Foreign relations of Azerbaijan
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The Republic of Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO's Partnership for Peace, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the World Health Organization, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe, CFE Treaty, the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund; and the World Bank.
The major trends in the foreign relations of the Republic of Azerbaijan toward both global and regional powers active in Caucasus area. External variables are categorized depending on their original nature into two groups: global and regional. The former category includes global players such as Moscow and Washington, while the latter category rival regional players, namely Ankara and Tehran. Azerbaijan has formal involvement with senior ex-U.S. government officials including James Baker and Henry Kissinger, as they serve on the Honorary Council of Advisors of the U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce (USACC). USACC is co-chaired by Tim Cejka, President of ExxonMobil and Reza Vaziri, President of R.V. Investment Group and Chairman of the Anglo Asian Mining Plc (LSE Ticker: AAZ).
International organization participation
AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, United Nations, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
As of 2019, Azerbaijan maintains diplomatic relations with 182 United Nations member states, the State of Palestine and the Holy See. Azerbaijan lacks diplomatic relations with the following countries:
- Central African Republic
- Republic of the Congo
- Federated States of Micronesia
- Papua New Guinea
- Saint Kitts and Nevis
Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Algeria||See Algeria–Azerbaijan relations|
|Angola||1 December 1994||See Angola–Azerbaijan relations|
|Benin||See Azerbaijan–Benin relations|
|Burkina Faso||31 May 2004||See Azerbaijan–Burkina Faso relations|
|Comoros||2 February 2010|
|DR Congo||23 October 2011|
|Djibouti||22 October 1996||See Azerbaijan–Djibouti relations|
|Egypt||See Azerbaijan–Egypt relations|
|Equatorial Guinea||11 November 2004|
|Eritrea||20 April 2004|
|Eswatini||7 January 2010|
|Ethiopia||2 November 1992||See Azerbaijan–Ethiopia relations
|Gambia||See Azerbaijan–Gambia relations|
|Kenya||31 May 2004||See Azerbaijan–Kenya relations|
|Lesotho||28 September 2012||See Azerbaijan–Lesotho relations|
|Liberia||See Azerbaijan–Liberia relations|
|Madagascar||See Azerbaijan–Madagascar relations|
|Malawi||21 May 2004|
|Morocco||25 December 1992||See Azerbaijan–Morocco relations
|Nigeria||11 March 1992||See Azerbaijan–Nigeria relations|
|Rwanda||31 May 2004||See Azerbaijan–Rwanda relations|
|Senegal||See Azerbaijan–Senegal relations|
|South Africa||29 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–South Africa relations
|Sudan||See Azerbaijan–Sudan relations|
|Togo||29 December 2010|
|Tunisia||See Azerbaijan–Tunisia relations|
|Uganda||See Azerbaijan–Uganda relations|
|Zambia||See Azerbaijan–Zambia relations|
|Zimbabwe||See Azerbaijan–Zimbabwe relations|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Argentina||8 November 1992||See Argentina–Azerbaijan relations|
|Bahamas||2 May 2017||See Azerbaijan–Bahamas relations|
|Barbados||See Azerbaijan–Barbados relations|
|Brazil||21 October 1993||See Azerbaijan–Brazil relations|
|Canada||10 July 1992||See Azerbaijan–Canada relations|
|Chile||11 January 1995||
|Colombia||13 December 1994|
|Costa Rica||See Azerbaijan–Costa Rica relations|
|Cuba||27 March 1992||
|Dominican Republic||12 November 2007|
|Ecuador||22 March 2004||See Azerbaijan–Ecuador relations|
|El Salvador||See Azerbaijan–El Salvador relations|
|Grenada||23 September 2010|
|Honduras||See Azerbaijan–Honduras relations|
|Jamaica||See Azerbaijan–Jamaica relations|
|Mexico||14 January 1992||See Azerbaijan–Mexico relations|
|Nicaragua||10 February 1994||
|Panama||See Azerbaijan–Panama relations|
|Paraguay||20 April 2004||See Azerbaijan–Paraguay relations|
|Peru||25 June 1996||See Azerbaijan–Peru relations|
|Saint Lucia||11 March 2010|
|Suriname||See Azerbaijan–Suriname relations|
|Trinidad and Tobago||11 April 2011|
28 February 1992
|See Azerbaijan–United States relations|
|Uruguay||12 January 1995||See Azerbaijan–Uruguay relations
|Venezuela||12 May 1995||See Azerbaijan–Venezuela relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Afghanistan||See Afghanistan–Azerbaijan relations|
|Bahrain||See Azerbaijan–Bahrain relations|
|Bangladesh||See Azerbaijan–Bangladesh relations|
|Bhutan||See Azerbaijan–Bhutan relations|
|Cambodia||See Azerbaijan–Cambodia relations|
|China||2 April 1992||See Azerbaijan-China relations
|India||28 February 1992||See Azerbaijan-India relations|
|Indonesia||1992||See Azerbaijan-Indonesia relations|
12 March 1992
|See Azerbaijan–Iran relations
|Israel||7 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Israel relations|
|Japan||7 September 1992||See Azerbaijan–Japan relations
|Jordan||13 February 1993||
|Kazakhstan||27 August 1992||See Azerbaijan–Kazakhstan relations
|Kyrgyzstan||19 January 1993||See Azerbaijan-Kyrgyzstan relations|
|Lebanon||18 September 1992||See Azerbaijan–Lebanon relations
|Malaysia||See Azerbaijan–Malaysia relations|
|Maldives||See Azerbaijan–Maldives relations|
|Nepal||See Azerbaijan–Nepal relations|
|Qatar||See Azerbaijan–Qatar relations|
|Pakistan||9 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–Pakistan relations
|Palestine||15 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Palestine relations
|Saudi Arabia||24 February 1992||See Azerbaijan–Saudi Arabia relations|
|Singapore||See Azerbaijan–Singapore relations|
|South Korea||23 March 1992||See Azerbaijan–South Korea relations|
|Sri Lanka||See Azerbaijan–Sri Lanka relations|
|Syria||28 March 1992|
|Tajikistan||See Azerbaijan–Tajikistan relations|
|Thailand||See Azerbaijan–Thailand relations|
14 January 1992
|See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations
|Turkmenistan||See Azerbaijan–Turkmenistan relations|
|United Arab Emirates||1 September 1992||See Azerbaijan–United Arab Emirates relations
The United Arab Emirates recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan on December 26, 1991.
|Uzbekistan||See Azerbaijan–Uzbekistan relations|
|Vietnam||See Azerbaijan–Vietnam relations|
|Yemen||See Azerbaijan–Yemen relations|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Albania||23 September 1992||See Albania–Azerbaijan relations|
Armenia and Azerbaijan do not have diplomatic relations today.
|See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, Nagorno-Karabakh War
The neighboring nations of Armenia and Azerbaijan have had formal governmental relations between 1918–1921, when both countries were briefly independent. The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute. In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev declared, "Nagorno Karabakh will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia has to accept the reality," and "in 1918, Yerevan was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians were guests here."
During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived side by side in peace. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with mutual massacres in Azerbaijan and Armenia resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions, which was effectively halted when both sides agrees to observe a cease-fire, which has since been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 both also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is currently co-chaired by the U.S., France, and Russia and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.
The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.
If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh, they are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.
In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.
As of July 2020, the new round of military escalation along the border between Armenia and Azerbaijan continued, thus making it one of the most explosive regions in Eurasia.
|Austria||20 February 1992||See Austria–Azerbaijan relations|
|Belarus||11 June 1993||See Azerbaijan–Belarus relations
|Belgium||17 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–Belgium relations
|Bulgaria||5 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–Bulgaria relations
|Croatia||26 January 1995||See Azerbaijan–Croatia relations
|Cyprus||Azerbaijan formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus as the sole representative of the island, but has not yet established diplomatic relations with Cyprus. The parliament of Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic issued a resolution recognizing the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus as a sovereign state. While this recognition is not regarded by Azerbaijan and internationally as 'official state-to-state', Azerbaijan itself maintained cordial unofficial relations with the TRNC. In 2004, Azerbaijan threatened to formally recognize the TRNC if the Annan Plan was voted down by the Greek Cypriots (who rejected the plan in one of twin referendums held 24 April 2004 in both the Greek and Turkish zones simultaneously), but backed off the threat when it was pointed out by Cyprus that doing so would be hypocritical, as a portion of its territory just like that of Cyprus itself is under occupation and would probably result in negative impact on its ongoing dispute with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh.|
|Czech Republic||29 January 1993||See Azerbaijan–Czech Republic relations
|Denmark||2 April 1992||See Azerbaijan-Denmark relations|
|Estonia||20 April 1992||See Azerbaijan-Estonia relations|
|Finland||24 March 1992||See Azerbaijan–Finland relations|
|France||21 February 1992||See Azerbaijan–France relations|
18 November 1992
|See Azerbaijan–Georgia relations
|Germany||20 February 1992||See Azerbaijan–Germany relations
|Greece||2 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Greece relations
|Hungary||27 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Hungary relations
|Ireland||1 July 1996||See Azerbaijan–Ireland relations|
|Italy||8 May 1992||See Azerbaijan–Italy relations|
|Latvia||11 January 1994||See Azerbaijan–Latvia relations
|Lithuania||27 November 1995||See Azerbaijan–Lithuania relations
|Luxembourg||See Azerbaijan–Luxembourg relations|
|Malta||See Azerbaijan–Malta relations|
|Montenegro||24 April 2008||See Azerbaijan–Montenegro relations|
|Netherlands||1 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Netherlands relations|
|North Macedonia||28 June 1995||
|Norway||See Azerbaijan–Norway relations|
|Poland||21 February 1992||See Azerbaijan-Poland relations|
|Portugal||4 August 1992||See Azerbaijan-Portugal relations|
|Romania||21 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–Romania relations|
|Russia||4 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Russia relations|
|Serbia||21 August 1997||See Azerbaijan–Serbia relations|
|Slovakia||See Azerbaijan–Slovakia relations|
|Slovenia||See Azerbaijan–Slovenia relations|
|Spain||11 February 1992 ||See Azerbaijan–Spain relations|
|Sweden||8 May 1992||See Azerbaijan–Sweden relations
|Switzerland||21 January 1992||See Azerbaijan–Switzerland relations
6 February 1992
|See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations
11 March 1992
|See Azerbaijan – United Kingdom relations|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Australia||19 June 1992||See Australia–Azerbaijan relations
|Fiji||19 March 2010|
|Marshall Islands||10 March 2010|
|Nauru||11 November 2004|
|New Zealand||29 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–New Zealand relations
|Samoa||See Azerbaijan–Samoa relations|
|Solomon Islands||8 February 2011|
|Tuvalu||9 September 2009||See Azerbaijan–Tuvalu relations|
|Vanuatu||2017||See Azerbaijan–Vanuatu relations|
The frozen conflict over currently largely Armenian-populated region of Nagorno-Karabakh within the Republic of Azerbaijan began when in 1988 the Armenian majority of Nagorno-Karabakh demanded autonomy with demonstrations and persecutions against ethnic Azeris following in Armenia. This led to anti-Armenian rioting in Azerbaijan, with Azerbaijani militias beginning their effort to expel Armenians from the enclave. In 1992 a war broke out and pogroms of Armenians and Azeris forced both groups to flee their homes. In 1994, a Russian-brokered ceasefire ended the war but more than 1 million ethnic Armenians and Azeris are still not able to return home. The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh remains unresolved despite negotiations, that are ongoing since 1992 under the aegis of the Minsk Group of the OSCE, to resolve the conflict peacefully.
The European Stability Initiative (ESI) has revealed in a report from 2012 with the title "Caviar diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe", that since Azerbaijan's entry into the Council of Europe, each year 30 to 40 deputies are invited to Azerbaijan and generously paid with expensive gifts, including caviar (worth up to 1.400 euro), silk carpets, gold, silver and large amounts of money. In return they become lobbyists for Azerbaijan. This practice has been widely referred to as "Caviar diplomacy".
ESI also published a report on 2013 Presidential elections in Azerbaijan titled "Disgraced: Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it". The report revealed the ties between Azerbaijani government and the members of certain observation missions who praised the elections. Azerbaijan's "Caviar diplomacy" at 2013 presidential elections sparked a major international scandal, as the reports of two authoritative organizations Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe/European Parliament and OSCE/ODIHR completely contradicted one another in their assessments of elections.
Non-governmental anti-corruption organization Transparency International has regularly judged Azerbaijan to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world and has also criticized Azerbaijan for the "Caviar diplomacy".
At June 2016 the public prosecutor of Milan has accused the former leader of the (Christian) Union of the Center and of the European People's Party of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Luca Volonte of accepting large bribes from representatives of the Azerbaijani government. Two people with high-level experience of the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly (Pace) have told the Guardian they believe its members have been offered bribes for votes by Azerbaijan. Former Azerbaijani diplomat, Arif Mammadov, alleged that a member of Azerbaijan's delegation at the Council of Europe had €30m (£25m) to spend on lobbying its institutions, including the Council of Europe assembly. PACE ratified the terms of reference of an independent external investigation body to carry out a detailed independent inquiry into the allegations of corruption at the council involving Azerbaijan.
On 6 March 2017, ESISC (European Strategic Intelligence and Security Center) published a scandalous report called "The Armenian Connection" where it veraciously attacked human rights NGOs and research organisations criticising human rights violations and corruption in Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Russia.
ESISC in that report asserted that "Caviar diplomacy" report elaborated by ESI aimed to create climate of suspicion based on slander to form a network of MPs that would engage in a political war against Azerbaijan. In the Second Chapter of the report called "The Armenian Connection: «Mr X», Nils Muižnieks, Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights" that was published on 18 April 2017 ESISC asserted that the network composed of European PMs, Armenian officials and some NGOs: Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, "Human Rights House Foundation", "Open Dialog, European Stability Initiative, and Helsinki Committee for Human Rights, was financed by the Soros Foundation. According to ESISC the key figure of the network since 2012 has been Nils Muižnieks, Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe and the network has served to the interests of George Soros and the Republic of Armenia.
"The report is written in the worst traditions of authoritarian propaganda, makes absurd claims, and is clearly aimed at deflecting the wave of criticism against cover-up of unethical lobbying and corruption in PACE and demands for change in the Assembly", said Freedom Files Analytical Centre.
According Robert Coalson (Radio Free Europe), ESISC is a part of Baku's lobbying efforts to extend to the use of front think tanks to shift public opinion.
European Stability Initiative said that "ESISC report is full of lies (such as claiming that German PACE member Strasser holds pro-Armenian views and citing as evidence that he went to Yerevan in 2015 to commemorate the Armenian genocide, when Strasser has never in his life been to independent Armenia)".
- Azerbaijan and the European Union
- Azerbaijan and the International Monetary Fund
- List of diplomatic missions in Azerbaijan
- List of diplomatic missions of Azerbaijan
- Visa requirements for Azerbaijani citizens
- Valiyev, Anar: "Azerbaijan and the North Caucasus: A Pragmatic Relationship" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 27
- Hübner, Gerald: "Foreign Direct Investment in Azerbaijan—the Quality of Quantity" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 28
- Abbasov, Shahin: "Azerbaijan's Eurovision Story: Great Chances to Improve, But No Political Will" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 32
- Mazziotti, Marius; Sauerborn, Djan; Scianna, Bastian Matteo: "Multipolarity is key: Assessing Azerbaijan's foreign policy"
- CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website
- "USACC. Honorary Council of Advisors". Archived from the original on 15 December 2007.
- "Anglo Asian Mining Floats on AIM". RNS. 29 July 2005. Retrieved 21 April 2010.[permanent dead link]
- "Politics". www.mfa.gov.az. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
- "Diplomatic relations between Azerbaijan and ..." United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
- Azerbaijan - Angola relations.
- Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Буркина-Фасо, Руандой и Кенией "Рол" 31 мая 2004 г.
- Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Союзом Коморских островов Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine "Region plus" 2 February 2010
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Azərbaycan – Cibuti münasibətləri". addisababa.mfa.gov.az (in Azerbaijani).
- "Азербайджан имеет дипломатические отношения с 158 государствами мира". ИА REGNUM (in Russian).
- Азербайджан установил дипотношения с Эритреей и Парагваем. Day.az. 27 April 2004.
- Азербайджан и Свазиленд установили дипломатические отношения Day.Az 7 января, 2010
- Азербайджан открывает посольство в Эфиопии. 1news.az. 28 December 2012.
- Азербайджан установил дипотношения с Республикой Малави[permanent dead link] Day.Az 27 Мая 2004
- "Azərbaycan Respublikasının Mərakeş Krallığındakı Səfirliyinin kurasiyasında olan ölkələrlə ikitərəfli münasibətlər". rabat.mfa.gov.az (in Azerbaijani).
- Посол Азербайджана в ЮАР встретился с преподавателями и студентами Преторийского университета Archived 16 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine Vesti.Az 1 November 2012.
- Azərbaycan ilə Toqo arasında diplomatik əlaqələr qurulub. Trend. 29 December 2010.
- "Bilateral relations between Argentina and Azerbaijan". buenosaires.mfa.gov.az.
- "Representaciones argentinas en el exterior | Embajada en El Salvador". esalv.cancilleria.gob.ar. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
- "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Argentina". buenosaires.mfa.gov.az (in Spanish).
- "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Brazil". brasilia.mfa.gov.az (in Azerbaijani).
- "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Brasília". brasilia.mfa.gov.az.
- "Embassy of Brazil in Baku". baku.itamaraty.gov.br.
- "Embassy of Azerbaijan". Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Ottawa". ottawa.mfa.gov.az.
- Government of Canada, Foreign Affairs Trade and Development Canada. "Canada - Azerbaijan Relations". www.canadainternational.gc.ca.
- "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Chile" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Colombia". Cancillería. 20 March 2012.
- "Embassy of Colombia in Baku". azerbaiyan.embajada.gov.co.
- "The relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Cuba" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Доминиканкой Республикой Archived 26 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine "1news.az " 13 November 2007
- "ЭТОТ ДЕНЬ В ИСТОРИИ". azertag.az.
- Между Азербайджаном и Гренадой подписано коммюнике об установлении дипломатических связей Archived 27 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine "Информационное агентство TREND " 24 September 2010
- "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Mexico City". mexico.mfa.gov.az.
- "Azərbaycan Respublikasının Meksika Birləşmiş Ştatlarındakı Səfirliyi". mexico.mfa.gov.az.
- "Azerbaiyán". directorio.sre.gob.mx.
- "Nicaragua fortalece relaciones con la República de Azerbaiyán". Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Nicaragua". Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Азербайджан установил дипотношения с Эритреей и Парагваем[permanent dead link] Day.Az 28 Апреля 2004
- "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Peru" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Азербайджан и Сент-Люсия установили дипломатические отношения Archived 15 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine 1NEWS.az 12.03.2010
- Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Тринидадом и Тобаго Archived 3 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine News.mail.ru 12 April 2011
- James P. Nichol. Diplomacy in the Former Soviet Republics, Praeger/Greenwood, 1995, ISBN 0-275-95192-8, p. 150
- "Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United States of America". washington.mfa.gov.az.
- "U.S. Embassy in Azerbaijan". Department of State. 31 July 2019.
- "Parlamentarios de Azerbaiyán visitaron Uruguay". Montevideo Portal.
- "Azərbaycan :: Baş səhifə". www.azerbaijans.com.
- "Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the People's Republic of China". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Country Studies/Azerbaijan/The Foreign Policy Establishment". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
- "caucaz.com". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Azerbaijan–Israel relations
- "Welcome to Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan in Japan!". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Japan in Azerbaijan". Archived from the original on 15 June 2009.
- AZERBAIJAN - JORDAN RELATIONS.
- "Azerbaijan, Jordan keen on strengthening economic, trade ties". AzerNews.az. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan". amman.mfa.gov.az. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "İKİTƏRƏFLİ MÜNASİBƏTLƏR". beirut.mfa.gov.az.
- "Embassy of Pakistan in Azerbaijan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Pakistan Archived 8 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Harut Sassounian. Armenia Finally Counters Pakistan’s Anti-Armenian Policies. The Armenian Weekly. November 29, 2016
- [dead link]
- Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia discuss prospects of military cooperation. Azernews. 7 February 2018
- Lusine Musayelian. Armenia No Friend To Muslim States, Says Aliyev. Azatutyun. 13 December 2017.
- "Azərbaycan Respublikasının Koreya Respublikasındakı səfirliyi". seoul.mfa.gov.az.
- "주 아제르바이잔공화국 대한민국 대사관". overseas.mofa.go.kr (in Korean).
- . Eurasia Diary. 28 March 2016
- Культурный обмен Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine "Russian Emirates Advertisement"
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Azerbaijani president: Armenians are guests in Yerevan Archived 12 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, REGNUM News Agency, 17 January 2008
- Azerbaijan Country Page Archived 8 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. NCSJ: Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia. Accessed 23 May 2010.
- "Azerbaijani president: Armenians are guests in Yerevan". REGNUM News Agency. 17 January 2008. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- Expert Opinion: Neither Peace Nor War: Why Clashes on the Armenia-Azerbaijan Border Didn’t Change the Status Quo, Valdai Club, 21 August 2020
- "Azemb Vienna". Archived from the original on 1 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Außenministerium Österreich - Botschaft - Baku". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Belarus". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "AZEMBASSY BELGIUM". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "専業主婦の借り入れ｜すぐ審査の通る今日中に". Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Bulgaria in Azerbaijan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Croatia". Archived from the original on 15 January 2013.
- Turkey and Azerbaijan: The Honeymoon is Over by Fariz Ismailzade. Turkishpolicy.com
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in the Czech Republic Archived 5 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Denmark" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- "Azerbaijani embassy in Paris". paris.mfa.gov.az.
- French embassy in Baku Archived 16 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Information on history of bilateral relations". berlin.mfa.gov.az. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- "Willkommen auf der Startseite". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Azerbaijan". Archived from the original on 16 July 2006.
- "Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the Hellenic Republic - Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Azerbaijan & Hungary". Azerbaijan. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Missions and representations accredited to Ireland" (PDF). Department of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Ambasciata della Repubblica dell'Azerbaigian". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Italian embassy in Azerbaijan
- "Azerbaijani embassy in Riga". Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- Flexible Solution. "Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the Kingdom of the Netherlands". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Nederlandse Ambassade in Bakoe, Azerbeidzjan". Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Azerbaijan - Portugal relations" (PDF). www.mfa.gov.az. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "Посол Российской Федерации в Азербайджанской Республике » Посольство Российской Федерации в Азербайджанской Республике". Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Azerbaijan - Spain relations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- "Azerbajdzjan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Switzerland". Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Swiss embassy in Baku
- State Secretariat for Economic Affairs SECO, Economic Cooperation and Development Azerbaijan Archived 17 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Ukraine". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Ukraine in Azerbaijan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN - Home". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "UK and Azerbaijan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Azerbaijan - Australia Relations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2018.
- "Azerbaijan, Fiji establish diplomatic relations" Archived 9 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine news.az 18 March 2010 Link accessed 21 March 2010
- Азербайджан и Маршалловы острова установили дипломатические отношения Archived 1 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine "1NEWS.az " 12.03.2010
- "Azerbaijan - New Zealand Relations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- Между Азербайджаном и Тувалу установились дипломатические отношения Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine "AZE.Az" 16 Сентября 2009
- Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Вануату "Ekho Kavkaza" 27 September 2017
- "Fighting Intensifies in Armenian-Azerbaijani War". The New York Times. p. 10. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- Armenia and Azerbaijan still skirting war in Nagorno-Karabakh. thestar.com. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013
- Aserbaidschan: Die Kaviar-Diplomatie (German). Der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved August 3, 2013
- ESI Caviar Diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe Part 1 (PDF) (Report).
- Europe's caviar diplomacy with Azerbaijan must end. EUobserver. Retrieved April 6, 2014
- ""Disgraced. Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it." 5 November 2013, Berlin" (PDF).
- "Who Are The Shadowy Western Observers Weighing In On Azerbaijan's Election?". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso. "Europe, Azerbaijan, and caviar". Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- European MPs' praise for Azerbaijan election sparks row BBC News, 17 October 2013
- Plush hotels and caviar diplomacy: how Azerbaijan's elite wooed MPs The Guardian 24 November 2013
- Transparency International e.V. "Transparency International - Country Profiles". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- How Baku’s ‘caviar diplomacy’ neutered Europe’s rights standards Archived 5 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Democracy Digest. Retrieved August 4, 2013
- Corruzione, "tangente da due milioni dall’Azerbaijan": indagato a Milano ex Udc Volontè // Corriere della Sera, 25 June 2016
- Fresh claims of Azerbaijan vote-rigging at European human rights body // The Guardian. 20 April 2017
- Corruption inquiry at Council of Europe over Azerbaijan // BBC, 30 may 2017
- AN EXPLORATION INTO AZERBAIJAN’S SOPHISTICATED SYSTEM OF PROJECTING ITS INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCE, BUYING WESTERN POLITICIANS AND CAPTURING INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS // Freedom Files Analytical Centre (Civic Solidarity Platform), March 2017
- "The Armenian Connection: How a secret caucus of MPs and NGOs, since 2012, created a network within the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe to hide violations of international law". www.esisc.org. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- "The Armenian Connection. Chapter 2: " Mr X ", Nils Muižnieks, Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights". www.esisc.org. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- Baku Smooths Over Its Rights Record With A Thick Layer Of Caviar // Radio Free Europe, November 08, 2013
- Merchants of Doubt or investigating Corruption // ESI, 21 April 2017