IND Crosstown Line
|IND Crosstown Line|
|Owner||City of New York|
|System||New York City Subway|
|Operator(s)||New York City Transit Authority|
|Number of tracks||2-4|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|Electrification||Direct Current traction|
The IND Crosstown Line or Brooklyn–Queens Crosstown Line is a rapid transit line of the B Division of the New York City Subway in Brooklyn and Queens, New York City, United States. It provides crosstown service between western Brooklyn and northwestern Queens and is the only trunk line that does not carry trains to and from Manhattan.
Extent and service
The following services use part or all of the IND Crosstown Line, whose services' bullets are colored lime green:
|Time period||Section of line|
|all times||south of Court Square|
The north end of the Crosstown Line is a flying junction with the IND Queens Boulevard Line and 60th Street Tunnel Connection just south of Queens Plaza. The line then travels south as a two-track line, except for a center relay track south of Court Square. At the turn from Marcy Avenue to Lafayette Avenue, two center tracks appear, merging into one after crossovers to the main tracks. These tracks were to be used for a split to another line in a 1931 expansion plan. This center track continues through Bedford–Nostrand Avenues and then ends with crossovers to the main tracks, but space remains in the center through Classon Avenue for the third track.
At Hoyt–Schermerhorn Streets, the Crosstown Line passes through the middle of the four-track IND Fulton Street Line. Cross-platform interchange is available between the lines, but no track connections exist. After Hoyt–Schermerhorn Streets, the line turns south and ends as a merge into the local tracks of the IND Culver Line, just south of the split of that line into local and express tracks.
Plans for a crosstown subway line were floated as early as 1912. In 1923, a plan for such a line, to be operated by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT) from the Queensboro Bridge under Jackson Avenue, Manhattan Avenue, Roebling Street, Bedford Avenue, and Hancock Street to Franklin Avenue at the north end of the BMT Franklin Avenue Line, was adopted by the city. However, the following year, Mayor Hylan announced his opposition to it. In addition, residents of central Brooklyn, which was already heavily developed, opposed an elevated line because of noise and aesthetic concerns, but the BRT would not build a subway because an elevated was the cheapest option.
Eventually, the line was moved and incorporated into the city's Independent Subway System (IND). The junction with the IND Queens Boulevard Line in Long Island City was originally supposed to have a second wye, with service from Manhattan via the 53rd Street Tunnel planned to feed into the Crosstown Line. This would have been part of a loop service between the Crosstown and Eighth Avenue Lines.
The first contract to build the Crosstown Line, for a section north of Nassau Avenue in Brooklyn, was awarded in 1928. The portion of the line crossing Newtown Creek between Brooklyn and Queens, now known as the Greenpoint Tubes, was built without the use of a tunneling shield or compressed air, contrary to the convention of the time. The tunnel was bored through solid rock, crossing under the East River Tunnels of the Long Island Rail Road and the IRT Flushing Line, then lined with concrete.
On August 19, 1933, the line was opened north of Nassau Avenue, and the GG began operation to Queens Plaza. The entire Crosstown Line was completed and connected to the IND Culver Line on July 1, 1937, whereupon the GG was extended in both directions to Smith–Ninth Streets and Forest Hills–71st Avenue.
In 1946, as part of a $1 billion plan issued by the New York City Board of Transportation, a branch of the IND Crosstown Line would be built, with the routing via Franklin Avenue and connecting with the BMT Brighton Line. This would have replaced the BMT Franklin Avenue Line. Over the next 77 years, the termini for the GG (relabeled G in 1985) had varied, including being extended to Jamaica–179th Street or cut back to Queens Plaza or Long Island City–Court Square. Service was also extended to Church Avenue several times, the most recent extension being in 2009. During weekend service disruptions on the F service between Jay and Bergen Streets, trains were extended beyond Church Avenue to Coney Island. On April 19, 2010, G service was permanently cut back from the Queens Boulevard Line due to budget cuts.
The line is noted for many of its stations being in particularly poor condition.
In 2012, flood waters from Hurricane Sandy caused significant damage to the Greenpoint Tubes under the Newtown Creek. Although the G was back in service days after the hurricane, the tube needed permanent repairs. To allow for these repairs, G service was curtailed for twelve weekends between July and December 2013, as well as daily between July 25 and September 2, 2014.
The 2015–2019 MTA Capital Plan called for the Crosstown Line's Classon Avenue and Flushing Avenue stations, along with 31 others, to undergo a complete overhaul as part of the Enhanced Station Initiative. Updates would include cellular service, Wi-Fi, USB charging stations, interactive service advisories and maps, improved signage, and improved station lighting. However, in April 2018, it was announced that cost overruns had forced the MTA to reduce the number of subway stations included in the program from 33 stations to 20. The stations to be renovated along the IND Crosstown Line were among the 13 stations without funding, which will be pushed back to the 2020–2024 Capital Plan.
Every station is served by the G train.
|Station service legend|
|Stops all times|
|Stops all times except late nights|
|Stops late nights and weekends only|
|Stops weekdays only|
|Stops rush hours in the peak direction only|
|Time period details|
|Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act|
|↑||Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act|
in the indicated direction only
|Elevator access to mezzanine only|
|Station||Services||Opened||Transfers and notes|
|Long Island City||Splits from the IND Queens Boulevard Line local tracks (no regular service)|
|Court Square||G||August 19, 1933||IRT Flushing Line (7 <7> )|
IND Queens Boulevard Line (E M )
|21st Street||G||August 19, 1933||Connection to LIRR at Hunterspoint Avenue|
|Greenpoint||Greenpoint Avenue||G||August 19, 1933|
|Nassau Avenue||G||August 19, 1933|
|Williamsburg||Metropolitan Avenue||G||July 1, 1937||BMT Canarsie Line (L ) at Lorimer Street|
|Broadway||G||July 1, 1937|
|Flushing Avenue||G||July 1, 1937|
|Bedford-Stuyvesant||Myrtle–Willoughby Avenues||G||July 1, 1937|
|Bedford–Nostrand Avenues||G||July 1, 1937||Center track between the two island platforms|
|Clinton Hill||Classon Avenue||G||July 1, 1937||Additional space for a center track|
|Clinton–Washington Avenues||G||July 1, 1937|
|Fort Greene||Fulton Street||G||July 1, 1937|
|Downtown Brooklyn||Hoyt–Schermerhorn Streets||G||July 1, 1937||IND Fulton Street Line (A C )|
|Merges with the IND Culver Line (G )|
- MTA. "Average weekday subway ridership". Archived from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- "Subway Service Guide" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 2019. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
- Dougherty, Peter (2006) . Tracks of the New York City Subway 2006 (3rd ed.). Dougherty. OCLC 49777633 – via Google Books.
- Raskin, Joseph B. (2013). The Routes Not Taken: A Trip Through New York City's Unbuilt Subway System. New York, New York: Fordham University Press. doi:10.5422/fordham/9780823253692.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-82325-369-2.
- vanshnookenraggen (September 23, 2015). "Mysteries of the Queens Boulevard Subway". vanshnookenraggen. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
- Transit Commission, New Subways: Proposed Additions to Rapid Transit System, 1922
- "Two Subway Routes Adopted by City". The New York Times. August 4, 1923. p. 9. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Hylan About Faced, Says Citizens Union". The New York Times. April 6, 1924. p. 13. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- New York Times, New Subway Routes in Hylan Program to Cost $186,046,000, March 21, 1925, page 1
- "Bids for Test Boring in L. I. City For Crosstown Line Due May 22". Queens Daily Star. May 6, 1925. Retrieved May 1, 2016 – via Fulton History.
- "SUBWAY EXTENSIONS FOR LONG ISLAND; Three Contracts for Work in the Greenpoint Section for Over Five Miles of Track. WILL COST-OVER $15,000,000 The New Fifty-third Street Terminal Under East River Now 45Per Cent. Completed". The New York Times. January 22, 1928. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
- Snapp, Fletcher G. (April 24, 1929). "Newtown Creek Tunnel First Tube of Kind Bored Without Compressed Air". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 3. Retrieved August 28, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Two Subway Units Open at Midnight – Links in City-Owned System in Queens and Brooklyn to Have 15 Stations" (PDF). The New York Times. August 18, 1933. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- "New Crosstown Subway Line Is Opened". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 1, 1937. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
- "Borough Subway Relief Still 2 to 3 Years Off". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. December 6, 1946. p. 5. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- "Borough Subway Relief Still 2 to 3 Years Off". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. December 6, 1946. p. 1. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- "The JoeKorNer Brochures". www.thejoekorner.com. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
- "Service Changes September 30, 1990" (PDF). subwaynut.com. New York City Transit Authority. September 30, 1990. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
- Haddon, Heather (April 13, 2010). "G train taking a hit before service cuts roll out". AM New York. Archived from the original on April 24, 2010. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- "G Line Review". mta.info. Archived from the original on November 7, 2015. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- "MTA Will Completely Close 30 Subway Stations For Months-Long "Revamp"". Gothamist. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- "MTAStations" (PDF). governor.ny.gov. Government of the State of New York. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Berger, Paul (April 3, 2018). "New York Subway Cuts Back Plans to Renovate Stations". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved April 3, 2018.