Foreign relations of Azerbaijan

Baku Council of Europe Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

Emblem of Azerbaijan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Azerbaijan
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan portal

The Republic of Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO's Partnership for Peace, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the World Health Organization, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe, CFE Treaty, the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund; and the World Bank.

The major trends in the foreign relations of the Republic of Azerbaijan toward both global and regional powers active in Caucasus area. External variables are categorized depending on their original nature into two groups: global and regional. The former category includes global players such as Moscow and Washington, while the latter category rival regional players, namely Ankara and Tehran. Azerbaijan has formal involvement with senior ex-U.S. government officials including James Baker and Henry Kissinger, as they serve on the Honorary Council of Advisors[1] of the U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce (USACC). USACC is co-chaired by Tim Cejka, President of ExxonMobil and Reza Vaziri, President of R.V. Investment Group and Chairman of the Anglo Asian Mining Plc (LSE Ticker: AAZ).[2]

International organization participation

AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, United Nations, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic relations

Diplomatic relations of Azerbaijan (as of August 2019)

As of 2019, Azerbaijan maintains diplomatic relations with 182 United Nations member states, the State of Palestine and the Holy See.[3][4] Azerbaijan lacks diplomatic relations with the following countries:

Azerbaijan also maintains good relations with the European Union, in the framework of its Eastern European Neighbourhood Policy (See Azerbaijan and the European Union).

Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria–Azerbaijan relations
 Angola 1 December 1994[5] See Angola–Azerbaijan relations
 Benin See Azerbaijan–Benin relations
 Burkina Faso 31 May 2004[6] See Azerbaijan–Burkina Faso relations
 Comoros 2 February 2010[7]
 DR Congo 23 October 2011[8]
 Djibouti 22 October 1996[9] See Azerbaijan–Djibouti relations
 Egypt See Azerbaijan–Egypt relations
 Equatorial Guinea 11 November 2004[10]
 Eritrea 20 April 2004[11]
 Eswatini 7 January 2010[12]
 Ethiopia 2 November 1992[13] See Azerbaijan–Ethiopia relations
 Gambia See Azerbaijan–Gambia relations
 Kenya 31 May 2004[6] See Azerbaijan–Kenya relations
 Lesotho 28 September 2012[8] See Azerbaijan–Lesotho relations
 Liberia See Azerbaijan–Liberia relations
 Madagascar See Azerbaijan–Madagascar relations
 Malawi 21 May 2004[14]
 Morocco 25 December 1992[15] See Azerbaijan–Morocco relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Rabat since 2005.
  • Morocco has an embassy in Baku.
 Nigeria 11 March 1992[8] See Azerbaijan–Nigeria relations
 Rwanda 31 May 2004[6] See Azerbaijan–Rwanda relations
 Senegal See Azerbaijan–Senegal relations
 South Africa 29 April 1992[16] See Azerbaijan–South Africa relations
 Sudan See Azerbaijan–Sudan relations
 Togo 29 December 2010[17]
 Tunisia See Azerbaijan–Tunisia relations
 Uganda See Azerbaijan–Uganda relations
 Zambia See Azerbaijan–Zambia relations
 Zimbabwe See Azerbaijan–Zimbabwe relations

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 8 November 1992[18] See Argentina–Azerbaijan relations
 Bahamas 2 May 2017[8] See Azerbaijan–Bahamas relations
 Barbados See Azerbaijan–Barbados relations
 Brazil 21 October 1993[21] See Azerbaijan–Brazil relations
 Canada 10 July 1992[24] See Azerbaijan–Canada relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Ottawa.[25]
  • Canada is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.[26]
 Chile 11 January 1995[27]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in Baku.
 Colombia 13 December 1994[28]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Bogotá.
  • Colombia has an embassy in Baku.[29]
 Costa Rica See Azerbaijan–Costa Rica relations
 Cuba 27 March 1992[30]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Havana.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Baku.
 Dominican Republic 12 November 2007[31]
 Ecuador 22 March 2004[32] See Azerbaijan–Ecuador relations
 El Salvador See Azerbaijan–El Salvador relations
 Grenada 23 September 2010[33]
 Honduras See Azerbaijan–Honduras relations
 Jamaica See Azerbaijan–Jamaica relations
 Mexico 14 January 1992[34] See Azerbaijan–Mexico relations
 Nicaragua 10 February 1994[37]
  • Azerbaijan is represented in Nicaragua through its embassy in Havana, Cuba.
  • Nicaragua is represented in Azerbaijan through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[38]
 Panama See Azerbaijan–Panama relations
 Paraguay 20 April 2004[39] See Azerbaijan–Paraguay relations
 Peru 25 June 1996[40] See Azerbaijan–Peru relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Baku.[41]
 Saint Lucia 11 March 2010[42]
 Suriname See Azerbaijan–Suriname relations
 Trinidad and Tobago 11 April 2011[43]
 United States 1919,
28 February 1992
See Azerbaijan–United States relations

On 25 December 1991 President George H. W. Bush announced that the United States recognized the independence of all 12 former Soviet republics, including Azerbaijan.[44]

 Uruguay 12 January 1995[47] See Azerbaijan–Uruguay relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Tehran, Iran.
 Venezuela 12 May 1995[48] See Azerbaijan–Venezuela relations
  • Azerbaijan does not have an accreditation to Venezuela.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Baku.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan See Afghanistan–Azerbaijan relations
 Bahrain See Azerbaijan–Bahrain relations
 Bangladesh See Azerbaijan–Bangladesh relations
 Bhutan See Azerbaijan–Bhutan relations
 Cambodia See Azerbaijan–Cambodia relations
 China 2 April 1992 See Azerbaijan-China relations
 India 28 February 1992 See Azerbaijan-India relations
 Indonesia 1992 See Azerbaijan-Indonesia relations
 Iran 1918,
12 March 1992
See Azerbaijan–Iran relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Tehran. and a consulate general in Tabriz.
  • Iran has an embassy in Baku. and a consulate general in Nakhchivan.
  • Both countries are full members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  • Iran recognized Azerbaijan on 4 January 1992, upgraded its consulate in Baku to establish full diplomatic relations.[44][50]
 Israel 7 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Israel relations
  • Azerbaijan is one of the few majority Muslim countries to develop bilateral strategic and economic relations with Israel.[51]
  • Israel was one of the first countries to recognize Azerbaijan on December 25, 1991.[52][circular reference]
 Japan 7 September 1992 See Azerbaijan–Japan relations
 Jordan 13 February 1993[55][56]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Al Kursi.[57]
 Kazakhstan 27 August 1992 See Azerbaijan–Kazakhstan relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Baku since 16 December 1994.
 Kyrgyzstan 19 January 1993 See Azerbaijan-Kyrgyzstan relations
 Lebanon 18 September 1992[58] See Azerbaijan–Lebanon relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Beirut
 Malaysia See Azerbaijan–Malaysia relations
 Maldives See Azerbaijan–Maldives relations
   Nepal See Azerbaijan–Nepal relations
 Qatar See Azerbaijan–Qatar relations
 Pakistan 9 June 1992 See Azerbaijan–Pakistan relations
  • Pakistan was the second country to recognize Azerbaijan after Turkey following the dissolution of the USSR.
  • Pakistan is among the first countries to open an embassy in Baku.[59]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Islamabad.[60]
  • Both countries are full members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  • Due to its support of Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Pakistan does not recognize Armenia as a state.[61]
  • Azerbaijan has also expressed its support for Pakistan's stand on Kashmir.[62]
 Palestine 15 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Palestine relations
  • Palestine has an embassy in Baku since 2011.
 Saudi Arabia 24 February 1992[63] See Azerbaijan–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Riyadh since 1994.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Baku since 1999.
  • Due to its support of Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Saudi Arabia refuses to establish diplomatic relations with Armenia.[64]
 Singapore See Azerbaijan–Singapore relations
 South Korea 23 March 1992 See Azerbaijan–South Korea relations
  • Azerbaijani embassy in Seoul.[65]
  • South Korean embassy in Baku.[66]
  • Bilateral Trade agreement was signed in 2014
    • Exports US$269.5 million.
    • Imports US$0.54 million.
 Sri Lanka See Azerbaijan–Sri Lanka relations
 Syria 28 March 1992[67]
 Tajikistan See Azerbaijan–Tajikistan relations
 Thailand See Azerbaijan–Thailand relations
 Turkey 1918,
14 January 1992
See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Ankara. and a consulate general in Istanbul. and Kars.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Baku. and a consulate general in Nakhchivan. and Ganja.
  • Turkey was the first country to recognise Azerbaijan's independence following the dissolution of the USSR.
  • Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence, preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential.
  • Due to its support of Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Turkey refuses to establish diplomatic relations with Armenia.
 Turkmenistan See Azerbaijan–Turkmenistan relations
 United Arab Emirates 1 September 1992[68] See Azerbaijan–United Arab Emirates relations

The United Arab Emirates recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan on December 26, 1991.

 Uzbekistan See Azerbaijan–Uzbekistan relations
 Vietnam See Azerbaijan–Vietnam relations
 Yemen See Azerbaijan–Yemen relations

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 23 September 1992[69] See Albania–Azerbaijan relations
 Armenia 1918–1921

Armenia and Azerbaijan do not have diplomatic relations today.

See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, Nagorno-Karabakh War

The neighboring nations of Armenia and Azerbaijan have had formal governmental relations between 1918–1921, when both countries were briefly independent. The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute. In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev declared, "Nagorno Karabakh will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia has to accept the reality," and "in 1918, Yerevan was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians were guests here."[70]

During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived side by side in peace. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with mutual massacres in Azerbaijan and Armenia resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions, which was effectively halted when both sides agrees to observe a cease-fire, which has since been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 both also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is currently co-chaired by the U.S., France, and Russia and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.[citation needed]

The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.

If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh, they are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.[71]

In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.[72]

As of July 2020, the new round of military escalation along the border between Armenia and Azerbaijan continued, thus making it one of the most explosive regions in Eurasia.[73]

 Austria 20 February 1992 See Austria–Azerbaijan relations
 Belarus 11 June 1993 See Azerbaijan–Belarus relations
 Belgium 17 June 1992 See Azerbaijan–Belgium relations
 Bulgaria 5 June 1992 See Azerbaijan–Bulgaria relations
 Croatia 26 January 1995 See Azerbaijan–Croatia relations
 Cyprus Azerbaijan formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus as the sole representative of the island, but has not yet established diplomatic relations with Cyprus. The parliament of Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic issued a resolution recognizing the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus as a sovereign state. While this recognition is not regarded by Azerbaijan and internationally as 'official state-to-state', Azerbaijan itself maintained cordial unofficial relations with the TRNC. In 2004, Azerbaijan threatened to formally recognize the TRNC if the Annan Plan was voted down by the Greek Cypriots (who rejected the plan in one of twin referendums held 24 April 2004 in both the Greek and Turkish zones simultaneously), but backed off the threat when it was pointed out by Cyprus that doing so would be hypocritical, as a portion of its territory just like that of Cyprus itself is under occupation and would probably result in negative impact on its ongoing dispute with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh.[81]
 Czech Republic 29 January 1993 See Azerbaijan–Czech Republic relations
 Denmark 2 April 1992[83] See Azerbaijan-Denmark relations
 Estonia 20 April 1992 See Azerbaijan-Estonia relations
 Finland 24 March 1992 See Azerbaijan–Finland relations
 France 21 February 1992 See Azerbaijan–France relations
 Georgia 1918,
18 November 1992
See Azerbaijan–Georgia relations
 Germany 20 February 1992[86] See Azerbaijan–Germany relations
 Greece 2 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Greece relations
Hungary Hungary 27 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Hungary relations
Republic of Ireland Ireland 1 July 1996 See Azerbaijan–Ireland relations
  • Azerbaijan is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).[91]
  • Ireland is represented in Azerbaijan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).
 Italy 8 May 1992 See Azerbaijan–Italy relations
 Latvia 11 January 1994 See Azerbaijan–Latvia relations
 Lithuania 27 November 1995 See Azerbaijan–Lithuania relations
 Luxembourg See Azerbaijan–Luxembourg relations
 Malta See Azerbaijan–Malta relations
 Montenegro 24 April 2008 See Azerbaijan–Montenegro relations

Azerbaijan recognized the independence of Montenegro on July 24, 2006. On April 24, 2008, diplomatic relations between these two countries were established.

 Netherlands 1 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Netherlands relations
 North Macedonia 28 June 1995[97]
  • North Macedonia has an economic office in Baku.
 Norway See Azerbaijan–Norway relations
 Poland 21 February 1992 See Azerbaijan-Poland relations
 Portugal 4 August 1992[98] See Azerbaijan-Portugal relations
 Romania 21 June 1992 See Azerbaijan–Romania relations
 Russia 4 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Russia relations
 Serbia 21 August 1997 See Azerbaijan–Serbia relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Baku.
 Slovakia See Azerbaijan–Slovakia relations
 Slovenia See Azerbaijan–Slovenia relations
 Spain 11 February 1992 [100] See Azerbaijan–Spain relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy office in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 Sweden 8 May 1992 See Azerbaijan–Sweden relations
  Switzerland 21 January 1992 See Azerbaijan–Switzerland relations
 Ukraine 1919,
6 February 1992
See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom 1918,
11 March 1992
See Azerbaijan – United Kingdom relations

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 19 June 1992[109] See Australia–Azerbaijan relations
  • Australia is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Canberra.
 Fiji 19 March 2010[110]
 Marshall Islands 10 March 2010[111]
 Nauru 11 November 2004[10]
 New Zealand 29 June 1992[112] See Azerbaijan–New Zealand relations
  • Azerbaijan is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
 Samoa See Azerbaijan–Samoa relations
 Solomon Islands 8 February 2011[8]
 Tuvalu 9 September 2009[113] See Azerbaijan–Tuvalu relations
 Vanuatu 2017[114] See Azerbaijan–Vanuatu relations

Other entities

Disputes

Nagorno-Karabakh/Azerbaijan

The frozen conflict over currently largely Armenian-populated region of Nagorno-Karabakh within the Republic of Azerbaijan began when in 1988 the Armenian majority of Nagorno-Karabakh demanded autonomy with demonstrations and persecutions against ethnic Azeris following in Armenia. This led to anti-Armenian rioting in Azerbaijan, with Azerbaijani militias beginning their effort to expel Armenians from the enclave. In 1992 a war broke out and pogroms of Armenians and Azeris forced both groups to flee their homes. In 1994, a Russian-brokered ceasefire ended the war but more than 1 million ethnic Armenians and Azeris are still not able to return home. The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh remains unresolved despite negotiations, that are ongoing since 1992 under the aegis of the Minsk Group of the OSCE, to resolve the conflict peacefully.[115][116]

Caviar diplomacy

The European Stability Initiative (ESI) has revealed in a report from 2012 with the title "Caviar diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe", that since Azerbaijan's entry into the Council of Europe, each year 30 to 40 deputies are invited to Azerbaijan and generously paid with expensive gifts, including caviar (worth up to 1.400 euro), silk carpets, gold, silver and large amounts of money.[117][118] In return they become lobbyists for Azerbaijan. This practice has been widely referred to as "Caviar diplomacy".[119]

ESI also published a report on 2013 Presidential elections in Azerbaijan titled "Disgraced: Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it". The report revealed the ties between Azerbaijani government and the members of certain observation missions who praised the elections.[120] Azerbaijan's "Caviar diplomacy" at 2013 presidential elections sparked a major international scandal, as the reports of two authoritative organizations Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe/European Parliament and OSCE/ODIHR completely contradicted one another in their assessments of elections.[121][122][123][124]

Non-governmental anti-corruption organization Transparency International has regularly judged Azerbaijan to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world[124][125] and has also criticized Azerbaijan for the "Caviar diplomacy".[119][126]

At June 2016 the public prosecutor of Milan has accused the former leader of the (Christian) Union of the Center and of the European People's Party of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Luca Volonte of accepting large bribes from representatives of the Azerbaijani government.[127] Two people with high-level experience of the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly (Pace) have told the Guardian they believe its members have been offered bribes for votes by Azerbaijan. Former Azerbaijani diplomat, Arif Mammadov, alleged that a member of Azerbaijan's delegation at the Council of Europe had €30m (£25m) to spend on lobbying its institutions, including the Council of Europe assembly.[128] PACE ratified the terms of reference of an independent external investigation body to carry out a detailed independent inquiry into the allegations of corruption at the council involving Azerbaijan.[129]

ESISC report

On 6 March 2017, ESISC (European Strategic Intelligence and Security Center) published a scandalous report called "The Armenian Connection" where it veraciously attacked human rights NGOs and research organisations criticising human rights violations and corruption in Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Russia.[130]

ESISC in that report asserted that "Caviar diplomacy" report elaborated by ESI aimed to create climate of suspicion based on slander to form a network of MPs that would engage in a political war against Azerbaijan.[131] In the Second Chapter of the report called "The Armenian Connection: «Mr X», Nils Muižnieks, Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights" that was published on 18 April 2017 ESISC asserted that the network composed of European PMs, Armenian officials and some NGOs: Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, "Human Rights House Foundation", "Open Dialog, European Stability Initiative, and Helsinki Committee for Human Rights, was financed by the Soros Foundation. According to ESISC the key figure of the network since 2012 has been Nils Muižnieks, Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe and the network has served to the interests of George Soros and the Republic of Armenia.[132]

"The report is written in the worst traditions of authoritarian propaganda, makes absurd claims, and is clearly aimed at deflecting the wave of criticism against cover-up of unethical lobbying and corruption in PACE and demands for change in the Assembly", said Freedom Files Analytical Centre.[130]

According Robert Coalson (Radio Free Europe), ESISC is a part of Baku's lobbying efforts to extend to the use of front think tanks to shift public opinion.[133]

European Stability Initiative said that "ESISC report is full of lies (such as claiming that German PACE member Strasser holds pro-Armenian views and citing as evidence that he went to Yerevan in 2015 to commemorate the Armenian genocide, when Strasser has never in his life been to independent Armenia)".[134]

See also

Further reading

References

  1. ^ "USACC. Honorary Council of Advisors". Archived from the original on 15 December 2007.
  2. ^ "Anglo Asian Mining Floats on AIM". RNS. 29 July 2005. Retrieved 21 April 2010.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ "Politics". www.mfa.gov.az. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  4. ^ "Diplomatic relations between Azerbaijan and ..." United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  5. ^ Azerbaijan - Angola relations.
  6. ^ a b c Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Буркина-Фасо, Руандой и Кенией "Рол" 31 мая 2004 г.
  7. ^ Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Союзом Коморских островов Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine "Region plus" 2 February 2010
  8. ^ a b c d e "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Azərbaycan – Cibuti münasibətləri". addisababa.mfa.gov.az (in Azerbaijani).
  10. ^ a b "Азербайджан имеет дипломатические отношения с 158 государствами мира". ИА REGNUM (in Russian).
  11. ^ Азербайджан установил дипотношения с Эритреей и Парагваем. Day.az. 27 April 2004.
  12. ^ Азербайджан и Свазиленд установили дипломатические отношения Day.Az 7 января, 2010
  13. ^ Азербайджан открывает посольство в Эфиопии. 1news.az. 28 December 2012.
  14. ^ Азербайджан установил дипотношения с Республикой Малави[permanent dead link] Day.Az 27 Мая 2004
  15. ^ "Azərbaycan Respublikasının Mərakeş Krallığındakı Səfirliyinin kurasiyasında olan ölkələrlə ikitərəfli münasibətlər". rabat.mfa.gov.az (in Azerbaijani).
  16. ^ Посол Азербайджана в ЮАР встретился с преподавателями и студентами Преторийского университета Archived 16 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine Vesti.Az 1 November 2012.
  17. ^ Azərbaycan ilə Toqo arasında diplomatik əlaqələr qurulub. Trend. 29 December 2010.
  18. ^ "Bilateral relations between Argentina and Azerbaijan". buenosaires.mfa.gov.az.
  19. ^ "Representaciones argentinas en el exterior | Embajada en El Salvador". esalv.cancilleria.gob.ar. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  20. ^ "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Argentina". buenosaires.mfa.gov.az (in Spanish).
  21. ^ "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Brazil". brasilia.mfa.gov.az (in Azerbaijani).
  22. ^ "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Brasília". brasilia.mfa.gov.az.
  23. ^ "Embassy of Brazil in Baku". baku.itamaraty.gov.br.
  24. ^ "Embassy of Azerbaijan". Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  25. ^ "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Ottawa". ottawa.mfa.gov.az.
  26. ^ Government of Canada, Foreign Affairs Trade and Development Canada. "Canada - Azerbaijan Relations". www.canadainternational.gc.ca.
  27. ^ "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Chile" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  28. ^ "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Colombia". Cancillería. 20 March 2012.
  29. ^ "Embassy of Colombia in Baku". azerbaiyan.embajada.gov.co.
  30. ^ "The relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Cuba" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  31. ^ Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Доминиканкой Республикой Archived 26 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine "1news.az " 13 November 2007
  32. ^ "ЭТОТ ДЕНЬ В ИСТОРИИ". azertag.az.
  33. ^ Между Азербайджаном и Гренадой подписано коммюнике об установлении дипломатических связей Archived 27 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine "Информационное агентство TREND " 24 September 2010
  34. ^ "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Mexico City". mexico.mfa.gov.az.
  35. ^ "Azərbaycan Respublikasının Meksika Birləşmiş Ştatlarındakı Səfirliyi". mexico.mfa.gov.az.
  36. ^ "Azerbaiyán". directorio.sre.gob.mx.
  37. ^ "Nicaragua fortalece relaciones con la República de Azerbaiyán". Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  38. ^ "Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Nicaragua". Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  39. ^ Азербайджан установил дипотношения с Эритреей и Парагваем[permanent dead link] Day.Az 28 Апреля 2004
  40. ^ "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Peru" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  41. ^ Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  42. ^ Азербайджан и Сент-Люсия установили дипломатические отношения Archived 15 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine 1NEWS.az 12.03.2010
  43. ^ Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Тринидадом и Тобаго Archived 3 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine News.mail.ru 12 April 2011
  44. ^ a b James P. Nichol. Diplomacy in the Former Soviet Republics, Praeger/Greenwood, 1995, ISBN 0-275-95192-8, p. 150
  45. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United States of America". washington.mfa.gov.az.
  46. ^ "U.S. Embassy in Azerbaijan". Department of State. 31 July 2019.
  47. ^ "Parlamentarios de Azerbaiyán visitaron Uruguay". Montevideo Portal.
  48. ^ "Azərbaycan :: Baş səhifə". www.azerbaijans.com.
  49. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the People's Republic of China". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  50. ^ "Country Studies/Azerbaijan/The Foreign Policy Establishment". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
  51. ^ "caucaz.com". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  52. ^ Azerbaijan–Israel relations
  53. ^ "Welcome to Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan in Japan!". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  54. ^ "Embassy of Japan in Azerbaijan". Archived from the original on 15 June 2009.
  55. ^ AZERBAIJAN - JORDAN RELATIONS.
  56. ^ "Azerbaijan, Jordan keen on strengthening economic, trade ties". AzerNews.az. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  57. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan". amman.mfa.gov.az. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  58. ^ "İKİTƏRƏFLİ MÜNASİBƏTLƏR". beirut.mfa.gov.az.
  59. ^ "Embassy of Pakistan in Azerbaijan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  60. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Pakistan Archived 8 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  61. ^ Harut Sassounian. Armenia Finally Counters Pakistan’s Anti-Armenian Policies. The Armenian Weekly. November 29, 2016
  62. ^ [1][dead link]
  63. ^ Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia discuss prospects of military cooperation. Azernews. 7 February 2018
  64. ^ Lusine Musayelian. Armenia No Friend To Muslim States, Says Aliyev. Azatutyun. 13 December 2017.
  65. ^ "Azərbaycan Respublikasının Koreya Respublikasındakı səfirliyi". seoul.mfa.gov.az.
  66. ^ "주 아제르바이잔공화국 대한민국 대사관". overseas.mofa.go.kr (in Korean).
  67. ^ [2]. Eurasia Diary. 28 March 2016
  68. ^ Культурный обмен Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine "Russian Emirates Advertisement"
  69. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  70. ^ Azerbaijani president: Armenians are guests in Yerevan Archived 12 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, REGNUM News Agency, 17 January 2008
  71. ^ Azerbaijan Country Page Archived 8 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. NCSJ: Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia. Accessed 23 May 2010.
  72. ^ "Azerbaijani president: Armenians are guests in Yerevan". REGNUM News Agency. 17 January 2008. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  73. ^ Expert Opinion: Neither Peace Nor War: Why Clashes on the Armenia-Azerbaijan Border Didn’t Change the Status Quo, Valdai Club, 21 August 2020
  74. ^ "Azemb Vienna". Archived from the original on 1 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  75. ^ "Außenministerium Österreich - Botschaft - Baku". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  76. ^ "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Belarus". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  77. ^ "AZEMBASSY BELGIUM". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  78. ^ "専業主婦の借り入れ|すぐ審査の通る今日中に". Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  79. ^ "Embassy of Bulgaria in Azerbaijan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  80. ^ "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Croatia". Archived from the original on 15 January 2013.
  81. ^ Turkey and Azerbaijan: The Honeymoon is Over by Fariz Ismailzade. Turkishpolicy.com
  82. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in the Czech Republic Archived 5 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  83. ^ "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Denmark" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
  84. ^ "Azerbaijani embassy in Paris". paris.mfa.gov.az.
  85. ^ French embassy in Baku Archived 16 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  86. ^ "Information on history of bilateral relations". berlin.mfa.gov.az. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  87. ^ "Willkommen auf der Startseite". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  88. ^ "Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Azerbaijan". Archived from the original on 16 July 2006.
  89. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the Hellenic Republic - Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  90. ^ "Azerbaijan & Hungary". Azerbaijan. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  91. ^ "Missions and representations accredited to Ireland" (PDF). Department of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  92. ^ "Ambasciata della Repubblica dell'Azerbaigian". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  93. ^ Italian embassy in Azerbaijan
  94. ^ "Azerbaijani embassy in Riga". Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  95. ^ Flexible Solution. "Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the Kingdom of the Netherlands". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  96. ^ "Nederlandse Ambassade in Bakoe, Azerbeidzjan". Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  97. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  98. ^ "Azerbaijan - Portugal relations" (PDF). www.mfa.gov.az. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  99. ^ "Посол Российской Федерации в Азербайджанской Республике » Посольство Российской Федерации в Азербайджанской Республике". Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  100. ^ "Azerbaijan - Spain relations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  101. ^ "Azerbajdzjan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  102. ^ "Switzerland". Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  103. ^ Swiss embassy in Baku
  104. ^ State Secretariat for Economic Affairs SECO, Economic Cooperation and Development Azerbaijan Archived 17 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  105. ^ "Embassy of Azerbaijan in Ukraine". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  106. ^ "Embassy of Ukraine in Azerbaijan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  107. ^ "EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN - Home". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  108. ^ "UK and Azerbaijan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  109. ^ "Azerbaijan - Australia Relations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2018.
  110. ^ "Azerbaijan, Fiji establish diplomatic relations" Archived 9 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine news.az 18 March 2010 Link accessed 21 March 2010
  111. ^ Азербайджан и Маршалловы острова установили дипломатические отношения Archived 1 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine "1NEWS.az " 12.03.2010
  112. ^ "Azerbaijan - New Zealand Relations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  113. ^ Между Азербайджаном и Тувалу установились дипломатические отношения Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine "AZE.Az" 16 Сентября 2009
  114. ^ Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Вануату "Ekho Kavkaza" 27 September 2017
  115. ^ "Fighting Intensifies in Armenian-Azerbaijani War". The New York Times. p. 10. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  116. ^ Armenia and Azerbaijan still skirting war in Nagorno-Karabakh. thestar.com. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013
  117. ^ Aserbaidschan: Die Kaviar-Diplomatie (German). Der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved August 3, 2013
  118. ^ ESI Caviar Diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe Part 1 (PDF) (Report).
  119. ^ a b Europe's caviar diplomacy with Azerbaijan must end. EUobserver. Retrieved April 6, 2014
  120. ^ ""Disgraced. Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it." 5 November 2013, Berlin" (PDF).
  121. ^ "Who Are The Shadowy Western Observers Weighing In On Azerbaijan's Election?". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  122. ^ Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso. "Europe, Azerbaijan, and caviar". Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  123. ^ European MPs' praise for Azerbaijan election sparks row BBC News, 17 October 2013
  124. ^ a b Plush hotels and caviar diplomacy: how Azerbaijan's elite wooed MPs The Guardian 24 November 2013
  125. ^ Transparency International e.V. "Transparency International - Country Profiles". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  126. ^ How Baku’s ‘caviar diplomacy’ neutered Europe’s rights standards Archived 5 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Democracy Digest. Retrieved August 4, 2013
  127. ^ Corruzione, "tangente da due milioni dall’Azerbaijan": indagato a Milano ex Udc Volontè // Corriere della Sera, 25 June 2016
  128. ^ Fresh claims of Azerbaijan vote-rigging at European human rights body // The Guardian. 20 April 2017
  129. ^ Corruption inquiry at Council of Europe over Azerbaijan // BBC, 30 may 2017
  130. ^ a b AN EXPLORATION INTO AZERBAIJAN’S SOPHISTICATED SYSTEM OF PROJECTING ITS INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCE, BUYING WESTERN POLITICIANS AND CAPTURING INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS // Freedom Files Analytical Centre (Civic Solidarity Platform), March 2017
  131. ^ "The Armenian Connection: How a secret caucus of MPs and NGOs, since 2012, created a network within the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe to hide violations of international law". www.esisc.org. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  132. ^ "The Armenian Connection. Chapter 2: " Mr X ", Nils Muižnieks, Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights". www.esisc.org. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  133. ^ Baku Smooths Over Its Rights Record With A Thick Layer Of Caviar // Radio Free Europe, November 08, 2013
  134. ^ Merchants of Doubt or investigating Corruption // ESI, 21 April 2017