwangju

광주시
Gwangju Metropolitan City
광주광역시
  transcription(s)
 • Hangul광주
 • Hanja
 • Revised RomanizationGwangju-gwangyeoksi
 • McCune-ReischauerKwangju-kwangyŏksi
Downtown Gwangju from city hall
Downtown Gwangju from city hall
Flag of Gwangju
Flag
Official logo of Gwangju
Seal
Country South Korea
RegionHonam
Districts5
Government
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • MayorLee Yong-seop (Democratic)
 • BodyGwangju Metropolitan Council
Area
 • Total501.24 km2 (193.53 sq mi)
Population
 (October, 2018[1])
 • Total1,490,092
 • Density3,000/km2 (7,700/sq mi)
 • Dialect
Jeolla
ISO 3166 codeKR-29
FlowerRoyal Azalea
TreeGinkgo
BirdDove
GDPUS$ 36.7 billion[2]
GDP per capitaUS$24,520[2]
Websitegwangju.go.kr

Gwangju[a] (Korean pronunciation: [kwaŋ.dʑu]) is the sixth-largest city in South Korea. It is a designated metropolitan city under the direct control of the central government's Home Minister. The city was also the capital of South Jeolla Province until the provincial office moved to the southern village of Namak in Muan County in 2005 because Gwangju was promoted to a metropolitan city and was independent of South Jeolla province.

Its name is composed of the words Gwang (Korean; Hanja) meaning "light" and Ju (; ) meaning "province." Gwangju was historically recorded as Muju (무주; 武州), in which "Silla merged all of the land to establish the provinces of Gwangju, Ungju, Jeonju, Muju and various counties, plus the southern boundary of Goguryeo and the ancient territories of Silla" in the Samguk Sagi.[4] In the heart of the agricultural Jeolla region, the city is also famous for its rich and diverse cuisine.

History

A memorial to commemorate the lives lost in the 1980 Gwangju uprising.

The city was established in 57 BC. It was one of the administrative centres of Baekje during the Three Kingdoms Period.[5]

In 1929, during the period of Imperial Japanese rule, a confrontation between Korean and Japanese students in the city turned into Gwangju Student Independence Movement, a regional demonstration, which culminated in one of the major nationwide uprisings against Imperial Japanese cruelty during the colonial period.

The modern industry was established in Gwangju with the construction of a railway to Seoul. Some of the industries that took hold include cotton textiles, rice mills and breweries. Construction of a designated industrial zone in 1967 encouraged growth in industry, especially in the sectors linked to the automobile industry.

In May 1980, peaceful demonstrations took place in Gwangju against Chun Doo-hwan, leader of the military coup d'état of 12 December 1979. The demonstrations were suppressed by military forces, including elite units of the Special Operations Command. The situation escalated after a violent crackdown, resulting in the Gwangju Uprising, where civilians raided armories and armed themselves. By the time the uprising was suppressed 9 days later, many hundreds of civilians and several police forces / soldiers were dead. After civilian rule was reinstated in 1987, a national cemetery was established, honouring the victims of the incident.[6] Now the South Korean constitution admits the Gwangju Uprising as a root of South Korean democracy.

In 1986, Gwangju separated from Jeollanam-do to become a Directly Governed City (Jikhalsi), and then became a Metropolitan City (Gwangyeoksi) in 1995.[5]

Due to a variety of factors, including the ancient rivalry between Baekje and Silla, as well as the biased priority given to the Gyeongsang region by political leaders in the 2nd half of the 20th century, Gwangju has a long history of voting for left-leaning politicians and is the main stronghold for the liberal Democratic Party of Korea along with its predecessors, as well as the progressive Justice Party.

Gwangju held many sports events such as 2002 FIFA World Cup, 2015 Summer Universiade, 2019 World Aquatics Championships.

Administrative divisions

Gwangju is divided into 5 districts ("Gu").

Map Name Korean Hanja

Gwangju.png

Districts
Buk District 北區
Dong District 東區
Gwangsan District
Nam District 南區
Seo District 西區

Religion

Religion in Gwangju (2005)[7]

  Not religious (53%)
  Protestantism (20%)
  Buddhism (14%)
  Catholicism (13%)

According to the census of 2005, of the people of Gwangju 33% follow Christianity (20% Protestantism and 13% Catholicism) and 14% follow Buddhism.[7] 53% of the population is mostly not religious or follow Muism and other indigenous religions.

Population

The population model of Gwangju is as follows;[8]

Year Population
1960   409,283
1966   532,235
1970   622,755
1975   737,283
1980   856,545
1985 1,042,508
1990 1,139,003
1995 1,257,636
2000 1,352,797
2005 1,417,716
2010 1,475,745
2016 1,500,621

Climate

Climate data for Gwangju (1981–2010, extremes 1938–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.8
(65.8)
21.1
(70.0)
26.8
(80.2)
29.1
(84.4)
33.9
(93.0)
36.7
(98.1)
38.5
(101.3)
38.5
(101.3)
34.4
(93.9)
31.1
(88.0)
27.1
(80.8)
19.7
(67.5)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
7.8
(46.0)
13.0
(55.4)
19.6
(67.3)
24.3
(75.7)
27.5
(81.5)
29.6
(85.3)
30.7
(87.3)
26.9
(80.4)
21.8
(71.2)
14.6
(58.3)
8.1
(46.6)
19.1
(66.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
2.5
(36.5)
7.0
(44.6)
13.2
(55.8)
18.3
(64.9)
22.4
(72.3)
25.6
(78.1)
26.2
(79.2)
21.9
(71.4)
15.8
(60.4)
9.1
(48.4)
3.1
(37.6)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F) −3.1
(26.4)
−1.8
(28.8)
2.1
(35.8)
7.5
(45.5)
13.0
(55.4)
18.2
(64.8)
22.5
(72.5)
22.8
(73.0)
17.8
(64.0)
10.9
(51.6)
4.5
(40.1)
−0.9
(30.4)
9.5
(49.1)
Record low °C (°F) −19.4
(−2.9)
−17.7
(0.1)
−10.7
(12.7)
−4.5
(23.9)
1.4
(34.5)
7.2
(45.0)
14.9
(58.8)
12.6
(54.7)
5.6
(42.1)
−2.7
(27.1)
−7.2
(19.0)
−13.7
(7.3)
−19.4
(−2.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 37.1
(1.46)
47.9
(1.89)
60.8
(2.39)
80.7
(3.18)
96.6
(3.80)
181.5
(7.15)
308.9
(12.16)
297.8
(11.72)
150.5
(5.93)
46.8
(1.84)
48.8
(1.92)
33.5
(1.32)
1,391
(54.76)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11.0 9.0 9.5 8.9 9.3 10.7 15.5 14.9 9.8 6.8 9.0 10.0 124.4
Average snowy days 11.1 7.1 2.8 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 8.1 31.0
Average relative humidity (%) 67.7 65.2 62.9 61.9 66.4 72.8 80.0 78.1 74.3 68.4 68.1 68.8 69.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 159.9 164.6 192.0 213.0 222.8 169.2 145.4 172.6 172.3 205.2 163.6 155.9 2,136.3
Percent possible sunshine 51.1 53.4 51.8 54.3 51.3 39.0 32.9 41.4 46.3 58.5 52.7 51.1 48.0
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration[9][10][11] (percent sunshine and snowy days)[12]

Education

Chonnam National University, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, and Gwangju Education University are public universities in Gwangju.

Honam University, Gwangju University, Gwangshin University, Gwangju Women's University, Nambu University, Chosun University, and Honam Christian University are private universities.

Gwangju Health University is a private community college offering associate degrees in humanities and social sciences, healthcare sciences, and a bachelor's degree in nursing.

Gwangju has 593 schools, consisting of 234 kindergartens, 145 elementary schools, 84 middle schools, 65 high schools, 1 science high school,[13] 7 junior colleges, 9 universities, 38 graduate schools, and 11 others (as of 1 May 2009) with a total of 406,669 students, or 28.5% of the total city population. The average number of students per household is 0.8.

Transportation

The city is served by the Gwangju Subway. An extension was completed in April 2008 with another due for completion in 2012. There are two KTX (high-speed rail) stations in the city: Gwangju Station and Gwangju Songjeong Station. Gwangju Songjeong station connects to the Gwangju Subway and local bus system. Now the Songjeong station is mainly used.

Gwangju has an extensive system of public buses that traverse the city.[14] Bus stops and buses themselves contain stop information in Korean and in English. Local buses, but not the subway or KTX, connect to the intercity Gwangju Bus Terminal known as U-Square.[15]

Gwangju is also served by the Gwangju Airport.

Tourism

Sport and culture

Gwangju-Kia Champions Field, home field of Kia Tigers.

Cityscape

Picture taken from a hill overlooking Gwangju in April 2017.

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Gwangju is twinned with:[25]

Partnerships and cooperations

Notable people

Literature

Entertainers

Sports

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In the 19th century, Gwangju was also known in English sources as Tsien-tsiou.[3]

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ a b "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  3. ^ EB (1878), p. 390.
  4. ^ "Origin and History of Gwangju". www.gwangju.go.kr (in Korean). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  5. ^ a b "The History of Gwangju".
  6. ^ "May 18th Democratic Uprising".
  7. ^ a b 2005 Census – Religion Results Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ National Statistical Office of South Korea
  9. ^ 평년값자료(1981–2010) 광주(156) (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  10. ^ 기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최고기온 (℃) 최고순위, 광주(156) (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  11. ^ 기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최저기온 (℃) 최고순위, 광주(156) (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  12. ^ "Climatological Normals of Korea" (PDF). Korea Meteorological Administration. 2011. p. 499 and 649. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  13. ^ Gwangju science academy
  14. ^ 광주광역시 버스정보. bus.gjcity.net. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  15. ^ U-Square (Gwangju Bus Terminal) (유스퀘어(광주종합버스터미널)) | Official Korea Tourism Organization. english.visitkorea.or.kr. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  16. ^ "Asia Culture Center". www.acc.go.kr. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  17. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160910054814/http://utour.gwangju.go.kr/contents.do?S=S02&M=041101000000
  18. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160807071139/http://utour.gwangju.go.kr/contents.do?S=S02&M=041102000000
  19. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160807034556/http://utour.gwangju.go.kr/contents.do?S=S02&M=041103000000
  20. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160807012127/http://utour.gwangju.go.kr/contents.do?S=S02&M=041104000000
  21. ^ (in Korean) K-League news 4강 역사를 쓴 그곳, 광주 월드컵 경기장 Dream stadium of K-League Archived 16 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ KOFICE 3rd Asia Song Festival Archived 29 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine 22 September 2006. Retrieved 2011-10-12
  23. ^ 2016 광주 ACE Fair. www.acefair.or.kr. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  24. ^ "Korea National Park". english.knps.or.kr. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  25. ^ "Sister Cities". gwangju.go.kr. Gwangju. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  26. ^ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs – Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  27. ^ "MPSP sets sights on city status". The Star. 1 August 2016.

Bibliography

External links

Coordinates: 35°10′N 126°55′E / 35.167°N 126.917°E / 35.167; 126.917

  1. ^ "2015년 인구주택총조사 전수집계결과 보도자료" [2015 Population and Housing Census]. Statistics Korea.