Enrica Lexie case
The Enrica Lexie case is an ongoing international controversy about a shooting off the western coast of India. On 15 February 2012, two Indian fishermen were killed off the coast of Kerala, India, aboard the St. Antony. India alleged that the two Italian marines aboard the Italian-flagged commercial oil tanker MV Enrica Lexie killed the fishermen.
Shortly after the incident, the Indian Navy intercepted the MV Enrica Lexie and detained the two Italian marines. That has sparked a conflict of opinions over legal jurisdiction and functional immunity between the governments of India and Italy and has continued to cause diplomatic tension between the two nations.
After having been detained in India with no formal charges for two and four years, respectively, the two marines were released and returned to Italy. Meanwhile, an independent United Nations court was charged to resolve the conflict of jurisdiction. That was following a European Parliament resolution of January 2015, stating that "no charge has been brought by the Indian authorities" and that "Italian marines' detention without charge is a serious breach of their human rights".
On 2 July 2020, the Permanent Court of Arbitration recognized the functional immunity of the two Italian marines, noting that they were engaged in a mission on behalf of the Italian Government, and thus ruled that the process continue in Italy. However, Italy was required to find an agreement with India in order to compensate for the two deaths and for the physical and moral damages suffered by the crew members and the vessel.
On 15 February 2012, Indian nationals Ajesh Binki and Valentine aboard the St. Antony were killed allegedly as a result of gunshot wounds following a confrontation with the Enrica Lexie in international waters, off the Indian coast. The nature of the confrontation has been in contention. The MV Enrica Lexie was travelling from Singapore to Egypt with a crew of 34 including 19 Indians and accompanied by six Italian navy marines. Captain of the St. Antony, Freddie Louis claimed that his vessel was returning from its fishing expedition in the Laccadive Sea when men on board the Enrica Lexie began firing at them without provocation for approximately two minutes. According to the Indian Coast Guard and crew of the St. Antony, the incident occurred about 16:30 IST on 15 February 2012 when the St. Antony was some 20.5 nautical miles off the Indian coast within the Contiguous Zone (CZ) area of India's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
After the incident, the Enrica Lexie was intercepted in the Lakshadweep archipelago and compelled to proceed to Kochi port by the Indian Coast Guard. The Italian Foreign Minister Giulio Terzi, in an open letter to the Italian newspaper Eco di Bergamo, alleged that "the entering of the Enrica Lexie into Indian waters has been the result of a subterfuge by the local police, who required the ship master to head for the port of Kochi in order to contribute to the identification of some suspected pirates." On 30 March 2013, Indian Foreign minister Salman Khurshid rejected claims of subterfuge as unsubstantiated.
Two Italian special corps Marines, Capo di 1ª Classe Massimiliano Latorre and Secondo Capo Salvatore Girone, were remanded to judicial custody for interrogation on charges of homicide under Section 302 of the Indian Penal Code. Based on the postmortem carried out on 16 February 2012, Kerala Police charged the two marines with murder.
The two marines were allowed to return to Italy in early 2013 on a temporary leave. Once the marines landed in Italy, Italian authorities notified India they would not return the marines unless there was a guarantee they would not face the death penalty. India responded by summoning the Italian ambassador to Delhi for negotiations. After tense diplomatic discussions, the two marines were returned, without any of the guarantees requested by Italy. This caused the resignation of Italian Foreign Affairs Minister Giulio Terzi, in defence of "honor of the country, of the armed forces, and Italian diplomacy". On 4 April 2013, the Indian National Investigation Agency (NIA) filed a first information report against the two Italian marines in relation to charges including murder, attempted murder, mischief, conspiracy.
In June 2013, Italian media reported that four other members of the VPD team were not in the ship's citadel after the general alarm was sounded and speculated that the two marines held in India might have taken responsibility for the actions of other members of the VPD team.
In January 2014, India decided to prosecute the Italian marines under the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (SUA). The SUA Convention was passed in 1988 with the goal of suppressing international terrorism. Italy criticised the prosecution pursuant to the SUA Convention as equating the incident to an act of terrorism. On 7 March 2014, India dropped the SUA charges against the marines. On 7 February 2014, the charges were downgraded from murder to violence meaning the marines would not face the death penalty if convicted.
During all the period, Italian authorities maintained that India lacked jurisdiction in judging the case, since, based on the Enrica Lexie positional records, the ship was outside the Indian territorial waters, and well in the international navigation area. Furthermore, they maintained that India lacked jurisdiction for arresting the two marines, since they were on an Italian ship in international waters, charged of security duties. As such, they were military personnel on duty in defense of a part of the national territory, and could not be considered terrorists or being accused of murder.
From their side, Indian authorities delayed the formalization of accuses, thus stemming reaction from Italian authorities, which sought support from the European Parliament. The latter decided to back Italian position, with special reference to the lack of any formal accuse which justified the detention. In January 2015 European Parliament issued an official resolution, according to which human rights of the two Italian marines were violated. In the same month, one of the two marines, Massimiliano Latorre, underwent heart surgery in Italy, after he was allowed to repatriate for medical reasons.
Dispute as to existence of a piracy threat
The Indian coast forms part of the "High Risk Area" for pirate attacks. On 21 February 2012, the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) reported that a Greek flagged tanker, the Olympic Flair, sailing some 2.5 nm from the port of Kochi was attacked on the same day of the Enrica Lexie. The ICC—in a communication to the Italian Navy—confirmed the IMO number of the vessel thereby confirming it was indeed the Olympic Flair.
The Indian Coast Guard stated that while it was accepted procedure to report piracy events or suspicious activities immediately to Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre (MRCC), the MT Enrica Lexie continued sailing for 70 km on its route to Egypt without reporting the incident. The ship reported the shooting only when contacted by the Coast Guard about two and a half hours after the incident, upon which they were asked to proceed to Kochi.
Umberto Vitelli, Master of the Enrica Lexie deposed to Indian investigators that he was surprised by the marines' decision to open fire and that it was only after he heard gunshots that he increased to full speed, sounded the foghorn and the general alarm. In addition, the ship's Chief Officer James Mandley Samson stated to Kerala police that despite having binoculars "I couldn't see any person with weapons in the boat". Depositions given by the two marines to Indian investigators regarding the use of live-fire in the direction of an approaching fishing boat stated that Massimiliano Latorre fired twelve rounds of ammunition and Salvatore Girone fired eight in two bursts as warning shots.
Italian news agencies quoted Vice-Captain Charles Noviello as saying : "I'm sure the boat that came close was not the St. Antony. They do not match some details of the vessel I have seen and what I have been shown in the picture of the officials of the Indian Merchant Navy." In a telephone interview with Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (ANSA), he added "I remember the cabin, where there was the helm, was of a different color from what I saw later in the picture." Noviello, who was present at the time when Massimiliano Latorre and Salvatore Girone opened fire, added : "none of the people on the boat fell to the ground(...) the boat was 40–50 meters from the tanker (...) I saw that there were 5 or 6 people on board, but I'm not sure if it was more."
In the court affidavit filed by the two marines urging the Kerala High Court to quash the FIR (first information report) against them, the document states: "The master of the vessel increased the speed of the ship to 14 knots (about 28 km/per hour) and reduced the speed to 13 knots once the piracy attack was averted. The master also activated the Ship Security Alert System (SSAS) which sent out signals to the Italian Maritime Rescue and Coordination Centre (MRCC). The master also reported the incident on the mercury chart which links together and transfers information to the community including several navies across the world fighting piracy, including to the Indian Navy headquarters. The 'Military Report' was also done. A report was sent to MSCHOA at UK. Since the attempted attack was averted, the vessel continued on its scheduled course of journey." No documentary evidence was supplied in support of the affidavit.
On 26 February 2012, a five-member team of Italian naval officials examined the fishing boat St. Antony berthed at Neendakara fishing harbour. The Italian team consisted of Major General Paolo Romano, Admiral Alessandro Piroli, Major Luca Flebus, Major Paolo Fratini and Commander Geam Paul. In March 2012, Italian prosecutors opened an investigation into potential criminal negligence by the marines. On 10 May 2012, the four other members of the VPD team reportedly told prosecutors that they didn't witness the shooting. Whilst in Italy for the Christmas vacation Massimilano Latorre and Salvatore Girone were also interviewed by prosecutors. In addition, the marines were interviewed before a military tribunal in Rome in March 2013.
On 6 April 2013, an Italian military report into the incident, dated 11 May 2012, was leaked. The document reported that, according to the Indian authorities, it was the St. Antony that had been involved in the incident, but that bullets used in the incident were fired from rifles assigned to two other marines.
Compensation, Civil Claims and Ex Gratia Payments
The Government of Kerala granted solatium of ₹5 lakh (equivalent to ₹7.6 lakh or US$11,000 in 2019) to the victims' families. The Government of Tamil Nadu also granted solatium of ₹5 lakh (equivalent to ₹7.6 lakh or US$11,000 in 2019) to Ajesh Binki's family. In addition to the commentary compensation the Government of Kerala also employed Gelastine's wife. In addition, civil claims were commenced against the owner of the Enrica Lexie by Gelastine's family, Ajesh Binki's sisters and Freddy J, owner of the St. Antony. Subsequently, the Government of Italy made a contentious without prejudice offer of ₹1 crore (equivalent to ₹1.5 crore or US$210,000 in 2019) to the victim's relatives. This was later objected to by the Supreme Court of India on 30 April 2013 which stated that it was "a challenge to the Indian judicial system, this is impermissible [and was] most unfortunate". The following month, Italy clarified that the offer was not compensation in relation to the ongoing proceedings but "by way of compensation in the proceedings initiated by them but by way of goodwill and gesture" and would be prevented from precluding claims by virtue of Article 142 of the Constitution of India,
On 23 February 2012, the Kerala High Court admitted the petition filed by the Italian Consul General in Mumbai and the two accused Marines to stay all further proceedings in the case against the two marines. The petition submitted that Kerala Police had no authority to conduct investigation in the case and that courts in India had no jurisdiction as the incident had occurred beyond Indian territorial waters. In response, the court granted one week's time to Kerala state and Central government in Delhi to file counter affidavits. On the same day, the Sessions Court in Kollam, extended by another week the police custody of the two Italian Marines charged with shooting death of two fishermen. The Kerala High Court also advised the Italian government and its two navy marines to cooperate with the ongoing investigation in response to the petition filed on 21 February seeking a stay on proceeding and quashing of the FIR.
On 4 September 2012, the Indian Supreme court heard a petition filed by Italy on behalf of the Italian Marines seeking to quash court proceedings in Kerala on the basis that the two soldiers were entitled to functional immunity. In response, India denies any such immunity citing the lack of any international treaty regarding immunity from prosecution for Vessel Protection Detachments (VPD) on board privately owned merchant vessels. Further, Italy argued that as the incident occurred within India's Contiguous Zone India lacked jurisdiction over the vessel. Despite the limits as set out in UNCLOS, India relied on customary international law to assert jurisdiction leading one academic commentator to note that "India wants to press its maritime sovereignty to the limit through an intersection of UNCLOS grants and readings of its own statutes". On 18 January 2013, the Supreme Court dismissed the Italian Government's argument with Justice Chelameshwaran was "of the opinion that sovereignty is not 'given' but it is only asserted. No doubt, under the Maritime Zones Act, Parliament expressly asserted sovereignty of this country over the territorial waters but simultaneously, asserted its authority to determine/alter the limit of the territorial waters". This finding meant that under Indian law India's contiguous zone could be treated as part of India's territorial sea, effectively granting India a territorial sea of 24 nautical miles despite it only being entitled to a 12 nautical mile territorial sea under international law. However, the Supreme Court found that the State of Kerala did not have jurisdiction beyond the 12 nautical mile limit and that a special federal court be established to try the marines.
Between India and Italy
On 16 February 2012, the Italian ambassador in Delhi, Giacomo Sanfelice di Monteforte, was summoned to the Indian Ministry of External Affairs and an official protest at the incident was lodged. The next day, the then-Indian External Affairs Minister S. M. Krishna informed the Italian Foreign Minister in a telephone conversation that the fishermen were unarmed and posed no threat to any ship. The filing of murder charges against the marines by the SIT on 18 May 2012 prompted Italy to recall its ambassador from India. In December 2012, the Indian Ambassador to Italy was summoned to the Italian Foreign Ministry and informed of Italy's "strong disappointment and profound bitterness" with the finding of the Indian Supreme Court on the question of jurisdiction. In addition, Italian Foreign Minister Giulio Terzi and Deputy Foreign Minister Staffan De Mistura mentioned that legal and political-diplomatic initiatives would be initiated at the international level. Italian media reports claimed that Italy may pursue India in the International Court of Justice.
On 11 March 2013, a dispute erupted after Italy reneged on its promise to return the Marines to India for trial. The Italian Prime Minister later reversed this decision and returned the Marines to India. According to Italian Prime-Minister Mario Monti: "The government decided, also in the interests of the marines, to maintain the commitment taken when they were granted leave to take part in the elections to return to India by 22 March". Italian and Indian officials have hinted that the marines, if convicted, could serve the rest of their jail term in Italy under provisions of a bilateral prisoner exchange treaty.
On 20 February 2014, the Italian authorities were informed that a live bullet was found in the mailbox of the Indian Embassy at Rome. India demanded Italy guarantee the safety of its embassy staff in compliance with the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.
On 24 April 2014, Italian Foreign Minister Federica Mogherini told the Italian legislature that unless India cooperates by negotiating an end to the case, Italy would seek international arbitration. On 4 June 2014, India's Minister for External Affairs Sushma Swaraj argued Mogherini's proposal would amount to political interference in matters before Indian courts.
On 11 February 2014, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon stated that the issue should be addressed "bilaterally, rather than with the involvement of the United Nations". Spokesperson Martin Nesirky added that the Secretary-General was concerned that the ongoing dispute remained unresolved and was prompting tensions between India and Italy and was "concerned that the matter may have implications for wider common efforts and collaboration around matters of international peace and security, including anti-piracy operations." On 12 February 2014, the Italian Foreign Minister criticised the stance of the Secretary-General informing the Italian legislature it was "simply taking the middle ground ... ignoring two sides' arguments". On 6 January 2015, a few days before his visit to India, the Secretary-General conveyed his concern that the ongoing dispute continued to sharpen tensions and that Italy and India should seek "a reasonable and mutually acceptable solution". The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights has expressed concern regarding the "respect of human rights" of the two Italian marines.
On 12 February 2014, the NATO Secretary-General responded to a question from an Italian journalist from ANSA "Q: Secretary General, as you know, two Italian marines are held in India since two years. And they are prosecuted under the anti-piracy and anti-terrorism law, according to Lady Catherine Ashton and the Italian Foreign Minister Emma Bonino, this implies that Italy is a terrorist state. And how can such an accusation affect the international operations for anti-piracy and generally speaking the Italian nation abroad?". Transcripts of Catherine Ashton's statements available on the EEAS press office website do not give reason to the ANSA journalist's allegation that Baroness Ashton has endorsed the Italian view that it has been equated to a terrorist State by India. Anders Fogh Rasmussen responded in his personal capacity that : "I am, personally, very concerned about the situation of the two Italian sailors. I'm also concerned by the suggestion that they could be tried for terrorism offences. This could have possible negative implications for the international fight against piracy. A fight which is in all our interest! So I trust that we will see an appropriate resolution soon."
The European Union (EU)
On 10 February 2014 EU High Representative Catherine Ashton informed the EU Foreign Relations Council that she was concerned that the marines are to be charged under anti-piracy laws for the killing of two Indian fishermen and that it would have "huge implications" for Europe's fight against piracy. "Having said that, I've also made it clear to my dear friend Emma Bonino, to the Italian government, and to the members of the EU, that the EU remains very steadfast in our support to get this resolved in a straightforward manner quickly, and that two years is a very long time for us to see this drag on and that is the point I've made on numerous occasions." The EUHRVP also added : "A lot of the work on this, you'll understand, is done quietly—for good reasons."
On 17 December 2014, European Union's new foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini has expressed her disappointment over the Indian Supreme Court's decision on the case of two Italian marines and warned that the issue could impact on EU-India relations. "The decision to deny the plea of Massimiliano Latorre for an extension of his stay in Italy for medical treatment and to refuse Salvatore Girone permission to spend the Christmas period at home is disappointing, as a long awaited mutually agreed solution has not yet proved possible," said Mogherini, a former Italian foreign minister, in a statement. "The situation of these two European military personnel has been pending for almost three years now. The EU has consistently called for a mutually agreeable solution, in the interest of both Italy and India, based on international law. The issue has the potential to impact the overall European Union-India relations and has also a bearing on the global fight against piracy, to which the EU is strongly committed," she stated.
On 14 January 2015, European MEPs appealed to the Italian government not to forget the two victims of the Enrica Lexie incident and urged EUHRVP Federica Mogherini, who was formerly Italian Foreign Minister, not to hold the wider economic interests of European member states hostage to the bilateral dispute between Italy and India. The European Parliament passed a non-binding resolution which called for a rapid resolution to the case of killing of Indian fishermen by Italian marines within the rules of International Law and Human Rights. Stalled EU-India FTA has prevented Italy from gaining political leverage through trade negotiations.
The incident was cited as a reason for the delay in the European Union suggesting dates for an EU-India summit during the Indian Prime Minister's visit to Europe in April 2015. Cesare Onestini, the chargé d'Affaires of the Delegation of the European Union to India said: "No date has been formally proposed to the Indian side." Strained relations with the European Union's High Representative for External Affairs who was also the former Italian foreign minister, Federica Mogherini, led to the cancellation of a visit to Brussels to meet with the new leadership of the Institutions of the European Union. Mogherini told the European Parliament in January 2015 that "it's good for everyone to be fully aware of how much of an impact the unresolved dispute of the two Italian Navy officials can have on relations between the EU and India. It is putting them to the test".
On 26 June 2015 Italy submitted the dispute to Annex VII pursuant to UNCLOS. Additionally, on 21 July 2015 the Italian Government sought provisional measures before the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) in Hamburg, Germany. Italy asked that: "India shall refrain from taking or enforcing any judicial or administrative measures against Sergeant Massimiliano Latorre and Sergeant Salvatore Girone in connection with the Enrica Lexie Incident, and from exercising any other form of jurisdiction over the Enrica Lexie Incident [and that] India shall take all measures necessary to ensure that restrictions on the liberty, security and movement of the Marines be immediately lifted to enable Sergeant Girone to travel to and remain in Italy and Sergeant Latorre to remain in Italy throughout the duration of the proceedings before the Annex VII Tribunal."' For the Italian argument, these proposed measures were required to retain the status quo pending the Annex 7 hearings. The application for provisional measures was very strongly opposed by the Indian Government.
On 24 August 2015 ITLOS by a majority opinion of 15:6 issued provisional measures in the case and ordered that "Italy and India shall both suspend all court proceedings and refrain from initiating new ones which might aggravate or extend the dispute submitted to the Annex VII arbitral tribunal or might jeopardise or prejudice the carrying out of any decision which the arbitral tribunal may render," The provisional ruling also demanded that India and Italy each submit to ITLOS by 24 September 2015 their respective Initial Report on the incident. ITLOS rejected Italy's request that India provisionally release two marines accused of killing two Indian fishermen, "because that touches upon issues related to the merits of the case". The ITLOS decision meant neither side got precisely what it wanted. In particular, UNCLOS swayed somewhat from the more interventionist approach taken in the Arctic Sunrise case when the Tribunal ordered a state to return a person subject to Annex 7 proceedings.
On 2 July 2020, the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled that the Marines are entitled to immunity in relation to the acts that they committed during the incident, and that India is precluded from exercising its jurisdiction over the Marines; that India must take the necessary steps to cease to exercise its criminal jurisdiction over the Marines, and that no other remedies are required; that India is entitled to payment of compensation in connection with loss of life, physical harm, material damage to property (including to the “St. Antony”) and moral harm suffered by the captain and other crew members.
In June 2014, before the start of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, the Italian Football Federation released two official blue T-shirts printed with the names of the captured marines, to express the Federation's support to them. The T-shirts were then shown to the marines in India by the Italian defence minister Roberta Pinotti, via video conferencing.
In addition, Ferrari was criticised after it displayed Italian Navy ensigns on F1 cars competing at the 2012 Indian Grand Prix. A statement on the company's website read "Ferrari will carry the flag of the Italian Navy on the cars driven by Fernando Alonso and Felipe Massa [to pay] tribute to one of the outstanding entities of our country, also in the hope that the Indian and Italian authorities will soon find a solution to the situation currently involving two sailors from the Italian Navy." A spokesperson for the Indian Ministry of External Affairs spokesperson reported noted that the use of "sporting events to promote a cause which is not of a sporting nature and one which is sub judice is not in keeping with the spirit of sport".
Although most of the Italian public opinion is convinced that the two captured marines are innocent, some far-left groups claim they are guilty of killing.
Media & Role of Kerala Church:The head of India's largest Catholic church Major Archbishop Mar George Alencherry, 66, reportedly defends the killing of Kerala fishermen by Italian security guards.
- "Permanent Court of Arbitration, The Enrica Lexie Incident (Italy v. India)". 26 June 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
- Press, Associated (26 May 2016). "India lets Italian marine go home as UN mediates over fishermen shooting". Retrieved 1 August 2017 – via The Guardian.
- "MEPs call for Italian marò accused of killing Indian fishermen to be repatriated - News - European Parliament". Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- Isenberg, David (30 October 2012). "Why Fighting Pirates Is Both Good and Bad for PSC". Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
- "Private Security and Armed Military Guards: Minimising State Liability in the Fight Against Maritime Piracy". RUSI Journal. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
- Brown, James. "PIRATES AND PRIVATEERS: MANAGING THE INDIAN OCEAN'S PRIVATE SECURITY BOOM". Lowy Institute for International Policy. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- Katz, Alan (28 November 2012). "Brother Shot Dead Fishing Tests Armed Guards' Accountability". BloombergBusinessweek. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- Phillips, Roger L. (9 March 2012). "The Enrica Lexie Incident – Private Security Counterpoint". piracy Law. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- "Cases | PCA-CPA". pca-cpa.org. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
- https://pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/13663. Missing or empty
- "tehelka: Standoff between Kerala police and Italian ship continues". Tehelka. 18 February 2012.
- "Gulf Times: Two killed as Italian ship fires on Indian fishing boat". Gulf Times. 16 February 2012.
- "Full text of W.P. (C) No. 4542 of 2012 – Massimilano Latorre Vs. Union of India, (2012) 252 KLR 794". Kerala Law. 29 May 2012. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- "DG Shipping Press Release on firing by Italian Ship on Indian fishermen". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 16 February 2012.
- "Sophisticated weather surveillance system to girdle state coast soon". The Times of India. 15 November 2013.
- "Terzi: "Massimo impegno per i Marò" (L'Eco di Bergamo)". L'Eco di Bergamo (in Italian). Italian Foreign Ministry website. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Courts may not accept India's word to Italy on marines, Khurshid says". The Times of India. 30 March 2013.
- "Fishermen killing: Two Italian marines taken into custody". The Times of India. 19 February 2012.
- "An online war room that called the shots". Asian Age. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Killing of fishermen: Murder case registered against armed guards of Italian ship". The Times of India. 17 February 2012.
- "Fishermen killing: Kerala Police form special team to probe mid-sea murder". The Times of India. 21 February 2012.
- "India and Italy killings row deepens". Retrieved 1 August 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Italian foreign minister resigns over marines' return to India". 26 March 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2017 – via Reuters.
- "NIA books Italian marines for Kerela fishermens murder". The Times of India. 4 April 2013.
- "Italian marines case: India to honour assurance given to Italy". The Economic Times. 8 April 2013.
- "L'inchiesta indiana: i Marò spararono senza preavviso (Italian)". ilsole24ore. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2015."Bullets in bodies were from the guns of other soldiers on-board Enrica Lexie First Corporal Andronico Massino and Sergeant Vogilano Renato Voglino" (in Italian). Italy. La Repubblica. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Top Indian court to rule on charges Italian marines should face". Reuters. 10 February 2014.
- "India to seek terrorism charge against Italian marines – Italy may appeal to United Nations, says foreign minister". ANSA (Italian national press agency). 10 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- O'Leary, Naomi (9 February 2014). "Italy scorns Indian decision to try marines with anti-piracy law". Live Mint & The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- "Italy warns India of European response to marines trial". BBC. 10 February 2014.
- "MHA withdraws sanction to NIA to prosecute marines under SUA". Business Standard. 7 March 2014.
- Dikshit, Sandeep (8 February 2014). "India drops death penalty clause as Europe bats for Italian marines". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
- "Italian marine's leave extended again by India court". 13 July 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Anti-Piracy Planning Chart".
- "ATTO CAMERA INTERROGAZIONE A RISPOSTA SCRITTA 4/15000". 27 November 2012.
- "Anti-Piracy Planning Chart" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Pescatori indiani: Icc conferma attacco a nave greca". ANSA. 21 February 2012.
- "Italian vessel erred in judgment". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 February 2012.
- "Italian Marines: Rome frowns Delhi down". Niti Central. 26 February 2014. Archived from the original on 15 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "Murder trial of Italian marines in India navigates murky waters". Reuters. 10 June 2013.
- "Marò, l'ex vicecapitano Enrica Lexie: "Peschereccio era un altro"". Radio Televisione Italiana. 9 August 2013. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013.
- "MARO' – Il comandante in seconda: "Non sono stati i marò a colpire i pescatori"". 27 March 2013.
- "Did captain Vitelli fuel piracy paranoia on board Enrica Lexie ?". The Times of India. 3 March 2012.
- "Italian Team Examines Fishing Boat". Outlook India. 26 February 2012. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Case in Rome may boomerang on marines". Asian Age. 1 March 2012. Archived from the original on 20 July 2012.
- "Italy says criminal proceedings against marines initiated". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 1 March 2012.
- "Kerala High Court tears into Italian plea in shooting case". Hindustan Times. 1 March 2012.
- "Marines tell prosecutors they didn't witness the shooting". Eni website. AGI. 10 May 2012. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "Marines questioned by Rome prosecutors over Indian fishermen". ANSA. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Longo, Grazia (3 January 2013). "I marò cinque ore davanti ai giudici prendono il volo verso l'India (English translation: "[Italian]Marines 5 hours in front of [Italian] Judges, then fly back to India)". La Stampa (in Italian). Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "Italian marines questioned in Italy over Indian fishermen's deaths during anti-pirate patrol". Fox News Channel. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- "Marines wanted by India questioned by military tribunal". ADN Kronos website. AGI. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- "Marò, la verità degli italiani su quei 33 minuti. Il giallo: i fucili erano quelli di altri soldati" (in Italian). Italy. La Repubblica. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Coast Guard calls Italians' bluff on maritime protocol". IBN-Live. 18 February 2012.
- "Kerala government offers job to killed fisherman's widow". The Times of India. 22 February 2012.
- "Fishermen killing: Victim's kin seek Rs 1 Crore relief". Hindustan Times. 22 February 2012.
- "India,Italy to continue talks on fishermen killings today". 24 February 2012.
- "Boat owner moves high court for compensation". The Times of India. 28 February 2012.
- "Lok Adalat to take up compensation agreement". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 20 April 2012.
- "Le famiglie dei pescatori: perdoniamo i fratelli italiani". Rai News. 24 April 2012.
- "Supreme Court of India blasts Lok Adalat court over 'pact' with Italy Government". India Today. 1 May 2012.
- "M.T. Enrica Lexie & Anr. vs Doramma & Ors. on 2 May, 2012". Indian Kanoon. 2 May 2012.
- "Fishermen killing: Italian Govt petition admitted by HC". Daily Bhaskar. 23 February 2012.
- "Fishermen shooting: Two Italians' police custody extended". The Week. 23 February 2012.
- "HC asks Italy to help probe, says no to stay". The Times of India. 24 February 2012.
- "Marines' case: Indian Supreme Court to hear Italian government's plea". NDTV. 4 September 2012.
- "W.P.(C) No. 4542 of 2012 Massimilano Latorre Vs. Union of India, (2012) 252 KLR 794". Kerala Law. 29 May 2012. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- "Criminal Jurisdiction over Maritime Security in the Indian Ocean". Cornell International Law Journal. 26 November 2013.
- "Sovereignty is Not Given But Asserted: SC". Outlook. Indo-Asian News Service. 18 January 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "India has jurisdiction to try Italian marines for fishermen deaths: court". Reuters. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Italian marines case: Supreme Court ask Centre to set up special court". NDTV. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Kerala fishermen's killing: Special court to try Italian naval guards, SC says". The Times of India. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Marò in India, la Corte suprema: "Processo in un tribunale speciale"". Il Messaggero (in Italian). 19 January 2013.
- "AFP: Two Italians held over India sea shooting". ADP. 19 February 2012.
- "Italy says envoy recall signals 'strong displeasure' with India". The Times of India. 19 May 2012.
- "Indian Ambassador Saha summoned by MFA S-G Ambassador Valensise". Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 13 December 2012.
- Hornby, Catherine (14 December 2012). "Italy disappointed at India delay on marine trial". Reuters.
- "Italy urges India court to rule on marines case before Christmas". Agence France-Presse. 14 December 2012.
- "Marò finally takes the hard line". Il Giornale. 17 December 2012.
- "Memorandum by Valerio Carrara, the Chairman of the Defence Committee of the Italian Senate, harshly criticizes India". notizie.tiscali.it. 15 December 2012.
- "Italian marines charged with murder on the way to New Delhi: India". The Straits Times. 21 March 2013.
- Sinha, Amitabh (12 February 2013). "If convicted, Italian marines can serve jail term at home". The Indian Express. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "India consults Italy over live bullet, hate mail received by embassy". The Straits Times. 21 February 2014.
- "India's embassy in Rome gets hate mails, live bullet over Italian marines' issue". Oman Tribune. 21 February 2014.
- "India confirms embassy threats amid marines row". Gazetta Del Sud. 21 February 2014.
- "Bullet sent to Indian embassy in Rome". Gazetta Del Sud. 20 February 2014.
- "Italy opens 'new phase' in India marines saga". Ansa. 24 April 2014.
- "Friendly talks held between Italy, India on marines". Gazzetta Del Sud. 4 June 2014.
- "Italian Marines case is bilateral issue between India and Italy : United Nations". United Nations. UN Press Office. 11 February 2014.
- "Fury in Italy after UN calls marines case bilateral". Gazzetta del Sud Italy. 12 February 2014.
UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon calls Italian marines in India case bilateral
- "HIGHLIGHTS OF THE NOON BRIEFING BY MARTIN NESIRKY, SPOKESPERSON FOR THE SECRETARY-GENERAL – THURSDAY, 13 February 2014". Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- "Ban Ki-moon 'worried' about piracy precedent in marines case". Gazzetta del Sud. 13 February 2014.
- "Italian Marines issue bilateral: says UN chief; fury in Italy". DNA. Press Trust of India. 13 February 2014.
- "Italian Marines row a bilateral issue, says UN chief". Niti Central. 13 February 2014. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- "UN chief 'concerned' over marines dispute between India, Italy". zeenews.india.com. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- "Marò:Ban,appello a soluzione ragionevole" (in Italian). ANSA. 6 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- "Bullet sent to Indian embassy in Rome". Gazetta Del Sud. 4 March 2014.
- "Joint press point with NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen and the Prime Minister of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Nikola Gruevski – Brussels 12 Feb 2014". NATO. 12 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
I am, personally, very concerned about the situation of the two Italian sailors. I'm also concerned by the suggestion that they could be tried for terrorism offences. This could have possible negative implications for the international fight against piracy. A fight which is in all our interest! So I trust that we will see an appropriate resolution soon.
- "Remarks by EU High Representative Catherine Ashton following the Foreign Relations Council – Brussels 14 Feb 2014" (PDF). EEAS. 10 February 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
legislation that appears to be used suggests that somehow this is about terrorism and this has enormous implications for Italy, but also enormous implications for all countries engaged in anti-piracy activities
- "SC decision on Italian marines: EU warns it could impact ties". 17 December 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- "MEPs call for Italian marò accused of killing Indian fishermen to be repatriated - News - European Parliament". Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- "EU keen to restart stalled BTIA negotiations with India". 17 December 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2017 – via The Economic Times.
- Pubby, Manu (14 March 2015). "PM Narendra Modi's Brussels visit cancelled as EU fails to respond". Retrieved 1 August 2017 – via The Economic Times.
- "India faces snub by European Union over Italian marines issue". Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- "PM Narendra Modi's Brussels visit cancelled as EU fails to respond on summit dates-India TV News". Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- "PM Narendra Modi's Brussels visit cancelled as EU fails to respond". article.wn.com. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- "EU favours international arbitration in Italian marines' case". Business Standard. 15 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- "European Parliament adopts resolution on Italian marines, India disapproves". The Economic Times. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- "India disapproves European Parliament resolution on Italian marines". The Hindu. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- "Annex VII arbitration". PCA Case Repository. Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA). Retrieved 22 November 2015.
- "Italy moves ITLOS in Marines case". 26 July 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "ITLOS Press Release about Italian requests" (PDF). ITLOS. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "The "Enrica Lexie" Incident (Italy v. India)". onelawstreet. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE LAW OF THE SEA - Preliminary sentence" (PDF). Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- "ITLOS asks India & Italy to suspend court proceedings aggravating Italian marines dispute". 1, Law Street. 24 August 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- "Maritime tribunal rejects Italy's call for India to free marines". Reuters. 24 August 2015.
- "Maritime tribunal rejects Italy's call for India to free marines". EuroNews. 24 August 2015.
- "UN maritime tribunal rejects Italy's call for India to drop charges against marines". Deutsche Welle. 24 August 2015.
- "Maritime tribunal rejects Italy's call for India to free marines". Swiss Info. 24 August 2015.
- "Italy 'hoped for different marines verdict' - Delrio". Gazetta del Sud. 24 August 2015.
- "UPDATE 1-Maritime tribunal rejects Italy's call for India to free marines". Reuters. 24 August 2015.
- "Abete, maglie azzurre per i marò". Rai Sport. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "La nazionale di calcio in Brasile. Cassano fra i big". noinotizie.it. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "ഇറ്റാലിയന് നാവികരുടെ പേരില് ഇറ്റലി ലോകകപ്പ് ജഴ്സി പുറത്തിറക്കി". Kerala Online News. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Italy gifts marines in Indian custody World cup T-shirts via video conferencing". The New Minute. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Spurgeon, Brad (26 October 2012). "Formula One Veers into Global Politics Again". International Herald Tribune (International version of the NY Times).
- "Ferrari denies Italian navy flag on F1 cars is a political message". CNN. 26 October 2012.
- Cary, Tom (26 October 2012). "Indian Grand Prix 2012: Ferrari risk wrath of officials by flying Italian navy flag". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- "Ferrari's decision to continue sporting Italian navy's flag on their cars at India GP sparks diplomatic row". Sports Arena Media Management Pvt. Ltd. 27 October 2012.
- "Dagli insulti alla becera ironia La gogna sinistra per i marò". Il Tempo (in Italian). 26 April 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2018.