Green Party (Ireland)
|Leader||Eamon Ryan TD|
|Deputy leader||Catherine Martin TD|
|Northern Ireland Assembly leader||Clare Bailey MLA|
|Founded||1981(as Ecology Party of Ireland)|
|Headquarters||16–17 Suffolk Street, Dublin 2, Ireland|
|Youth wing||Young Greens|
|European affiliation||European Green Party|
|International affiliation||Global Greens|
|European Parliament group||Greens–European Free Alliance|
12 / 160
4 / 60
|House of Commons|
0 / 18
|Northern Ireland Assembly|
2 / 90
|Local government in the Republic of Ireland|
49 / 949
|Local government in Northern Ireland|
8 / 462
|European Parliament (Republic of Ireland seats)|
2 / 13
The Green Party - An Comhaontas Glas (Irish: Comhaontas Glas, literally "Green Alliance") is a green political party that operates in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It was founded as the Ecology Party of Ireland in 1981 by Dublin teacher Christopher Fettes. The party became the Green Alliance in 1983 and adopted its current English language name in 1987 while the Irish name was kept unchanged. As of June 2020[update], its leader is Eamon Ryan, its deputy leader is Catherine Martin and its chairperson is Hazel Chu. Green Party candidates have been elected to most levels of representation: local (in the Republic), Dáil Éireann, Northern Ireland Assembly and European Parliament.
The Green Party first entered the Dáil in 1989. It has participated in the Irish government twice, from 2007 to 2011 as junior partner in a coalition with Fianna Fáil, and since June 2020 in a coalition with Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael.
Following the first period in government, the party suffered a wipeout in the February 2011 election, losing all six of its TDs. In the February 2016 election, it returned to the Dáil with two seats. Following this, Grace O'Sullivan was elected to the Seanad on 26 April that year of 2016 and Joe O'Brien was elected to Dáil Éireann in the 2019 Dublin Fingal by-election. In the 2020 general election the party had its best result ever, securing 12 TDs and becoming the fourth largest party in Ireland.
Early years and first rise
The Green Party began life as the Ecology Party in 1981, with Christopher Fettes serving as the party's first chairperson. The party's first public appearance was modest: the event announced that they would be contesting the November 1982 general election, and was attended by their 7 election candidates, 20 party supporters, and one singular journalist. Fettes had opened the meeting by noting the party didn't expect to win any seats. Willy Clingan, the journalist present, recalled that "The Ecology Party introduced its seven election candidates at the nicest and most endearingly honest press conference of the whole campaign". The Ecology party took 0.2% of the vote that year.
Following a name change to the Green Alliance, it contested the 1984 European elections, with party founder Roger Garland winning 1.9% in the Dublin constituency. The following year, it won its first election when Marcus Counihan was elected to Killarney Urban District Council at the 1985 local elections, buoyed by winning 5,200 first preference votes as a European candidate in Dublin the previous year. The party nationally ran 34 candidates and won 0.6% of the vote.
The party continued to struggle until the 1989 general election when the Green Party (as it was now named) won its first seat in Dáil Éireann, when Roger Garland was elected in Dublin South. Garland lost his seat at the 1992 general election, while Trevor Sargent gained a seat in Dublin North. In the 1994 European election, Patricia McKenna topped the poll in the Dublin constituency and Nuala Ahern won a seat in Leinster. They retained their European Parliament seats in the 1999 European election, although the party lost five councillors in local elections held that year despite an increase in its vote. At the 1997 general election, the party gained a seat when John Gormley won a Dáil seat in Dublin South-East.
At the 2002 general election the party made a breakthrough, getting six Teachtaí Dála (TDs) elected to the Dáil with 4% of the national vote. However, in the 2004 European election, the party lost both of its European Parliament seats. In the 2004 local elections, it increased its number of councillors at county level from 8 to 18 (out of 883) and at town council level from 5 to 14 (out of 744).
The party gained its first representation in the Northern Ireland Assembly in 2007, the Green Party in Northern Ireland having become a regional branch of the party the previous year.
First term in government
The Green Party entered government for the first time after the 2007 general election, held on 24 May. Although its share of first-preference votes increased at the election, the party failed to increase the number of TDs returned. Mary White won a seat for the first time in Carlow–Kilkenny; however, Dan Boyle lost his seat in Cork South-Central.
The party had approached the 2007 general election on an independent platform, ruling out no coalition partners while expressing its preference for an alternative to the outgoing coalition of Fianna Fáil and the Progressive Democrats. Neither the outgoing government nor an alternative of Fine Gael, Labour and the Green Party had sufficient seats to form a majority. Fine Gael ruled out a coalition arrangement with Sinn Féin, opening the way for Green Party negotiations with Fianna Fáil.
Before the negotiations began, Ciarán Cuffe TD wrote on his blog that "a deal with Fianna Fáil would be a deal with the devil… and [the Green Party would be] decimated as a Party". The negotiations were undertaken by Donall Geoghegan (the party's general secretary), Dan Boyle and the then party Chair John Gormley. The Green Party walked out after six days; this, Geoghegan later said, was owing to there not being "enough in [the deal] to allow [the Green Party] to continue". The negotiations restarted on 11 June; a draft programme for government was agreed the next day, which under party rules needed 66% of members to endorse it at a special convention. On 13 June 2007, Green members at the Mansion House in Dublin voted 86% in favour (441 to 67; with 2 spoilt votes) of entering coalition with Fianna Fáil. The following day, the six Green Party TDs voted for the re-election of Bertie Ahern as Taoiseach.
New party leader John Gormley was appointed as Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government and Eamon Ryan was appointed as Minister for Communications, Energy and Natural Resources. Trevor Sargent was named Minister of State for Food and Horticulture.
Before its entry into government, the Green Party had been a vocal supporter of the Shell to Sea movement, the campaign to reroute the M3 motorway away from Tara and (to a lesser extent) the campaign to end United States military use of Shannon Airport. After the party entered government there were no substantive changes in government policy on these issues, which meant that Eamon Ryan oversaw the Corrib gas project while he was in office. The Green Party had, at its last annual conference, made an inquiry into the irregularities surrounding the project (see Corrib gas controversy) a precondition of entering government but changed its stance during post-election negotiations with Fianna Fáil.
The 2008 budget, announced on 6 December 2007, did not include a carbon levy on fuels such as petrol, diesel and home heating oil, which the Green Party had sought before the election. A carbon levy was, however, introduced in the 2010 Budget. The 2008 budget did include a separate carbon budget announced by Gormley, which introduced new energy efficiency tax credit, a ban on incandescent bulbs from January 2009, a tax scheme incentivising commuters' purchases of bicycles and a new scale of vehicle registration tax based on carbon emissions.
At a special convention on whether to support the Treaty of Lisbon on 19 January 2008, the party voted 63.5% in favour of supporting the Treaty; this fell short of the party's two-thirds majority requirement for policy issues. As a result, the Green Party did not have an official campaign in the first Lisbon Treaty referendum, although individual members were involved on different sides. The referendum did not pass in 2008, and following the Irish government's negotiation with EU member states of additional legal guarantees and assurances, the Green Party held another special convention meeting in Dublin on 18 July 2009 to decide its position on the second Lisbon referendum. Precisely two-thirds of party members present voted to campaign for a 'Yes' in the referendum. This was the first time in the party's history that it had campaigned in favour of a European treaty.
The government's response to the post-2008 banking crisis significantly affected the party's support, and it suffered at the 2009 local elections, returning with only three County Council seats in total and losing its entire traditional Dublin base, with the exception of a Town Council seat in Balbriggan.
Déirdre de Búrca, one of two Green Senators nominated by Taoiseach Bertie Ahern in 2007, resigned from the party and her seat in 2010, in part owing to the party's inability to secure her a job in the European Commission. On 23 February 2010, Trevor Sargent resigned as Minister of State for Food and Horticulture owing to allegations over contacting Gardaí about a criminal case involving a constituent. On 23 March 2010, Ciarán Cuffe was appointed as Minister for Horticulture, Sustainable Travel, Planning and Heritage while the party gained a junior ministerial position with Mary White appointed as Minister for Equality, Human Rights and Integration.
The Green Party supported the passage legislation for EC–ECB–IMF financial support for Ireland's bank bailout. On 19 January, the party derailed Taoiseach Brian Cowen's plans to reshuffle his cabinet when it refused to endorse Cowen's intended replacement ministers, forcing Cowen to redistribute the vacant portfolios among incumbent ministers. The Greens were angered at not having been consulted about this effort, and went as far as to threaten to pull out of the coalition unless Cowen set a firm date for an election due that spring. He ultimately set the date for 11 March.
On 23 January 2011, the Green Party met with Cowen following his resignation as leader of senior coalition partner Fianna Fáil the previous afternoon. The Green Party then announced it was breaking off the coalition and going into opposition with immediate effect. Green Party leader John Gormley said at a press conference announcing the withdrawal:
For a very long time we in the Green Party have stood back in the hope that Fianna Fáil could resolve persistent doubts about their party leadership. A definitive resolution of this has not yet been possible. And our patience has reached an end.
The government ministerial posts of Gormley and Ryan were reassigned to Fianna Fáil ministers Éamon Ó Cuív and Pat Carey respectively. Green Ministers of State Ciarán Cuffe and Mary White also resigned from their roles.
In almost four years in Government, from 2007 to 2011, the Green Party contributed to the passage of civil partnership for same-sex couples, the introduction of major planning reform, a major increase in renewable energy output, progressive budgets, and a nationwide scheme of home insulation retrofitting.
Wipeout, recovery, and second government term
The party suffered a wipeout at the 2011 general election, with all of its six TDs losing their seats, including those of former Ministers John Gormley and Eamon Ryan. Three of their six incumbent TDs lost their deposits. The party's share of the vote fell below 2%, meaning that they could not reclaim election expenses, and their lack of parliamentary representation led to the ending of state funding for the party.
The party candidates in the 2011 election to the Seanad were Dan Boyle and Niall Ó Brolcháin; neither was elected, and as a result, for the first time since 1989 the Green Party had no representatives in the Oireachtas.
Eamon Ryan was elected as party leader on 27 May 2011, succeeding John Gormley. Catherine Martin, was later appointed deputy leader, while Ciarán Cuffe and Mark Dearey were also placed on the party's front bench.
In the 2014 European election the party received 4.9% of the vote nationally (an increase of 3% on the 2009 result), failing to return a candidate to the European Parliament. In the 2014 local elections the party received 1.6% of the vote nationally. 12 candidates were elected to County Councils, an increase of nine.
At the 2016 general election the Green Party gained two seats, becoming the first Irish political party to lose all seats at an election and win seats at the subsequent election. In the subsequent election to Seanad Éireann, Grace O'Sullivan became the first elected Green Party Senator, winning a seat of the Agricultural Panel. She established the Civil Engagement group with five Independent Senators. On 30 May 2016, the Green Party joined with the Social Democrats to form a technical group in the Dáil.
In the 2019 local elections the Green Party saw significant gains, increasing their number of councillors from 12 to 49 and becoming the second largest party on Dublin City Council. At the concurrent 2019 European Parliament election the party received 11.4% of the vote nationally (an increase of 6.5% on the 2014 result), the highest share they have won at any election to date. As a result, the Greens are represented in the European Parliament for the first time since 2004 by two MEPs - former TD Ciarán Cuffe in Dublin and Senator Grace O'Sullivan in South.
In the 2020 general election, the party had its best result ever, earning 7.1% of the first-preference votes and returning 12 TDs, up from three. It became the fourth-largest party in the Dáil and entered government in coalition with Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael. In the 2020 Seanad election the party returned two senators. A further two senators were nominated by Taoiseach, Micheál Martin bringing the total party representation in the Oireachtas to 16. In July 2020 Eamon Ryan retained his leadership of the party over Catherine Martin in the 2020 Green Party leadership election.
Ideology and policies
The Green Party has seven "founding principles". Broadly, these founding principles reflect the "Four Pillars" of Green Politics observed by the majority of Green Parties internationally: Ecological wisdom, Social justice, Grassroots democracy and Nonviolence. They also reflect the Six guiding principles of the Global Greens, which also includes Respect for diversity as a principle.
While strongly associated with environmentalist policies, the party also has policies covering all other key areas. These include protection of the Irish language, lowering the voting age in Ireland to 16, a directly elected Seanad, support for universal healthcare, and a constitutional amendment which guarantees that the water of Ireland will never be privatised.
The party also advocates that terminally ill people should have the right to legally choose assisted dying, on which subject it believes "provisions should apply only to those with a terminal illness which is likely to result in death within six months". It also states that "such a right would only apply where the person has a clear and settled intention to end their own life which is proved by making, and signing, a written declaration to that effect. Such a declaration must be countersigned by two qualified doctors".
The National Executive Committee is the organising committee of the party. It comprises the party leader Eamon Ryan, the deputy leader Catherine Martin, the chair Hazel Chu, the National Coordinator, the General Secretary (in a non-voting role), a Young Greens representative, the Treasurer and ten members elected annually at the party convention.
|Trevor Sargent||2001–2007||Dublin North|
|John Gormley||2007–2011||Dublin South-East|
|Eamon Ryan||2011–present||Dublin South|
Dublin Bay South
The party did not have a national leader until 2001. At a special "Leadership Convention" in Kilkenny on 6 October 2001, Trevor Sargent was elected the first official leader of the Green Party. He was re-elected to this position in 2003 and again in 2005. The party's constitution requires that a leadership election be held within six months of a general election.
Sargent resigned the leadership in the wake of the 2007 general election to the 30th Dáil. During the campaign, Sargent had promised that he would not lead the party into Government with Fianna Fáil. At the election the party retained six Dáil seats, making it the most likely partner for Fianna Fáil. Sargent and the party negotiated a coalition government; at the 12 June 2007 membership meeting to approve the agreement, he announced his resignation as leader.
In the subsequent leadership election, John Gormley became the new leader on 17 July 2007, defeating Patricia McKenna by 478 votes to 263. Mary White was subsequently elected as the deputy Leader. Gormley served as Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government from July 2007 until the Green Party's decision to exit government in December 2010.
Following the election defeats of 2011, Gormley announced his intention not to seek another term as Green Party leader. Eamon Ryan was elected as the new party leader, over party colleagues Phil Kearney and Cllr Malcolm Noonan in a postal ballot election of party members in May 2011. Monaghan-based former councillor Catherine Martin defeated Down-based Dr John Barry and former Senator Mark Dearey to the post of deputy leader on 11 June 2011 during the party's annual convention. Roderic O'Gorman was elected party chairperson.
The Green Party lost all its Dáil seats in the 2011 general election. Party Chairman Dan Boyle and Déirdre de Búrca were nominated by the Taoiseach to Seanad Éireann after the formation of the Fianna Fáil–Progressive Democrats–Green Party government in 2007, and Niall Ó Brolcháin was elected in December 2009. De Búrca resigned in February 2010, and was replaced by Mark Dearey. Neither Boyle nor O'Brolchain was re-elected to Seanad Éireann in the Seanad election of 2011, leaving the Green Party without Oireachtas representation until the 2016 general election, in which it regained two Dáil seats.
Irish and European politics
The Green Party is organised throughout the island of Ireland, with regional structures in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The Green Party in Northern Ireland voted to become a regional partner of the Green Party in Ireland in 2005 at its annual convention, and again in a postal ballot in March 2006. Brian Wilson, formerly a councillor for the Alliance Party, won the Green Party's first seat in the Northern Ireland Assembly in the 2007 election. Steven Agnew held that seat in the 2011 election.
|Election||Seats won||±||Position||First-pref. votes||%||Government||Leader|
0 / 166
0 / 166
1 / 166
1 / 166
2 / 166
6 / 166
6 / 166
0 / 166
|6||None||41,039||1.8%||No seats||John Gormley|
2 / 158
12 / 160
City and county council local elections
|Election||±||Seats won||First-pref. votes||%|
Devolved Northern Ireland legislatures
|Election||Body||Seats won||±||Position||First-pref. votes||%||Government||Leader|
0 / 110
0 / 108
0 / 108
1 / 108
1 / 108
2 / 108
2 / 90
|Election||Seats (in NI)||±||Position||Total votes||% (in NI)||% (in UK)||Government|
0 / 17
0 / 17
0 / 18
0 / 18
0 / 18
0 / 18
0 / 18
|Election||Seats won||±||Position||First-pref. votes||%||Leader|
0 / 15
0 / 15
2 / 15
2 / 15
0 / 13
0 / 12
0 / 11
2 / 13
- Dwyer, Orla. "Eamon Ryan retains position as Green Party leader after narrow victory over Catherine Martin". TheJournal.ie.
- Nordsieck, Wolfram (2020). "Ireland". Parties and Elections in Europe.
- "Ireland". Europe Elects.
- Flach Kelly (31 March 2016). "Greens end talks with Fine Gael on forming government". The Irish Times. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- "Green Party back as Eamon Ryan joins his deputy in Dáil". thejournal.ie. 28 February 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- Mullally, Una (9 June 2019). "The little known story of the origins of the Green Party". The Irish Times. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- RTÉ (25 February 2007). "Poll shows loss of support for FF". RTÉ News. Archived from the original on 3 March 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- John Gormley (24 February 2007). "Speech to Green Party Convention 2007". John Gormley's blog. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
- Deaglán de Bréadún, Miriam Donohoe (28 May 2007). "Rainbow coalition is still possible, says Kenny". The Irish Times. p. 8.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Ciarán Cuffe (28 May 2007). "Great to be back". Cuffe Street (Ciarán Cuffe's blog). Retrieved 1 July 2008.
- "Green senator saw red during tough negotiations with Fianna Fáil". Irish Independent. 23 August 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- "Ahern and Sargent in govt talks". RTÉ 9 O'Clock News. 11 June 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2009.[dead link]
- "FF & GP agree draft programme for govt". RTÉ 9 O'Clock News. 12 June 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2009.[dead link]
- "Greens vote to enter FF-led coalition". RTÉ 9 O'Clock News. 13 June 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2009.[dead link]
- Shell to Sea' campaign gets cross-party support – BreakingNews.ie, 21 November 2006.
- Military use of Shannon not a campaign issue, but now contentious Archived 21 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Village, 12 June 2007
- Prominent Shell to Sea activist to oversee Corrib project – Indymedia.ie, 16 June 2007.
- Treacy Hogan (6 December 2007). "'Green' Budget signals war on climate change". Irish Independent. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
- "Green Party Leader addresses Dáil on Budget 2010 / Latest news / News / Home – Green Party / Comhaontas Glas". Greenparty.ie. 10 December 2009. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- John Gormley (6 December 2007). "Gormley delivers carbon budget". Green Party. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
- Treacy Hogan (7 December 2007). "Gormley lights the way with ban on bulbs". Irish Independent. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
- John Cradden (2 December 2008). "Get on yer bike". Irish Independent. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
- Senan Molony (6 December 2007). "So, how Green was it for you? Just look at red-faced drivers". Irish Independent. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
- de Bréadún, Deaglán (21 January 2008). "Greens will not take party stance on Lisbon Treaty". The Irish Times. p. 1.
- John Gormley (18 July 2009). "Greens back Lisbon Yes". Green Party. Archived from the original on 8 October 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
- "Greens silent on de Búrca claim FF failed to honour deal – The Irish Times – Tue, Feb 16, 2010". The Irish Times. 16 February 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- "Sargent resigns as Minister of State". RTÉ News. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2010.
- "The worst week for the worst Taoiseach in the State's history". Irish Independent. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- McDonald, Henry (23 January 2011). "Ireland's Green party considers whether to stay in government". The Guardian. London: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- "Green Party withdraws from Government". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. RTÉ. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- "Green Party statement". The Irish Times. Irish Times Trust. 24 January 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- "Green Party quits Irish coalition government". BBC News. BBC. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- "O Cuiv and Carey get vacant ministerial posts". Irish Examiner. Thomas Crosbie Holdings. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- Paul Cullen (1 January 2011). "Partnership law comes into effect". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Green Party (15 July 2011). "Planning bill marks new era for how we plan for our future". Green Party. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "New record for Irish wind power output". Irish Energy News. 9 January 2011. Archived from the original on 11 January 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Oliver Moran (24 March 2016). "The Green Party and progressive budgets". Archived from the original on 12 January 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- The Irish Times (2 February 2009). "€100m insulation scheme to benefit 50,000 homes". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- McGee, Harry (1 March 2011). "Failure to get votes likely to result in party's office closing". The Irish Times.
- "Eamon Ryan elected Green Party leader". RTÉ News. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- "Green party announces new front bench". RTÉ News. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "GREEN ON GREEN". The Phoenix. 13 February 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "Social Democrats and Green Party form Dáil technical group". utv.ie. Archived from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- "Twitter". twitter.com. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- "Elections 2019: Greens the big winners while Sinn Féin slumps". irishtimes.com. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
- "Green Party's Ciarán Cuffe elected MEP". thejournal.ie. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
- "O'Sullivan, Clune take final two seats in Ireland South". RTÉ News. 5 June 2019.
- "About us". https://www.greenparty.ie. Retrieved 27 March 2020. External link in
- "Global Greens Charter". globalgreens.org. 15 December 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- Green Party Irish Language Policy. Accessed via Green Party (Ireland) (official website). Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Political Reform Archived 14 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed via Green Party (Ireland) (official website). Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Political Reform Archived 14 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed via Green Party (Ireland) (official website). Retrieved 8 August 2017.
- Health Archived 28 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed via Green Party (Ireland) (official website). Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Water Archived 9 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed via Green Party (Ireland) (official website). Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Assisted Dying Archived 13 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed via Green Party (Ireland) (official website). Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- "Structures of the Green Party". Greenparty.ie. 28 March 2010. Archived from the original on 26 January 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- Sheahan, Fionnan (24 February 2010). "Ethical minister hoist with own petard". Irish Independent. Independent News & Media. Retrieved 24 February 2010.
- "FG looks to form Govt as final results emerge". RTÉ News. 28 February 2011.
- "33rd DÁIL GENERAL ELECTION 8 February 2020 Election Results (Party totals begin on page 68)" (PDF). Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 8 May 2020.