Federal government of Nigeria

Associate Justice Supreme Court of Nigeria President of Nigeria
Federal Government of Nigeria
Coat of arms of Nigeria.svg
Formation1963; 57 years ago (1963)
Founding documentConstitution of Nigeria
Legislative branch
LegislatureNational Assembly
Meeting placeNational Assembly Complex
Executive branch
LeaderPresident of Nigeria
HeadquartersAso Rock Presidential Villa
Main organCabinet
Judicial branch
CourtSupreme Court
SeatAbuja, FCT
Coat of arms of Nigeria.svg
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The federal government of Nigeria is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the Constitution of Nigeria in the National Assembly, the President, and the federal courts, including the Supreme Court, respectively.

Nigeria is a federal republic, with executive power exercised by the president. The president is the head of state, the head of government, and the head of a multi-party system. Nigerian politics takes place within a framework of a federal, presidential, representative democratic republic, in which executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is held by the real[clarification needed] government and the two chambers of the legislature: the House of Representatives and the Senate. Together, the two chambers make up the law-making body in Nigeria, called the National Assembly, which serves as a check on the executive arm of government. The highest judiciary arm of government in Nigeria is the Supreme Court of Nigeria which was created after independence and also practices Baron de Montesquieu's theory of the separation of powers[1] based on the United States system and also practises checks and balances.[2][failed verification]

The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Nigeria a "hybrid regime" in 2019.[3]

Legal system

The law of Nigeria is based on the rule of law, the independence of the judiciary, and British common law (due to the long history of British colonial influence). The common law in the legal system is similar to common-law systems used in England and Wales and other Commonwealth countries. The constitutional framework for the legal system is provided by the Constitution of Nigeria.

There is a judicial branch, with the Supreme Court regarded as the highest court of the Nation.

Legislation as a source of Nigerian law

The two fundamental sources of Nigerian law through legislation are[4]

(1) Acts of British parliament, popularly referred to as statutes of general application.[when?]

(2) Local legislation (comprising enactments of the Nigerian legislatures from colonial period to date). There were other sources which though subsumed in Nigerian legislations were distinctly imported into the Nigerian legal systems. They are called the criminal and penal codes of Nigeria.

Nigerian statutes as sources of Nigerian law

Nigerian legislation may be classified as follows. The colonial era until 1960 , post independence legislation 1960-1966 , the military era 1966-1999.

The post independence legislation 1960-1966

The grant of independence to Nigeria was a milestone in the political history of the country. This period witnessed the consolidation of political gains made during the colonial era. Politicians genuinely focused their lapses in the polity. It achieved for herself a republican status by shaking off the last vestiges of colonial authority. However, despite the violent violation of its provisions, the constitution remained the subsequent administrations (military or otherwise).

Military regime, 1966-1999

The breakdown of law and order which occurred in the period under review would not be attributed to any defect in the Nigerian legal system. Corrupt practices both in the body politic and all aspects of Nigerian life eroded efficiency and progress. There were 8 coups generally five were successful and 3 were unsuccessful.

Executive branch

The president is elected through universal suffrage. He or she is both the chief of state and head of government, heading the Federal Executive Council, or cabinet.

The executive branch is divided into Federal Ministries, each headed by a minister appointed by the president. The president must include at least one member from each of the 36 states in his cabinet. The President's appointments are confirmed by the Senate of Nigeria. In some cases, a federal minister is responsible for more than one ministry (for example, Environment and Housing may be combined), or a minister may be assisted by one or more ministers of State.[5] Each ministry also has a Permanent Secretary, who is a senior civil servant.[6]

The ministries are responsible for various parastatals (government-owned corporations), such as universities, the National Broadcasting Commission, and the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. However, some parastatals are the responsibility of the Office of the Presidency, such as the Independent National Electoral Commission, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Federal Civil Service Commission.[7]

Legislative branch

The National Assembly of Nigeria has two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives is presided over by the Speaker of the House of Representatives. It has 360 members, who are elected for four-year terms in single-seat constituencies. The Senate, which has 109 members, is presided over by the President of the Senate. 108 members are elected for four-year terms in 36 three-seat constituencies, which correspond to the country's 36 states. One member is selected in the single-seat constituency of the federal capital.

President of the Senate Ahmed Lawan 2019-
Speaker of the House of Representatives Femi Gbajabiamila 2019-

Judicial branch

The judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court of Nigeria, the Court of Appeals, the High Courts, and other trial courts such as the Magistrates', Customary, Sharia and other specialised courts.[8] The National Judicial Council serves as an independent executive body, insulating the judiciary from the executive arm of government.[9] The Supreme Court is presided over by the Chief Justice of Nigeria and thirteen associate justices, who are appointed by the President of Nigeria on the recommendation() of the National Judicial Council. These justices are subject to confirmation by the Senate.

Office Office holder Assumed office
Chief Justice Ibrahim Tanko Muhammed 2019
Associate Justice Sylvester Umaru Onu 1993
Associate Justice Umaru Atu Kalgo 1998
Associate Justice G. A. Oguntade 2004
Associate Justice Sunday A. Akintan 2004
Associate Justice Mahmud Mohammed 2005
Associate Justice
Associate Justice Ikechi Francis Ogbuagu 2005
Associate Justice F. F. Tabai 1999
Associate Justice Ibrahim Tanko Muhammad 2007

Political parties and elections

Presidential elections of Nigeria, 2015

Margin: 2,571,759
Candidate Party Votes %
Muhammadu Buhari All Progressives Congress 15,424,921 53.96
Goodluck Jonathan People's Democratic Party 12,853,162 44.96
Adebayo Ayeni African Peoples Alliance 53,537 0.19
Ganiyu Galadima Allied Congress Party of Nigeria 40,311 0.14
Sam Eke Citizens Popular Party 36,300 0.13
Rufus Salau Alliance for Democracy 30,673 0.11
Mani Ahmad African Democratic Congress 29,665 0.10
Allagoa Chinedu Peoples Party of Nigeria 24,475 0.09
Martin Onovo National Conscience Party 24,455 0.09
Tunde Anifowose-Kelani Accord Alliance 22,125 0.08
Chekwas Okorie United Progressive Party 18,220 0.06
Comfort Sonaiya KOWA Party 13,076 0.05
Godson Okoye United Democratic Party 9,208 0.03
Ambrose Albert Owuru Hope Party 7,435 0.03
Invalid/blank votes 844,519
Total 29,432,083 100
Registered voters/turnout 67,422,005 43.65
Source: INEC

House of Representatives

Party Votes % Seats +/–
All Progressives Congress 100
People's Democratic Party 125
Other parties 10
Invalid/blank votes
Total 233
Registered voters/turnout
Source: Reuters Nigeria Tribune


Party Votes % Seats +/–
All Progressives Congress 60 Increase19
People's Democratic Party 70 Increase15
Labour Party
Invalid/blank votes
Total 109
Registered voters/turnout
Source: Naijaonpoint

Presidential elections of Nigeria, 2019

Candidate Party Votes %
Muhammadu Buhari All Progressives Congress 15,191,847 55.60
Atiku Abubakar People's Democratic Party 11,262,978 41.22
Felix Nicolas Peoples Coalition Party 110,196 0.40
Obadiah Mailafia African Democratic Congress 97,874 0.36
Gbor John Wilson Terwase All Progressives Grand Alliance 66,851 0.24
Yabagi Sani Yusuf Action Democratic Party 54,930 0.20
Akhimien Davidson Isibor Grassroots Development Party of Nigeria 41,852 0.15
Ibrahim Aliyu Hassan African Peoples Alliance 36,866 0.13
Donald Duke Social Democratic Party 34,746 0.13
Omoyele Sowore African Action Congress 33,953 0.12
Da-Silva Thomas Ayo Save Nigeria Congress 28,680 0.10
Shitu Mohammed Kabir Advanced Peoples Democratic Alliance 26,558 0.10
Yusuf Mamman Dantalle Allied Peoples' Movement 26,039 0.10
Kingsley Moghalu Young Progressive Party 21,886 0.08
Ameh Peter Ojonugwa Progressive Peoples Alliance 21,822 0.08
Ositelu Isaac Babatunde Accord Party 19,209 0.07
Fela Durotoye Alliance for New Nigeria 16,779 0.06
Bashayi Isa Dansarki Masses Movement of Nigeria 14,540 0.05
Osakwe Felix Johnson Democratic People's Party 14,483 0.05
Abdulrashid Hassan Baba Action Alliance 14,380 0.05
Nwokeafor Ikechukwu Ndubuisi Advanced Congress of Democrats 11,325 0.04
Maina Maimuna Kyari Northern People's Congress 10,081 0.04
Victor Okhai Providence Peoples Congress 8,979 0.03
Chike Ukaegbu Advanced Allied Party 8,902 0.03
Oby Ezekwesili Allied Congress Party of Nigeria 7,223 0.03
Ibrahim Usman Alhaji National Rescue Movement 6,229 0.02
Ike Keke New Nigeria People's Party 6,111 0.02
Moses Ayibiowu National Unity Party 5,323 0.02
Awosola Williams Olusola Democratic Peoples Congress 5,242 0.02
Muhammed Usman Zaki Labour Party 5,074 0.02
Eke Samuel Chukwuma Green Party of Nigeria 4,924 0.02
Nwachukwu Chuks Nwabuikwu All Grassroots Alliance 4,689 0.02
Hamza al-Mustapha Peoples Party of Nigeria 4,622 0.02
Shipi Moses Godia All Blended Party 4,523 0.02
Chris Okotie Fresh Democratic Party 4,554 0.02
Tope Fasua Abundant Nigeria Renewal Party 4,340 0.02
Onwubuya Freedom And Justice Party 4,174 0.02
Asukwo Mendie Archibong Nigeria For Democracy 4,096 0.01
Ahmed Buhari Sustainable National Party 3,941 0.01
Salisu Yunusa Tanko National Conscience Party 3,799 0.01
Shittu Moshood Asiwaju Alliance National Party 3,586 0.01
Obinna Uchechukwu Ikeagwuonu All People's Party 3,585 0.01
Balogun Isiaka Ishola United Democratic Party 3,170 0.01
Obaje Yusufu Ameh Advanced Nigeria Democratic Party 3,104 0.01
Chief Umenwa Godwin All Grand Alliance Party 3,071 0.01
Israel Nonyerem Davidson, Reform and Advancement Party 2,972 0.01
Ukonga Frank Democratic Alternative 2,769 0.01
Santuraki Hamisu Mega Party of Nigeria 2,752 0.01
Funmilayo Adesanya-Davies Mass Action Joint Alliance 2,651 0.01
Gbenga Olawepo-Hashim Peoples Trust 2,613 0.01
Ali Soyode Yes Electorates Solidarity 2,394 0.01
Nsehe Nseobong Restoration Party of Nigeria 2,388 0.01
Ojinika Geff Chizee Coalition for Change 2,391 0.01
Rabia Yasai Hassan Cengiz National Action Council 2,279 0.01
Eunice Atuejide National Interest Party 2,248 0.01
Dara John Alliance of Social Democrats 2,146 0.01
Fagbenro-byron Samuel Adesina Kowa Party 1,911 0.01
Emmanuel Etim Change Nigeria Party 1,874 0.01
Chukwu-Eguzolugo Sunday Chikendu Justice Must Prevail Party 1,853 0.01
Madu Nnamdi Edozie Independent Democrats 1,845 0.01
Osuala Chukwudi John Re-build Nigeria Party 1,792 0.01
Albert Owuru Ambrose Hope Democratic Party 1,663 0.01
David Esosa Ize-Iyamu Better Nigeria Progressive Party 1,649 0.01
Inwa Ahmed Sakil Unity Party of Nigeria 1,631 0.01
Akpua Robinson National Democratic Liberty Party 1,588 0.01
Mark Emmanuel Audu United Patriots 1,561 0.01
Ishaka Paul Ofemile Nigeria Elements Progressive Party 1,524 0.01
Kriz David Liberation Movement 1,438 0.01
Ademola Babatunde Abidemi Nigeria Community Movement Party 1,378 0.01
A. Edosomwan Johnson National Democratic Liberty Party 1,192 0.00
Angela Johnson Alliance for a United Nigeria 1,092 0.00
Abah Lewis Elaigwu Change Advocacy Party 1,111 0.00
Nwangwu Uchenna Peter We The People Nigeria 732 0.00
Invalid/blank votes 1,289,607
Total 28,614,190 100
Registered voters/turnout 82,344,107 34.75
Source: Vanguard

States of Nigeria

Nigeria is made up of 36 states and 1 territory. They are: the Federal Capital Territory, Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, and Zamfara.

Local governments

Each state is further divided into Local Government Areas (LGAs). There are 774 LGAs in Nigeria.[10] Kano State has the largest number of LGAs at 44, and Bayelsa State has the fewest at 9. The Federal Capital Territory of Abuja has 6 LGAs.[10] LGAs replaced the Districts that were the previous third-tier administrative units under the British government.


Nigerian troops

The military of Nigeria has played a major role in the country's history, often seizing control of the country and ruling it for long periods of time. Its last period of rule ended in 1999, following the death of the leader of the previous military junta Sani Abacha in 1998.

Active duty personnel in the three Nigerian armed services totals approximately 76,000. The Nigerian Army, which is the largest of the services, has about 60,000 personnel, deployed between two mechanized infantry divisions, one composite division (airborne and amphibious), the Lagos Garrison Command (a division-size unit), and the Abuja-based Brigade of Guards.[citation needed] The Nigerian Navy (7,000) is equipped with frigates, fast attack craft, corvettes, and coastal patrol boats. The Nigerian Air Force (9,000) flies transports, trainers, helicopters, and fighter aircraft; however, most of their vehicles are currently not operational. Recently, Marshal of the Nigerian Air Force, Sadique Abubakar, suggested the purchase of equipment after dumping the non-operational vehicles.

Foreign relations

Nigeria currently has better foreign relations with its neighbors, due to its current state of democracy. It is a member of the African Union and sits on that organization's Peace and Security Council. In 1960, Nigeria joined both the United Nations and the Commonwealth of Nations; however, they were briefly suspended between 1995 and 1999.

See also


  1. ^ "separation of powers". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
  2. ^ "Checks and Balances". www.factmonster.com. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
  3. ^ The Economist Intelligence Unit (8 January 2019). "Democracy Index 2019". Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  4. ^ "SOURCES AND CLASSIFICATION OF NIGERIAN LAW". Newswatch Times. Archived from the original on 2016-02-21. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
  5. ^ "Government Ministries in Nigeria". Commonwealth of Nations. Retrieved 2009-12-21.
  6. ^ "Permanent Secretaries". Office of the Head of Service of the Federation. Archived from the original on 2010-08-10. Retrieved 2009-12-20.
  7. ^ "BOARDS OF PARASTATALS". Office of the Head of Service of the Federation. Archived from the original on 2009-10-10. Retrieved 2009-12-21.
  8. ^ "Court System in Nigeria". The Beehive by One Economy Corporation. Archived from the original on February 25, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  9. ^ "Constitution". The National Judicial Council. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  10. ^ a b ""USAID Nigeria mission: Nigeria administrative divisions" October 2004". Archived from the original on 2007-01-13. Retrieved 2007-01-15.