Five Star Movement
|Political Leader||Vito Crimi (Acting)|
|Founded||4 October 2009|
|Headquarters||Via Nomentana 257, Rome, Italy|
|Newspaper||Il Blog delle Stelle|
|Political position||Big tent|
|European Parliament group||EFDD (2014–2019)|
|Chamber of Deputies|
201 / 630
|Senate of the Republic|
95 / 315
14 / 76
0 / 20
102 / 897
The Five Star Movement (Italian: Movimento 5 Stelle [moviˈmento ˈtʃiŋkwe ˈstelle], M5S) is a political party in Italy. The M5S was founded on 4 October 2009 by Beppe Grillo, a comedian and blogger, and Gianroberto Casaleggio, a web strategist. In 2014 Grillo appointed a directorate composed of five leading MPs (Alessandro Di Battista, Luigi Di Maio, Roberto Fico, Carla Ruocco and Carlo Sibilia), which lasted until the following October when he dissolved it and proclaimed himself the "political head" of the M5S. Grillo is also formally president of the association named the Five Star Movement; his nephew, Enrico Grillo, serves as vice president; and his accountant, Enrico Maria Nadasi, as secretary. Davide Casaleggio, Gianroberto's son, has an increasingly important albeit unofficial role.
The M5S is variously considered populist, anti-establishment, environmentalist, anti-immigration, anti-globalist, and Eurosceptic. The party has also been described as New Right and described by some as being right-wing due to its anti-immigration stance despite its promotion of policies usually advocated by the Italian left-wing, such as citizen's income and green-inspired policies. Grillo himself once provocatively referred to the movement as "populist". Its members stress that the M5S is not a party but a "movement", and it may not be included in the traditional left–right paradigm. The "five stars" are a reference to five key issues for the party: public water, sustainable transport, sustainable development, right to Internet access, and environmentalism. The party also advocates e-democracy, direct democracy, the principle of "zero-cost politics", degrowth and nonviolence.
In the 2013 general election, the M5S won the most votes of all parties (excluding votes from Italians abroad) for the Chamber of Deputies. However, its deputies only held 109 of 630 positions as M5S refused to join a coalition. From 2014 to 2017, the M5S was a member of the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFDD) group in the European Parliament, along with the UK Independence Party and minor right-wing parties. In January 2017, M5S members voted in favor of Grillo's proposal to join the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) group, but the party was eventually refused, and currently sit as non-inscrits.
In 2016, two party members, Virginia Raggi and Chiara Appendino, were elected mayors of Rome and Turin, respectively. On 21–22 September 2017, the Vice President of the Chamber of Deputies Luigi Di Maio was elected with 82% of votes in an online primary election as candidate to the premiership and "political head" of the movement, replacing Grillo as leader of the M5S, but not as the M5S's "guarantor". In January 2018, Grillo separated his own blog from the movement, which was used in the previous years as an M5S online newspaper and the main organ.
On 16 July 2005, Beppe Grillo suggested through his blog that supporters adopt social networks, such as Meetup, to communicate and coordinate local meetings. The first "40 Friends of Beppe Grillo" meetups began with the initial aim to "have fun, get together, share ideas and proposals for a better world, starting from one's own city, and discuss and develop my posts, if you believe them". Meetups featured thematic working groups on topics entitled "technology and innovation", "press-communication", "ethical consumerism", "currency study", "no incinerators" and others. From these beginnings, Grillo was asked to stand in the October 2005 primaries for the selection of the prime ministerial candidate of the centre-left coalition, The Union.
On three occasions (17 December 2005 in Turin, 26 March 2006 in Piacenza, and 16 to 18 June 2006 in Sorrento), the representatives of the Friends of Beppe Grillo meetups held national meetings with Grillo, where proposals regarding environmental issues such as the replacement of polluting incinerators with systems applying mechanical-biological waste treatment were discussed.
During the fourth national meeting held in Genoa on 3 February 2007, Grillo announced his desire to provide an autonomous space during his touring shows for local meetup activists.
On 14 July 2007, some civic list representatives who participated in local elections the previous spring met in Parma to establish a national coordination between associations, movements, and organisations. They met to practise promoting and experimenting with direct and participatory democracy and to share a document of intent, which included the establishment of proposals, repealing referenda, the direct election of the Ombudsman, the institution of participatory budgeting, and a "bound" mandate for public administrators and open primaries.
On 14 June 2007, Grillo launched Vaffanculo Day (Fuck-off Day), or V-Day, in Bologna. V-Day was meant to mobilize the collection of signatures to submit a popular initiative seeking to introduce preferences in the current electoral law and to prevent parliamentary candidate nominations for the criminally convicted and those who have already completed two terms in office.
The name V-Day was chosen to reflect four references. The first refers to the Normandy landings of the Allies in Normandy during World War II in order to symbolise how Italian citizens would "invade" bad policy. The second refers to the motion picture and graphic novel V for Vendetta which the Five Stars Movement frequently relates with its principles of political renewal (the logo of the movement shares the use of a red V symbol with the franchise). The third refers to the interjection "vaffanculo" ("fuck you!") directed at bad policy. The fourth is a reference to the Roman numeral for five.
V-Day, which continued the "Clean Parliament" initiative promoted by Grillo since 2006, took place in many Italian cities on 8 September 2007 to evoke the state of confusion caused by the Badoglio Proclamation on 8 September 1943. On that day, 336,000 signatures were collected, far exceeding the 50,000 required to file a popular initiative law. For the occasion, Michele Serra coined the term grillismo.
V2-Day was organised for 25 April 2008, a second day of action aimed at collecting signatures for three referenda. On 29 and 30 September 2007 in Lucca, several members of the meetups and local civic lists, in the initial wake of the discussions started on the net and in the wake of the previous meeting of Perugia, defined the policies for the establishment of civic lists. On 10 October 2007, Grillo gave guidance on how to create the civic lists.
Five Star Civic Lists
On 3 December 2008, Grillo presented the symbol of the Five Star Civic Lists for the 2009 local elections. The logo in the "V" of "citizenship" is a reference to V-Day On 17 February 2009 in Bologna, a gathering of civic lists discussed the future of the movement and the coming elections. In particular, Sonia Alfano consulted with the activist base of the movement about her possible candidacy for the European Parliament as an independent candidate with the Italy of Values list.
On 8 March 2009, the first national meeting of the Five Star Civic Lists was held in Florence. Here, Grillo presented the Charter of Florence, a 12-point program of the various local civic lists in the afternoon. About twenty local groups presented their ideas and experiences. In April, Grillo announced he had received a letter from Nobel Prize winner in economics Joseph Stiglitz in which he declared he would look carefully at the experience of local civic lists promoted through the blog.
On 29 March 2009, Grillo announced that in the upcoming European elections he would support Luigi de Magistris and Sonia Alfano (figures close to the movement) as independent candidates in the lists of Italy of Values, together with the journalist Carlo Vulpio (also close to the movement). On 11 June, De Magistris and Alfano, candidates in all five constituencies, were elected to the European Parliament, resulting in the first and second preferences (of 419 000 and 143 000). In the same election, as stated by Beppe Grillo, 23 councilors were elected from the Five Star Civic Lists, especially in the municipalities of Emilia-Romagna in North Italy.
On 9 September 2009, the launch of the National Five Star Movement, inspired by the ideologies of the Charter of Florence, was announced.
2010–2012 regional and local elections
During the 2010 regional elections, the M5S obtained notable results in the five regions where it ran a candidate for President: Giovanni Favia gained 7.0% of the vote in Emilia-Romagna (6.0% for the list, with two regional councilors elected); Davide Bono 4.1% in Piedmont (3.7%, two councilors); David Borrelli 3.2% in Veneto (2.6%, no councilors); Vito Crimi 3.0% in Lombardy (2.3%, no councilors); and Roberto Fico 1.3% in Campania (1.3%, no councilors).
In the local elections on 15 and 16 May 2011, the M5S was present in 75 of the 1,177 municipalities in the vote, including 18 of the 23 provincial capitals called to vote. In the first round, the M5S entered its representatives in 28 municipalities (for a total of 34 elected councilors) and often resulting in some important decisive ballots. Its best results were in the cities and towns of the center-north, especially in Emilia-Romagna where the list achieved a share of the vote of between 9% and 12% in Bologna, Rimini and Ravenna) and Piedmont. In the south it rarely obtained 2% of the vote.
In the regional elections in Molise on 16 and 17 October 2011, the M5S had its own candidate for the presidency and its own list. The list received 2.27% of the votes and the presidential candidate garnered 5.60% of the vote, but the movement achieved no seats.
In the 2012 local elections, the M5S did well in several cities of the North, notably in Genoa (14.1%), Verona (9.5%), Parma (19.9%), Monza (10.2%), and Piacenza (10.0%). In the small Venetian town of Sarego, the M5S's candidate was elected mayor with 35.2% of the vote (there is no run-off in towns with less than 15,000 inhabitants). In the run-offs the party won the mayorships of Parma (60.2%), Mira (52.5%), and Comacchio (69.2%). After the election, the party consistently scored around 15–20% nationally in opinion polls, frequently ahead of The People of Freedom and second to the Democratic Party.
In the Sicilian regional elections of 2012, the M5S fielded Giancarlo Cancelleri as candidate. The campaign kicked off with Grillo's arrival in Messina on 10 October swimming from the mainland. In the election, Cancelleri came third with 18.2% of the vote, while the M5S was the most voted for party at 14.9%, obtaining 15 seats out of 90 in the Regional Assembly in a very fragmented political landscape. However, the election was characterised by low participation as only 47.4% of eligible voters turned out to vote.
2013 general election
On 29 October 2012, Grillo announced guidelines for candidates wishing to stand in the 2013 general election. For the first time in Italy, the candidates were chosen by party members through an online primary, which took place 3 to 6 December.
On 12 December 2012, Grillo expelled two leading members from the party: Giovanni Favia, regional councillor of Emilia-Romagna; and Federica Salsi, municipal councillor in Bologna, for breaking the party's rules. The former had talked about the lack of democracy within the party while the latter had taken part in a political talk show on Italian television, something that was discouraged and later forbidden by Grillo.
On 22 February 2013, a large crowd of 800,000 people attended Grillo's final rally before the 2013 general election in Piazza San Giovanni in Rome. On 24 and 25 February 2013, the M5S contested all Italian constituencies: Grillo was listed as head of the coalition, although he was not an electoral candidate. The vote for M5S in the Chamber of Deputies reached 25.55% of the vote in Italy and 9.67% for overseas voters, a total of 8,784,499 votes, making it the second most voted-for list after the Democratic Party (which acquired 25.42% of the votes in Italy and 29.9% abroad, or 8,932,615 votes), electing 108 deputies. The M5S vote for the Senate was 23.79% in Italy and 10% abroad, a total of 7,375,412 votes, second only to the Democratic Party (which garnered 8,674,893 votes), electing 54 Senators. The party gained a higher share of the vote than was predicted by any of the opinion polls. The M5S won 25.6% of the vote for the Chamber of Deputies, more than any other single party. However, both the Italy Common Good centre-left coalition dominated by the Democratic Party, and the centre-right alliance centred on The People of Freedom, obtained more votes as coalitions. The M5S was the largest party in the Abruzzo, Marche, Liguria, Sicily and Sardinia regions.
2014 European election
Competing in its first European election, the M5S won second place at the national level 2014 European Parliament elections, receiving 21.15% of the vote and returning 17 members of the European Parliament (MEP).
In the run-up to the 8th parliamentary term, the M5S lacked a European affiliation and sought a European parliament group. Initial negotiations were held with Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) co-president Nigel Farage and The Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA). On 4 June 2014, The Greens/EFA rejected Grillo's attempts to obtain group membership. On 11 June 2014, the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) group rejected M5S as a potential affiliate in a statement citing M5S's perceived Euroscepticism and populism. In an online referendum offered to M5S members on 12 June 2014, the choice of European Parliament affiliation offered were Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD), the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR), or to become Non-Inscrits. Party activists voted 78.1% to join the EFD group. On 18 June 2014, it was announced that the EFD group had enough MEPs to continue into the 8th European Parliament term. On 24 June 2014, M5S MEP David Borrelli was chosen as the group's new co-president and the EFD group name was amended to Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFDD) for the upcoming parliament. The EFDD group lost its official group status on 16 October 2014 after the defection of Latvian MEP Iveta Grigule until Polish MEP Robert Iwaszkiewicz joined the group four days later.
On 17 November 2015, after an online poll in which 40,995 people took part, the movement changed its logo to replace the URL of co-founder Beppe Grillo (beppegrillo.it) with the official movement URL. The other option was to remove Grillo's URL entirely, replacing it with nothing. The grounds for the removal of Grillo's name was "the 5 Star Movement is mature enough and is preparing to govern Italy, so I believe it's correct not to associate it to a name anymore".
Gianroberto Casaleggio's death
The movement's founder and main strategist Gianroberto Casaleggio died on 12 April 2016 in Milan at the age of 61 after a long period of illness due to brain cancer. After his death, his son Davide was appointed as the president of Casaleggio Associati and took his father's office as leader and strategist of the M5S.
2018 general election
In the 2018 general election held on 4 March 2018, none of the three main groupings (the M5S, the centre-right coalition and the Democratic Party-led centre-left) won a majority of seats in Parliament, although the M5S became the largest individual party, with 32.7% of the vote and 227 seats in the Chamber. In May, the M5S entered into coalition talks with centre-left Democratic Party, but Matteo Renzi publicly criticised and rejected the deal being discussed by his fellow party members; the Movement then turned to the Lega Nord. The talks resulted in the proposal for a so-called Government of Change under the leadership of Giuseppe Conte, a law professor close to the M5S. The formation of the cabinet initially failed on 27 May as President Sergio Mattarella did not agree on the appointment of Paolo Savona as Minister of Economy and Finances due to his perceived Euroscepticism.
2019 European Parliament and local elections
2020 leadership crisis
The conservative Spanish newspaper ABC reported on June 15 that then-Foreign Minister of Venezuela Nicolás Maduro paid Gianroberto Casaleggio €3.5 million in 2010 to finance an "anticapitalist, leftist movement in the Italian Republic". Davide Casaleggio said this was fake news that had already surfaced in 2016.
In the M5S, themes are derived from ecology and anti-particracy, promoting the direct participation of citizens, who converge in the management of public affairs through forms of digital democracy. The movement wants to be a "democratic encounter outside of party and associative ties and without the mediation of directive or representational organisms, recognising to all users of the Internet the role of government and direction that is normally attributed to a few". From the economic point of view, it embraces the theories of degrowth, supporting the creation of "green jobs" and the rejection of polluting and expensive "great works", including incinerators and high-speed rail, aiming for an overall better quality of life and greater social justice. The M5S proposes the adoption of large-scale energy projects, elimination of waste, sustainable mobility, protection of territory from overbuilding and teleworking. The movement's political discourse often refers to the Internet as a solution to many social, economic and environmental problems. This approach bears similarities with North American cyber-utopianism and the Californian Ideology.
The movement bases its principles on direct democracy as an evolution of representative democracy. The idea is that citizens will no longer delegate their power to parties (considered old and corrupted intermediates between the state and themselves) that serve the interests of lobby groups and financial powers. They will succeed only by creating a collective intelligence made possible by the Internet.
In order to go in this direction, the M5S chose its Italian and European parliamentary candidates through online voting by registered members of Beppe Grillo's blog. Through an application called Rousseau reachable on the web, the registered users of M5S discuss, approve or reject legislative proposals (submitted then in the Parliament by the M5S group). For example, the M5S electoral law was shaped through a series of online votes, like the name of the M5S candidate for President of the Republic. The choice to support the abolition of a law against immigrants was taken online by members of the M5S even if the final decision was against the opinions of Grillo and Casaleggio. The partnership with the UK Independence Party was also decided by online voting, although the given options for the choice of European Parliament group for M5S were limited to Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD), European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) and "Stay independent" (Non-Inscrits). The option of joining the Greens/EFA group was discussed, but this option was not available at the time of the voting due to that group's prior rejection of the M5S.
Author Simone Natale describes how digital utopianism plays a pivotal role in M5S's worldview, saying that Grillo and Casaleggio describe the web as a "transparent, unified, coherent entity", with its own logic, laws, agency and disruptive agenda. She says that the web, which acts as a mythical panacea, can and “wants” to cure the social and economic ills of Italy, leading the nation towards a more prudent future. She also says that the web is described as a “supermedium” which will significantly change all political, social, informational, and organizational processes. Another author by the name of Roberto Biorcio says that Grillo used the internet as a way for widespread dissemination of their politics consisting of two elements. The first is the idea that the people can express their feelings of "Vaffanculo" which literally translates as "Fuck off!" aimed at the entirety of the political class. Ironically, as the author notes, is that at the same time it was an attempt to transform protest into legitimate political action as they gathered 450,000 signatures for three legislative initiatives created to promulgate a "clean parliament". Another author Eric Turner stipulates that despite the Internet being promoted by Beppe Grillo as horizontal and without hierarchy, he says many people in Italy critique that claim as being deceiving. He quotes blogger Massimo Mantetellini by saying that the mass comments and posts created by the M5S actually create confusion and allows a top-down modality in which the leaders don't follow their own ideas and principles.
It appears that the 5 Star Movement has roots in environmentalism, as well as a left-wing stance on some major social issues. Author Fabio Bordignon states that the very first battles of Beppe Grillo's "people" had their roots relating to but not exclusively: environmentalism and renewable energy; the problems of poverty and precarious employment; the battles against the power of big business and the effects of globalization; the morality of the political sphere and civil rights. He goes on to say that roughly about 10–15% of the laws proposed over the years are dedicated to the environment alone. Another Author, Paolo Natale, claims that in the first years of the party's major success (around 2012), the Movement was made up of mainly younger generations of people, and for the most part males who had received high levels of education as well as having left wing political stances. The author states that these people were searching for alternative ways of participating in politics besides the regular scheme of what existed, and especially in order to achieve good administration, high-quality public transport and green spaces, but with sensitivity to problems linked to local crime. Furthermore, in light of the 2013 election, in order to exemplify how the M5S ranks among other parties for social and environmental stances, author and economist Nicolo Conti created a chart using poll data, the various parties' individual manifestos, and how these preferences interacted and translated into a policy space that the parties contested. His results were that the M5S ranks 1st among other parties in welfare expansion, environmental protection, and market regulation, where welfare expansion meant the expansion of public social services (excludes education), environmental protection meant policies in favor of preserving/conserving the environment, and market regulation meant policies designed to create an equitable and open economic market.
Politics is not a career
One of the most important rules of M5S is that politics is a temporary service: no one who has already been elected twice at any level (local or national) can be a candidate again and has to return to their original job. Another feature of the movement is the so-called "zero-cost politics", according to which politics must not become a career and way to make money. Belonging to the movement requires the self-reduction of the salaries of the citizens elected. The movement also rejects campaign contributions. In the regional elections in Sicily in 2012, the Sicilian wing of the M5S also decided to allocate the money saved by the reduction of the salaries of their elected to a fund for microcredit to help small and medium enterprises. In the general elections of 2013, the M5S claimed to have rejected over €42 million of public electoral refunds, supporting its expenses for the campaign with crowdfunding through the blog.
No criminal records
In order to be M5S candidates, citizens must not have a criminal record. The party also supports initiatives to ban politicians with criminal records from being elected. Among the greater political battles of M5S is the ethical commitment to a greater simplicity and transparency to counter the practice of holding two or more positions, which show the intricate conflicts of interest between any organization, subsequently strengthened by public register to avoid centralisations that are nepotistic and clientelistic. The no-criminal-record rule currently prevents the M5S's founder Beppe Grillo from running for office in view of an old conviction for vehicular manslaughter.
On 15 July 2012, Grillo publicly expressed his support for same-sex marriage while the subject was discussed in the National Assembly. In offering his support to marriage between homosexual citizens, Grillo broke his silence on the subject. Some observers had speculated he opposed same-sex marriage.
On 28 October 2014, an online referendum took place among the activists of the M5S on the recognition of same-sex civil partnerships: 21,360 voted yes and 3,908 voted no. In February 2016, the M5S decided not to officially back the proposal of recognition of stepchild adoption for same sex civil partnerships, refusing to take an official stand and gave its parliamentarians freedom to vote their conscience on the matter.
Grillo's campaign has an unwillingness to form alliances as a result of his refusal to be associated or characterised like any of the older political families including the centre-left and centre-right. As the government itself is made up of both centre-left and centre-right parties, the M5S has had difficulties coming to an agreement with any of the other parties. Despite the different views within the party, the issues on which the movement agrees keep the party intact through advocating the main five principles of the M5S.
A Tecné poll in the aftermath of the 2018 Italian general election suggested that 56% of M5S voters preferred a government coalition between M5S and Lega Nord. A coalition between the M5S and the centre-right coalition as a whole was preferred by only 4%. 22% preferred a coalition between the M5S, the centre-left coalition led by the Democratic Party along with the hard-left Free and Equal. A technocratic government was only supported by 1% of the M5S's voters.
The M5S's position on immigration has been ambiguous, but Grillo wrote in his blog on 23 December 2016 that all illegal immigrants should be expelled from Italy, that Schengen should be temporarily suspended in the event of a terrorist attack until the threat has been removed, and that there should be revision of the Dublin Regulation. On 21 April 2017, Grillo published a piece questioning the role non-governmental organizations (NGOs) operating rescue ships off Libya are playing in the migrant crisis, asking where are they getting their money, and strongly suggesting they may be aiding traffickers. On 5 August 2017, Luigi Di Maio, who led the M5S in the 2018 election, called for "an immediate stop to the sea-taxi service" bringing migrants to Europe.
About the politics of the European Union and the Euro, the M5S has often been highly critical, but like on other issues its position is ambiguous. On 12 June 2014, the M5S having been rejected by both the Greens/EFA, and the ALDE European Parliament groups, offered its activists a limited-choice online referendum to choose a group for the party. 78% of participating activists voted for the Eurosceptic EFDD.
On January 2017, the M5S tried to change its group inside the European Parliament, moving from the EFDD to the ALDE. Despite an initial agreement, ALDE leader Guy Verhofstadt refused the M5S' adhesion to the group due to insufficient guarantees to come to a common position on European integration. The attempted move caused a chilling of relations with EFDD leader Nigel Farage, who was not informed about the M5S' agreement with the ALDE. Grillo was highly critical of the rejection and blamed "the establishment" for preventing them joining the ALDE. On 9 January, the Radio Radicale news correspondent David Carretta published documents about the financial and political benefits which would have accrued to the M5S for its adhesion to ALDE on Twitter.
In December 2017, the M5S electoral leader Luigi Di Maio stated that he supported a referendum for Italy to leave the Eurozone and would vote to leave. However, he rejected his previous position in January 2018, refusing the idea of a referendum on the Euro, which was previously strongly supported by the movement. In February 2018, Di Maio also stated that "European Union is the Five Star Movement's home".
During the 2010 Italian elections, some parties highlighted a contradiction between the voluntary collective action in the struggles of civil society and openness in political representation Also in 2010, there were tensions between the movement and Italy of Values party.
In March 2012, a city councillor in Rimini, Valentino Tavolazzi, advocated a national meeting on behalf of the movement, which gathered about 150 participants. At the meeting, there was both praise and criticism from the participants including from the few politicians who were present. The meeting took a harsh stance on the "conditions of Regulation M5S" because it was discovered to be in conflict with the statutes of its Civic Party of origin Project for Ferrara. In response, they lost the use of the logo and were banned from taking any position on behalf of M5S, which was portrayed as a controversial move regarding internal democracy.
Since 2007, Grillo has criticized the cost of politics by supporting the reduction of payment for deputies and senators. Based on this policy, the benefits received by members of parliament would not exceed €5,000 gross per month, with any surplus returned to the state with solidarity allowance (also called end-term). However, according to the regional director of the M5S, Giovanni Favia, the deduction of €5,000 gross salary of parliamentarians is contrary to the principles of the movement as it would result in a reduction of only €2,500 net. In an interview published in several newspapers in November 2012, Favia estimated at €11,000 per month the fees prescribed for a member of M5S. The article does not explain how Favia got to deduct that amount because it necessarily includes reimbursements and per diem is not flat as costs and expenses which vary from member to member.
Following the expulsion of Giovanni Favia and Federica Salsi for expressing views about the lack of internal democracy, the party has expelled several members for criticisms. The expulsions were made unilaterally by Grillo and as per regulation took place without prior consultation with members of the movement.
Another criticism frequently made by the same movement activists and former activists, such as Federico Pistono, social entrepreneur and author of Robots Will Steal Your Job, But That's OK: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy and former member, is about the absence of any form of effective participation on the web. There is a tool for collective writing of the program and the proposed laws, but the forum is considered inadequate for the purpose. Through his blog in September 2012, Grillo said that a portal to participate via the web was already under construction. The triggering was scheduled for the end of 2012, but at the time of the February 2013 elections it was not yet realized.
On 28 January 2014, Giorgio Sorial, a deputy of the M5S, accused President Giorgio Napolitano of being a hangman who repressed opponents. Prime Minister Enrico Letta immediately defended President Napolitano, charging the M5S with being extremists. The following day, Angelo Tofalo, another deputy of the movement, ended his speech in the Chamber of Deputies by shouting Boia chi molla! ("Hangman the one who gives up!") a famous motto used during the Fascist era. Often the movement's members, especially its leader Beppe Grillo, have been accused of being too vulgar and (verbally) violent.
Once a M5S demonstration inside the Chamber of Deputies against a law approved by the government caused a brawl between the M5S, the centrist Civic Choice, the right-wing Brothers of Italy and the centre-left Democratic Party. Following insults to the President of the Chamber of Deputies Laura Boldrini, Italian journalist Corrado Augias stated on 31 January 2014 that the violence used by the M5S reminded him of fascism. The following day, a militant activist of the M5S burned some of Augias books and uploaded the photos to his Facebook profile because according to him "Augias offended the movement". This episode was readily taken up by major national newspapers and heavily criticized by public opinion due to some similarities with Nazi book burnings. Grillo criticized the action, saying the person who uploaded the photos did not represent the movement.
In the 2018 campaign the M5S asserted that they would not have given public money to banks. In 2019 the M5S–Lega coalition gave its consent to the possible bailout of Banca Carige's debt, consisting of an amount of up to 1.6 billion dollars, in order to compensate bondholders and shareholders. The M5S had previously criticized a similar bailout of Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena approved by the Gentiloni government.
The electoral results of the M5S in general (Chamber of Deputies) and European Parliament elections since 2013 are shown in the chart below.
|Chamber of Deputies|
109 / 630
227 / 630
|119||Luigi Di Maio|
|Senate of the Republic|
54 / 315
112 / 315
|58||Luigi Di Maio|
17 / 73
14 / 76
|3||Luigi Di Maio|
|Aosta Valley||2018||6,652 (5th)||10.4||
4 / 35
5 / 51
13 / 80
|South Tyrol||2018||6,670 (8th)||2.4||
1 / 35
2 / 35
5 / 50
|Friuli-Venezia Giulia||2018||29,810 (4th)||7.1||
4 / 49
2 / 50
6 / 30
5 / 40
5 / 30
1 / 21
10 / 51
7 / 31
6 / 21
7 / 50
7 / 50
3 / 21
0 / 30
20 / 70
6 / 60
- Leader: Luigi Di Maio (2017–2020), Vito Crimi (interim) (2020–present)
- Guarantor: Beppe Grillo (2017–present)
- President: Beppe Grillo (2009–present)
- Vice President: Enrico Grillo (2012–present)
- Secretary: Enrico Maria Nadasi (2012–present)
- Leader in the Chamber of Deputies: three-month rotation (2013–2018), Giulia Grillo (2018), Francesco D'Uva (2018–present)
- Leader in the Senate: three-month rotation (2013–2018), Danilo Toninelli (2018), Stefano Patuanelli (2018–present)
- Leader in the European Parliament: three-month rotation (2014–2019), Tiziana Beghin (2019–present)
- Andrea Bassi (12 March 2013). "M5s, ecco lo statuto del Movimento 5 stelle. L'atto costitutivo firmato a Cogoleto da Beppe Grillo, il nipote Enrico Grillo e il commercialista. Non compare il nome di Casaleggio". The Huffington Post.
- "M5S: Di Maio, Grillo sempre con noi, garante e risorsa - Politica". Ansa. 12 January 2018.
- "La verità sul voto su Rousseau. Le 10 fake news a cui non credere". ilblogdellestelle.it. 31 August 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- "Populists close in on power in Italy". BBC. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- Squires, Nick; Foster, Peter (4 March 2018). "Populist Five Star Movement wins largest share of vote in Italian election, exit poll indicates". The Telegraph.
- "Italy anti-establishment parties make big gains in election". Financial Times. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Beppe Grillo". www.facebook.com.
- Clarke, Hilary. "The populists striking fear into Italy's mainstream parties". CNN.
- Casaleggio, Davide (19 March 2018). "Opinion | A top leader of Italy's Five Star Movement: Why we won". Washington Post. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- Mazzini, Silvia. "Can Beppe Grillo's internet democracy work?". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- Keating, Dave. "On Energy, Italy's Five Star Movement Could Rock The Boat". Forbes. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- Kirchgaessner, Stephanie; Boffey, Daniel (5 March 2018). "Eurosceptic Italy in race to form majority government". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Di Maio: "Cambiare l'Europa rimanendo in UE ed euro"". 2 September 2019.
- Bordignon, Fabio; Ceccarini, Luigi (26 March 2014). "Protest and project, leader and party: normalisation of the Five Star Movement". Contemporary Italian Politics. 6 (1): 54–72. doi:10.1080/23248823.2014.881015. S2CID 144356815.
- "Alleanze in Europa, il M5S sceglie l'Ukip di Farage. Ma la base accusa: votazione pilotata". Repubblica.it. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- europe online publishing house gmbh - europeonline-magazine.eu (16 May 2014). "1ST LEAD Italy protest party to form EU alliance with British eurosceptics UKIP By Alvise Armellini, dpa | EUROPE ONLINE". En.europeonline-magazine.eu. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Notizie in due minuti". Corriere della Sera. 5 October 2009. p. 64. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "M5S supporters give thumbs up to Grillo directorate - English". ANSA.it. 28 November 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
- "Svolta di Grillo: "Sono il capo politico"". Il Sole 24 Ore.
- Di martedì 19 aprile 2016 (19 April 2016). "Chi comanda ora nel Movimento 5 Stelle? Il ruolo di Davide Casaleggio". Polisblog. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- Altri articoli dalla categoria (21 September 2016). "M5s, la prima volta di Davide Casaleggio". la Repubblica. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- "Il nuovo regolamento M5S e il ruolo di Davide Casaleggio nelle espulsioni". neXtQuotidiano. 26 September 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- Lorenzo Mosca; Filippo Tronconi (2019). "Beyond left and right: the eclectic populism of the Five Star Movement". West European Politics. 42 (6): 1258–1283. doi:10.1080/01402382.2019.1596691. S2CID 182265350.
- "Greece 'leaves behind the austerity that ruined it,' party leader vows after vote". CNN. 25 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- Maria Elizabetta Lanzone (2014). "The "post-modern" populism in Italy: The case of the Five Star Movement". In Dwayne Woods; Barbara Wejnert (eds.). Many Faces of Populism: Current Perspectives. Emerald Group Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78350-257-8.
- Paul Rowinski (2013). "Euroscepticism in the Berlusconi and Murdoch Press". In Alec Charles (ed.). Media/Democracy: A Comparative Study. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-4438-5008-7.
- John Foot (2014). Modern Italy. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 223–226. ISBN 978-1-137-04192-0.
- Emilie van Haute; Anika Gauja, eds. (2015). "List of party names and abbreviations". Party Members and Activists. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-317-52432-8.
- Donatella M. Viola (2015). "Italy". In Donatella M. Viola (ed.). Routledge Handbook of European Elections. Routledge. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-317-50363-7.
- Lorenzo Mosca; Filippo Tronconi (2019). "Beyond left and right: the eclectic populism of the Five Star Movement". West European Politics. 42 (6): 1258–1283. doi:10.1080/01402382.2019.1596691. S2CID 182265350.
- Guy Dinmore. "Italy's Beppe Grillo battles to sustain anti-establishment message". Financial Times.
- Walter Kickert; Tiina Randma-Liiv (2015). Europe Managing the Crisis: The Politics of Fiscal Consolidation. Routledge. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-317-52570-7.
- James Mackenzie (29 November 2014). "'Tired' Grillo overhauls leadership of Italy's 5-Star Movement". Reuters. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Andrew Gamble; William Brett; Jacek Tomkiewicz (2014). "The Political Economy of Change in a Time of Political Crisis". In John Eatwell; Pascal Petit; Terry McKinley (eds.). Challenges for Europe in the World, 2030. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 313. ISBN 978-1-4724-1925-5.
- Wolfram Nordsieck (2018). "Italy". Parties and Elections in Europe.
- John Hooper (15 March 2013). "Parliamentary gridlock in Italy as Five Star Movement refuses to make deal". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Matthew McManus (2020). The Rise of Post-Modern Conservatism: Neoliberalism, Post-Modern Culture, and Reactionary Politics. Springer Nature. p. 199. ISBN 978-3-030-24682-2.
- John L. Lyons (2020). Globalization and the Neoliberal Schoolhouse: Education in a World of Trouble. BRILL. p. 33. ISBN 978-90-04-41360-3.
- Linda Reeder (2020). Italy in the Modern World: Society, Culture and Identity. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 262. ISBN 978-1-350-00519-8.
- Davide Torsello (2013). The New Environmentalism?: Civil Society and Corruption in the Enlarged EU. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4094-9511-6.
- Tom Lansford, ed. (2013). Political Handbook of the World 2013. SAGE Publications. p. 716. ISBN 978-1-4522-5825-6.
- Michael Day (22 February 2013). "Italian election: Surge in popularity for eurosceptic protest party headed by stand-up comedian Beppe Grillo raises fears in EU - Europe - World". The Independent. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Munir Hussain (2016). The European Union: On the Verge of Global Political Leadership. Springer. p. 96. ISBN 978-981-10-2884-7.
- Ann-Catherine Jungar (2018). "Repercussions of right-wing populism for European integration". In Ulf Bernitz; Moa Mårtensson; Thomas Persson; Lars Oxelheim (eds.). Bridging the Prosperity Gap in the EU: The Social Challenge Ahead. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-78643-667-2.
- Hiroshi Shiratori (2016). "Cost of Democracy: Changing Aspects of Modern Democracy". In Hideko Magara (ed.). Policy Change Under New Democratic Capitalism. Taylor & Francis. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-315-46944-7.
- "Italiens Lega legt in Umfragen zu". Junge Welt. 31 May 2018.
- Paolo Gerbaudo (2014). "Populism 2.0: Social media activism, the generic Internet user and interactive direct democracy". In Daniel Trottier; Christian Fuchs (eds.). Social Media, Politics and the State: Protests, Revolutions, Riots, Crime and Policing in the Age of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Routledge. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-1-317-65548-0.
- "Grillo, confessione a eletti M5S: 'Finzione politica l'impeachment di Napolitano'". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "The Citizen in Power". Beppegrillo.it. Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Zero-Cost Politics". Beppegrillo.it. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Redazione La Fucina (20 November 2013). "La denuncia di Latouche: "Vogliono delegittimare Grillo e il M5S"". Lafucina.it. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Grillo, il Movimento 5 stelle, e la Nonviolenza". Pressenza.com. 11 April 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Risultato elezioni 2013: con i voti degli italiani all'estero il Pd è il primo partito alla Camera". The Huffington Post. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
- "M5s, Parlamento Ue: salta il passaggio a eurogruppo Alde. Verhofstadt: "Poche garanzie"". la Repubblica. 9 January 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- Rosie Scamell (20 June 2016). "Anti-establishment candidates elected to lead Rome and Turin". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "M5s, Di Maio eletto candidato premier e nuovo capo politico. Ma alle primarie votano solo in 37 mila". la Repubblica. 23 September 2017.
- Imarisio, Marco (23 September 2017). "Movimento 5 Stelle: l'incoronazione gelida. E Di Maio promette a tutti "disciplina e onore"". Corriere della Sera.
- "Il blog di Beppe Grillo è cambiato". il Post. 23 January 2018.
- Ian Bremmer (18 May 2018). "Five Things to Know About Italy's Populist Coalition Government". Time. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- "micromega - micromega-online » Grillini in movimento - Versione stampabile". la Repubblica. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "L'economia secondo i grillini: provocazioni, ma c'è anche buon senso". Il Sole 24 ORE. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "I grillini propongono il 'ritorno alla terra'". Forli24ore.it. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- (m.o.) (4 August 2005). "E il guru per lanciarsi ha scelto 'Meet Up' - La Repubblica". la Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Nulla si crea, nulla si distrugge.Il centro di riciclo di Vedelago". Beppegrillo.it. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Vaffanculo-Day". Beppegrillo.it. 14 June 2007. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "La piazza di Grillo tra politica e populismo - cronaca". la Repubblica. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Liste civiche/1". Beppegrillo.it. 14 October 2007. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Liste Civiche a Cinque Stelle". Beppegrillo.it. 3 December 2008. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Stiglitz e Le Liste Civiche". Beppegrillo.it. 15 April 2009. Archived from the original on 27 February 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "De Magistris in politica: dico addio alla toga". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Comunicato politico numero ventitre". Beppegrillo.it. 4 July 2009. Archived from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Comunicato politico numero venticinque". Beppegrillo.it. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- Casaleggio, Gianroberto. "Casaleggio: "Ho scritto io le regole del Movimento 5 Stelle"". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 23 December 2019.
- "Dipartimento per gli affari esteri e territoriali | Regionali 28/03/2010". elezionistorico.interno.gov.it (in Italian). Ministero degli Interni. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- Tonelli, Matteo (17 May 2011). "Corsa ai ballottaggi, ecco chi deciderà Dal Terzo Polo agli astenuti. E i 5 Stelle..." La Repubblica. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Dipartimento per gli Affari Interni e Territoriali". elezionistorico.interno.gov.it. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
- "Elezioni 2012, Amministrative". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). RCS Mediagroup S.p.a. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "Elezioni 2012 Amministrative,Risultati Comune diVERONA". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). RCS Mediagroup S.p.a. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "Elezioni Amministrative 2012, risultati comune di Parma". Corriere della Sera.
- "Elezioni Amministrative 2012, risultati comune di Monza". Corriere della Sera.
- "Elezioni Amministrative 2012, risultati comune di Piacenza". Corriere della Sera.
- "Elezioni Amministrative 2012, risultati comune di Sarego". Corriere della Sera.
- "Elezioni Amministrative 2012, risultati comune di Mira". Corriere della Sera.
- "Elezioni Amministrative 2012, risultati comune di Comacchio". Corriere della Sera.
- "Elections in Sicily: Tip of the boot". The Economist. 27 October 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- Tom Kington (4 November 2012). "Italian comedian turned politician in row over his 'medieval sexism'". The Observer. London. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- "Sicilia - Elezioni Regionali 28 ottobre 2012". la Repubblica.it. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- Day, Michael (31 October 2012). "Sicily's first gay governor opens a new schism between Italy's old enemies - Europe - World - The Independent". London. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- "Passaparola - Comunicato Politico 53 - Elezioni politiche online - Beppe Grillo - YouTube". Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- "Politiche, Grillo esclude i big E i "perdenti" si fanno avanti - Corriere di Bologna". Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- "Movimento 5 Stelle, i dati ufficiali delle 'parlamentarie': hanno votato in 20.252". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 18 December 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- Liuzzi, Emiliano (12 December 2012). "Movimento 5 Stelle, Grillo caccia Giovanni Favia e Federica Salsi". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- Frye, Andrew; Hertling, James (24 February 2013). "Italians Vote With Berlusconi Challenging Monti Austerity". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Dipartimento per gli Affari Interni e Territoriali | Camera 24/02/2013". elezionistorico.interno.gov.it (in Italian). Ministero degli Interni. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Camera: Ok a vicepresidenti, anche M5S in cabina regia". RaiNews24. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "DI MAIO Luigi - M5S". camera.it. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- Pino Neri (22 March 2013). "Luigi Di Maio, il ventiseienne napoletano, nuovo vicepresidente della Camera". Il Mattino. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "[Scrutini] Europee - Elezioni del 25 maggio 2014 - Ministero dell'Interno". Elezioni.interno.it. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "UKIP's Farage meets Italy's five-Star leader Grillo in Brussels". Reuters. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Post EU Elections. "EUobserver / Five Star movement leader seeks to join EP Green group". EUobserver. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Nielsen, Nikolaj. "EUobserver / Greens reject Beppe Grillo's offer to team up". EUobserver. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Press Release". Alde.eu. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Altri articoli dalla categoria ». "Alleanze in Europa, il M5S sceglie l'Ukip di Farage. Ma la base accusa: votazione pilotata". la Repubblica. Retrieved 25 June 2014.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- europe online publishing house gmbh - europeonline-magazine.eu (17 May 2014). "1ST Lead Italy protest party to form EU alliance with British eurosceptics UKIP By Alvise Armellini, dpa". En.europeonline-magazine.eu. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Post EU Elections. "EUobserver / Farage creates eurosceptic group in EP". EUobserver. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Bruxelles, prima riunione gruppo Ukip-M5S. Farage e Borrelli presidenti – Video Il Fatto Quotidiano TV". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 25 June 2014. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Internazionale » M5S » All'Europarlamento nasce gruppo Efd, "coppia aperta" per M5s-Ukip". Internazionale.it. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "UKIP's alliance in Europe rescued by Polish MEP". BBC News. 20 October 2014.
- "Il nuovo simbolo del M5S". beppegrillo.it. 17 November 2015. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "Comunicato politico numero cinquantasei". beppegrillo.it. 17 November 2015. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "M5s, è morto Gianroberto Casaleggio Fotostoria| Le frasi | I video". Corriere.it (in Italian). Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- Horowitz, Jason (12 December 2016). "With Success Comes Dissension in Italy's Five Star Movement". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
- "Conte says to be Italians' defence lawyer in govt of change - English". 23 May 2018.
- "Mattarella meets Conte, 'vetoed' Savona - English". 27 May 2018.
- "Conte drops govt bid - English". 27 May 2018.
- Giuffrida, Angela (22 January 2020). "Luigi Di Maio resigns as leader of Italy's Five Star Movement". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
- "Chi è Vito Claudio Crimi, nuovo capo del M5s?". it.sputniknews.com (in Italian). Retrieved 22 February 2020.
- "Una investigación asegura que el régimen chavista financió al Movimiento 5 Estrellas que hoy gobierna Italia con 3,9 millones de dólares". infobae (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 June 2020.
- The 5 Star MoVement between Utopia and reality Archived 28 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Beppe Grillo's Blog (2011-06). Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Schiavazzi, Vera (20 August 2012). "La Fiom strizza l'occhio ai grilliniL'idea: fare una lista degli scontenti". La Repubblica. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Movimento Programma" (PDF) (in Italian). Beppegrillo.it. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Natale, Simone; Ballatore, Andrea (1 January 2014). "The web will kill them all: new media, digital utopia, and political struggle in the Italian 5-Star Movement" (PDF). Media, Culture & Society. 36 (1): 105–121. doi:10.1177/0163443713511902. ISSN 0163-4437.
- Johnston, Alan (7 December 2012). "Italy protest party makes waves". BBC. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- Italy’s 5-Star Movement holds online vote to pick candidates Archived 21 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. France 24.com (21 May 2014). Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "M5S Operating System". Sistemaoperativom5s.beppegrillo.it. Archived from the original on 24 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Ecco la legge elettorale del M5S preannunciata da Casaleggio". Europaquotidiano.it. 19 May 2014. Archived from the original on 19 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Quirinarie di M5s, per Rodotà 4.677 voti". Ansa.it. 20 April 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Grillo, gli iscritti del M5S dicono no al reato di immigrazione clandestina". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Alleanze Europarlamento, M5S esclude i Verdi dalle consultazioni: "Troppi veti"". ilfattoquotidiano.it/. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- Natale, Simone; Ballatore, Andrea (2014). "The web will kill them all: New media, digital utopia, and political struggle in the Italian 5-Star Movement" (PDF). Media, Culture & Society. 36: 105–121. doi:10.1177/0163443713511902.
- Biorcio, Roberto (2 January 2014). "The reasons for the success and transformations of the 5 Star Movement". Contemporary Italian Politics. 6 (1): 37–53. doi:10.1080/23248823.2014.884376. ISSN 2324-8823. S2CID 143532735.
- https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319944462. Missing or empty
- Bordignon, Fabio; Ceccarini, Luigi (8 August 2015). "The Five-Star Movement: a hybrid actor in the net of state institutions". Journal of Modern Italian Studies. 20 (4): 454–473. doi:10.1080/1354571x.2015.1066112. ISSN 1354-571X. S2CID 154403724.
- Natale, Paolo (2 January 2014). "The birth, early history and explosive growth of the Five Star Movement". Contemporary Italian Politics. 6 (1): 16–36. doi:10.1080/23248823.2014.886418. ISSN 2324-8823. S2CID 144496176.
- Conti, Nicolò; Memoli, Vincenzo (13 January 2015). "The Emergence of a New Party in the Italian Party System: Rise and Fortunes of the Five Star Movement". West European Politics. 38 (3): 516–534. doi:10.1080/01402382.2014.996377. ISSN 0140-2382. S2CID 154887960.
- Movimento 5 Stelle Emilia-Romagna - Trasparenza - Ci siamo autoridotti lo stipendio. Trasparenza.emiliaromagna5stelle.it (31 December 2012). Retrieved 24 August 2013. Archived 17 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Grillo, gli eletti del M5S in Sicilia restituisconi i rimborsi ma sbagliano cifra - Il Messaggero. Il Messaggero. Retrieved 24 August 2013. Archived 17 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Sicilia, i deputati regionali del Movimento 5 Stelle restituiscono lo stipendio". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 8 January 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Il M5S rinuncia a 42.782.512,50 euro". Beppegrillo.it. 11 March 2013. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "M5S, le spese dello Tsunami Tour online. Ma i nomi dei sostenitori non ci sono". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 11 April 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "PiacenzaSera". Piacenzasera.it. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "I grillini sfidano i partiti 'Via i doppi incarichi' - Cronaca - Messaggero Veneto". Messaggeroveneto.gelocal.it. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "Regione ER, sě all'anagrafe pubblica degli eletti e dei nominati". 24Emilia.com. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Il MoVimento 5 Stelle contro il nepotismo". Beppegrillo.it. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "Articolo non trovato". Il Mattino. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- Redazione (14 July 2012). "ASSEMBLEA PD/ Il partito si spacca sui matrimoni gay, Bindi contro Concia". Ilsussidiario.net. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "Beppe Grillo E Diritti Gay: Un Silenzio Assordante". Gay.tv. 13 April 2007. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "M5S dice sì a unioni gay: Dagli attivisti un plebiscito". AdnKronos. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Sì alle unioni civili, libertà di coscienza per la #StepchildAdoption". Beppegrillo.it/. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
- Bordignon & Ceccarini, Fabio & Luigi (2015). "The Five-Star Movement: a hybrid actor in the net of state institutions". Journal of Modern Italian Studies. 20 (4): 454–473. doi:10.1080/1354571X.2015.1066112. S2CID 154403724.
- Tecné s.r.l., Gli scenari all'indomani delle elezioni politiche. 5 April 2018. http://www.sondaggipoliticoelettorali.it/
- "Grillo calls for mass deportations". Retrieved 29 December 2016.
- "Beppe Grillo chiede 4 misure per proteggere l'Italia dal "viavai dei terroristi". Subito via gli irregolari e stop a Schengen". Retrieved 29 December 2016.
- "Sul blog di Grillo attacco alle ong che soccorrono i migranti: "Ruolo oscuro, da dove prendono i soldi?"". Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- "Italian prosecutors widen investigation to include MSF over migrant rescues: source". Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Matteucci, Piera (3 May 2017). "Tutte le volte del Movimento 5 Stelle contro i vaccini, la Rete smentisce Grillo". Repubblica.it (in Italian). Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
- Nielsen, Nikolaj. "EUobserver / Greens reject Beppe Grillo's offer to team up". Euobserver.com. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Press Release". Alde.eu. 27 January 2014. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "M5s, Parlamento Ue: salta il passaggio a eurogruppo Alde. Verhofstadt: "Poche garanzie"". la Repubblica. 9 January 2017.
- "Il pasticcio del M5S al Parlamento europeo". il Post. 9 January 2017.
- Bresolin, Marco (9 January 2017). "È saltato l'accordo tra M5S e Alde". La Stampa.
- Carretta, David (9 January 2017). "Soldi, posti e voti: ecco l'accordo prematrimoniale sulla roba tra Verhofstadt e Grillo". Twitter.
- Zapperi, Cesare (18 December 2017). "M5S, Di Maio: voterei per l'uscita dall'euro. Renzi: follia per l'economia". Corriere della Sera.
- "Di Maio fa dietrofront: "Non è più il momento di uscire dall'euro"". Il Tempo. 9 January 2018.
- Biondi, Adriano (19 December 2017). "La vera storia del referendum per uscire dall'euro del M5s, da priorità a "extrema ratio"". fanpage.it.
- Salvatori, Pietro (6 February 2018). "Luigi Di Maio torna a casa Europa e rottama la politica estera a 5 stelle". Huffington Post.
- "Grillo, stop a De Magistris: non tocchi il mio movimento". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "Eletti, liberi e belli- Blog di Beppe Grillo". Beppegrillo.it. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "Comprereste un voto usato da quest'uomo?- Blog di Beppe Grillo". Beppegrillo.it. 23 March 2011. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- Di Carmine Saviano. "Una "fedelissima" contro Grillo E continua la tensione con l'Idv". la Repubblica. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "MoVimento 5 Stelle Emilia Romagna: il punto dopo le elezioni- Blog di Beppe Grillo". Beppegrillo.it. 22 April 2010. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "Beppe Grillo espelle Ballestrazzi - Cronaca - Gazzetta di Modena". Gazzettadimodena.gelocal.it. 22 April 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Rimini per noi". Beppegrillo.it. 4 March 2012. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Valentino Tavolazzi". Beppegrillo.it. 5 March 2012. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Grillo caccia consigliere comunale 'Non ha capito il nostro spirito' - Bologna - Repubblica.it". la Repubblica. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Consiglieri Anonimi". Beppegrillo.it. 3 March 2012. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Tavolazzi: "Caro Beppe Grillo, a espellermi hai fatto un errore gravissimo"". Linkiesta (in Italian). 5 March 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- Giulia Zaccariello (30 December 2011). ""Grillo non può espellere nessuno". 5 Stelle divisi sul ruolo del leader". Il Fatto Quotidiano. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "MoVimento". Beppegrillo.it. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Redazione Il Fatto Quotidiano. "Stipendi 5 Stelle, Favia critica Grillo: "Tagli irrisori, 3000 euro di stipendio bastano"". Il Fatto Quotidiano. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Niente dissenso: E Grillo espelle dal M5S gli "eretici" Salsi e Favia". Il Sole 24 ORE. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Grillo caccia Favia e Salsi dal Movimento 5 Stelle". la Repubblica. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Grillo "scomunica" Favia e Salsi L'eletta: "Peggio che nei vecchi partiti" - Bologna - Repubblica.it". la Repubblica. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Emanuele Buzzi. "Bufera sui grillini Avvocati in campo per l'uso del logo". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Interview with Federico, author of "Robots Will Steal Your Job, but That's OK"" (in English and Chinese). Sina Corp. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Riccardo Guerrera. "Grillo, Casaleggio, dov'è il Portale promesso ??? Abbiamo aspettato 3 anni !!! Almeno dateci una data di rilascio ufficiale !!! - Forum". Beppegrillo.it. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Riccardo Guerrera. "Aiutiamo il Movimento 5 Stelle! Vogliamo una piattaforma di collaborazione Wiki - Forum". Beppegrillo.it. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Movimento 5 Stelle, la piattaforma che sostituisce LiquidFeedback - Wired.it". Daily.wired.it. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Portale 5 Stelle". Beppegrillo.it. 19 September 2012. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Il grillino Sorial: "Napolitano boia". Il M5 sotto attacco, ma si divide". la Repubblica. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "La Stampa Cinque Stelle choc: "Napolitano boia" Ira Letta. Renzi: stupidità senza eguali". La Stampa. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Ultime Notizie Online | AGI". Agi.it. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "M5s, nuovo caso dopo Napolitano boia 'Boia chi molla' del deputato alla Camera". la Repubblica. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "M5S: i nuovi resistenti che urlano 'Boia chi molla'". Il Fatto Quotidiano. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Blog Beppe Grillo attacca il Pd con un video violento e volgare. "Due euro per farsi prendere per il c... ancora"". Huffingtonpost.it. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Salsi: Grillo è violento è cattivo con le persone - Bologna - Repubblica.it". la Repubblica. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Bagarre alla Camera: il gesto volgare del deputato M5S - Repubblica Tv - la Repubblica.it". la Repubblica. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Blitz 5 Stelle, occupazione alla Camera Boldrini: «Sono violenti, presto sanzioni". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Rissa Camera, Alessandra Moretti: Insulti sessisti da deputato M5s - Repubblica Tv - la Repubblica.it". la Repubblica. 30 January 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Boldrini, minacce ci sono perché clima surriscaldato - Politica". ANSA.it. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Augias su Di Battista e M5S: "Tutto ridotto a slogan. Fascismo partì così" – Video Il Fatto Quotidiano TV". Il Fatto Quotidiano. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Augias, dopo gli attacchi di Grillo al rogo il suo libro". la Repubblica. 2 February 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Augias, i 5 Stelle e l'eterno spettro del rogo dei libri". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "The Movement 5 Stars loves books and repudiates violence". Beppe Grillo's Blog. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "italy-can-t-isolate-its-naughty-". Bloomberg. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
- "Italy's Populist Revolution Is Gone in 480 Seconds". Bloomberg. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
- "M5s, ecco lo statuto del Movimento 5 stelle. L'atto costitutivo firmato a Cogoleto da Beppe Grillo, il nipote Enrico Grillo e il commercialista. Non compare il nome di Casaleggio (Foto, Documento)". Huffingtonpost.it. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Bigi Alessandro, Bonera Michelle, Bal Anjali (2015) Evaluating political party positioning over time: a proposed methodology. Journal of Public affairs, DOI: 10.1002.
- De Rosa, Rosanna (2013). Voice of the People or Cybercratic Centralism? The Italian case of Beppe Grillo and Movimento Cinque Stelle. Edition Donau-Universität Krems. pp. 89–102.
- Lanzone, Maria Elisabetta (2014). The "Post-Modern" Populism in Italy: The Case of the Five Star Movement. Emerald Group. pp. 53–78.
- Musiani, Francesca (2014). Avant-garde: Digital Movement or "Digital Sublime" Rhetoric? The Movimento 5 Stelle and the 2013 Italian Parliamentary Elections. Springer. pp. 127–140.
- Sæbø, Øystein; Braccini, Alession Maria; Federici, Tommaso (2015). From the Blogosphere into Real Politics: The Use of ICT by the Five Star Movement. Springer. pp. 241–250.
- Tronconi, Filippo (2015). Beppe Grillo's Five Star Movement. Organisation, Communication and Ideology. Ashgate. ISBN 978-1-4724-3663-4.