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Enbridge Inc.
Traded asTSXENB
S&P/TSX 60 Component
ISINCA29250N1050 Edit this on Wikidata
IndustryOil and gas
FoundedApril 30, 1949 (1949-04-30)
(as Interprovincial Pipe Line Company)
FounderImperial Oil
Key people
Gregory L. Ebel (Chair)
Al Monaco (CEO)
ServicesPipeline transport
Oil storage
RevenueC$32.9 billion[1]
C$629 million[1]
Total assetsC$57.6 billion[1]
Total equityC$13.5 billion[1]
Number of employees
SubsidiariesEnbridge Pipelines
Enbridge Technology
Enbridge Gas Distribution
Enbridge Energy Partners (~15%)
Union Gas
Websitewww.enbridge.com Edit this at Wikidata

Enbridge Inc. is a Canadian multinational energy transportation company based in Calgary, Alberta. It focuses on the transportation, distribution and generation of energy, primarily in North America. As a transporter of energy, Enbridge operates in Canada and the United States, the longest crude oil and liquid hydrocarbons transportation system in North America.[2] As a distributor of various fuels, it owns and operates Canada's largest natural gas distribution network, providing distribution services in Ontario, Quebec and New York State.[3]


The company was initially incorporated by Imperial Oil as Interprovincial Pipe Line Company (IPL) on April 30, 1949, after Canada's first major oil discovery, in 1947, at Leduc, Alberta.[4][5][6] In the same year, the company built its first oil pipeline from Leduc to Regina, Saskatchewan.[4][6] In 1950, it was expanded through Gretna, Manitoba, to Superior, Wisconsin, in the United States.[4] To operate the United States portion of the pipeline, the Lakehead Pipe Line Company (now Enbridge Energy Partners) was created. In 1953, the pipeline was expanded to Sarnia, Ontario, and in 1956 to Toronto and Buffalo, New York.[4]

In 1953, IPL was listed on the Toronto and Montreal stock exchanges.[4] In 1983, IPL built the Norman Wells pipeline and joined Frontier Pipeline Company.[4] In 1986, through a series of stakes exchanges, IPL gained control of Home Oil and in 1988, it changed its name to Interhome Energy Inc.[4][7] In 1991, it changed its name to Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc.[7]

In 1992, Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. was acquired by Interprovincial Pipe Line System Inc., which changed its name to IPL Energy Inc. in 1994, after the acquisition of Consumers' Gas (now Enbridge Gas Distribution Inc.) and diversification into the gas distribution business.[4][7] In addition, it acquired stakes in AltaGas Services and the electric utility of Cornwall, Ontario.[4] Through the 1990s, the company expanded its gas pipeline network and acquired a stake in the Chicap oil pipeline. It also built the Athabasca Pipeline from northeastern Alberta to the main pipeline system.[4] In 1995, the company expanded its activities outside of North America by taking a stake in the Ocensa pipeline. This stake was sold in 2009.[8] IPL Energy became Enbridge Inc in 1998.[7] The Enbridge name is a portmanteau from "energy" and "bridge".[4]

In the 2000s, Enbridge introduced several large projects. In 2006, it announced the Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipelines Project from Athabasca to Kitimat, British Columbia.[9] The same year, it announced the Alberta Clipper pipeline project from Hardisty, Alberta to Superior, Wisconsin, to connect oil sands production area with the existing network. This pipeline became operational in 2010.[10]

In 2009, Enbridge bought the Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant and expanded it up to 80 MW, which was the world's largest photovoltaic power station at that time.[11]

In January 2017, Enbridge said it would acquire Midcoast Energy Partners for $170 million in cash.[12] After the Chippewas of the Thames community filed suit against Enbridge to stop its controversial "Line 9" pipeline, in July 2017, the Supreme Court of Canada ordered the community to pay Enbridge’s legal costs.[13]

Merger with Spectra Energy

On September 6, 2016, Enbridge agreed to buy Spectra Energy in an all-stock deal valued at about $28 billion.[14] Spectra, headquartered in Houston, Texas, operated in three key areas of the natural gas industry: transmission and storage, distribution, and gathering and processing. Spectra was formed in late 2006 as a spin-off from Duke Energy. Spectra owned the Texas Eastern Pipeline (TETCo), a major natural gas pipeline transporting gas from the Gulf of Mexico coast in Texas to the New York City area; TETCo was one of the largest pipeline systems in the United States.[15] Spectra also operated three oil pipelines, numerous other gas pipelines and was proposing to build still 3 more gas pipelines in the U.S.[16] The merger was completed on February 27, 2017.[17]


Enbridge building in Edmonton, Alberta

Oil and product pipelines

The company is the largest transporter of crude oil in Canada with 2.2 million barrels per day (350×10^3 m3/d) of oil and liquids.[6] The Enbridge Pipeline System is the world's longest crude oil and liquids pipeline system, located in both Canada and the United States.

Enbridge has several new capacities and expansion projects, including construction of Northern Gateway, expansion of Alberta Clipper, renovation of Line 6, reversal of Line 9 and others.[18] Its Light Oil Market Access initiative is a project light crude oil from North Dakota and Western Canada to refineries in Ontario, Quebec, and the U.S. Midwest. Eastern Access, including a reversal of Line 9, is a project to deliver oil Western Canada and Bakken to refineries in Eastern Canada and the midwest and eastern U.S.[18][19] Western Gulf Coast Access, including reversal and expansion of the Seaway Pipeline and the Flanagan South Pipeline, is a plan to connect Canadian heavy oil supply to refineries along the Gulf Coast of the United States.[20][21]

Natural gas

Enbridge gas meters

Enbridge also gathers, processes, and transports natural gas. It has an interest in the 2,986 kilometres (1,855 mi) Alliance Pipeline and the 560 kilometres (350 mi) Vector Pipeline.[6] It also owns the BC Pipeline, which it describes as "the backbone for natural gas infrastructure development in British Columbia."[22] Through its subsidiaries Enbridge Gas Distribution and Union Gas, it is Canada's largest natural gas distribution utility.

Power transmission

Enbridge has entered the power transmission business to facilitate the import and export of power, allowing markets to have efficient and economic access to existing and new-generation sources.

Enbridge's Montana-Alberta Tie-Line (MATL) is a 300-megawatt (MW), 230-kilovolt (kV) electrical transmission line allowing movement of power between Alberta and Montana. The MATL project, which was placed in service the fall of 2013, supports ongoing development of a rich wind-powered generation resource and allows electrical energy to flow in both directions. The transmission line is 210 miles (345 km) long and runs between the Lethbridge, Alberta area and the Great Falls, Montana area. Roughly one third of the line is in Canada and two thirds in the U.S.[23][24]

Spills and violations

Enbridge's Line 3 pipeline was responsible for the largest ever inland oil spill in the United States.[25] In 1991, 1.7 million gallons of oil ruptured from the pipeline in Grand Rapids, MN.[25]

Using data from Enbridge's own reports, the Polaris Institute calculated that 804 spills occurred on Enbridge pipelines between 1999 and 2010. These spills released approximately 161,475 barrels (25,672.5 m3) of crude oil into the environment.[26]

On July 4, 2002, an Enbridge pipeline ruptured in a marsh near the town of Cohasset, Minnesota, in Itasca County, spilling 6,000 barrels (950 m3) of crude oil. In an attempt to keep the oil from contaminating the Mississippi River, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources set a controlled burn that lasted for one day and created a smoke plume about 1-mile (1.6 km) high and 5 miles (8.0 km) long.[27]

In 2006, there were 67 reportable spills totaling 5,663 barrels (900.3 m3) on Enbridge's energy and transportation and distribution system; in 2007 there were 65 reportable spills totaling 13,777 barrels (2,190.4 m3) [28]

On March 18, 2006, approximately 613 barrels (97.5 m3) of crude oil were released when a pump failed at Enbridge's Willmar terminal in Saskatchewan.[29] According to Enbridge, roughly half the oil was recovered.

On January 1, 2007, an Enbridge pipeline that runs from Superior, Wisconsin to near Whitewater, Wisconsin cracked open and spilled ~50,000 US gallons (190 m3) of crude oil onto farmland and into a drainage ditch.[30] The same pipeline was struck by construction crews on February 2, 2007, in Rusk County, Wisconsin, spilling ~201,000 US gallons (760 m3) of crude, of which about 87,000 gallons were recovered. Some of the oil filled a hole more than 20 feet (6.1 m) deep and contaminated the local water table.[31][32]

In April 2007, roughly 6,227 barrels (990.0 m3) of crude oil spilled into a field downstream of an Enbridge pumping station near Glenavon, Saskatchewan.[29]

In 2009, Enbridge Energy Partners, a U.S. affiliate of Enbridge Inc., agreed to pay $1.1 million to settle a lawsuit brought against the company by the state of Wisconsin for 545 environmental violations.[33] In a news release from Wisconsin's Department of Justice, Attorney General J. B. Van Hollen said "...the incidents of violation were numerous and widespread, and resulted in impacts to the streams and wetlands throughout the various watersheds".[34]

In January 2009, an Enbridge pipeline leaked about 4,000 barrels (640 m3) of oil southeast of Fort McMurray at the company's Cheecham Terminal tank farm. Most of the spilled oil was contained within berms but about 1% of the oil, about 40 barrels (6.4 m3), sprayed into the air and coated nearby snow and trees.[35]

On January 2, 2010, Enbridge's Line 2 ruptured near Neche, North Dakota, releasing about 3,784 barrels of crude oil, of which 2,237 barrels were recovered.[32][36]

In April 2010, an Enbridge pipeline ruptured spilling more than 9.5 barrels (1.51 m3) of oil in Virden, Manitoba. This oil leaked into the Boghill Creek, which eventually connects to the Assiniboine River.[37]

The 2010 Kalamazoo River oil spill resulted in over 1,000,000 US gallons (3,800 m3) of oil leaking into Talmadge Creek and the Kalamazoo River

In the July 2010 Kalamazoo River oil spill, a leaking pipeline spilled more than 1,000,000 US gallons (3,800 m3) of oil sands crude oil into Talmadge Creek leading to the Kalamazoo River in southwest Michigan on July 26, near Marshall, Michigan.[38][39] A United States Environmental Protection Agency update of the Kalamazoo River spill concluded the pipeline rupture "caused the largest inland oil spill in Midwest history" and reported the cost of the cleanup at $36.7 million (US) as of November 14, 2011.[38] The cleanup is unfinished as of March 2013.[40] PHMSA raised concerns in a Corrective Action Order (CAO) about numerous anomalies that had been detected on this pipeline by internal line inspection tools, yet Enbridge had failed to check a number of those anomalies in the field.[41] The Michigan spill affected more than 31 miles (50 km) of waterways and wetlands and about 320 people reported symptoms from crude oil exposure.[42] The National Transportation Safety Board said at $800 million, it was the costliest onshore spill cleanup in U.S. history.[43] The NTSB found Enbridge knew of a defect in the pipeline five years before it burst.[44] In June 2013, a Kalamazoo man lodged himself into an Enbridge pipeline in Marshall, MI to protest Enbridge's lack of accountability for the 2010 spill and to encourage landowners along Enbridge's Line 6B expansion to offer increased resistance to construction in 2013.[45][46]

On September 9, 2010, a rupture on Enbridge's Line 6A pipeline near Romeoville, Illinois, released an estimate 7,500 barrels (1,190 m3) of oil into the surrounding area.[38][47]

Enbridge Pipelines (Athabasca) Inc., or Athabasca pipelines, subsidiary of Enbridge Inc., (TSX:ENB) (NYSE:ENB) reported a pipeline leak site, about 70 kilometres southeast of Fort McMurray, on June 22, 2013 of approximately 750 barrels of light synthetic crude oil from Line 37 near Enbridge’s Cheecham, Alberta, terminal. Line 37, constructed in 2006, a 17-kilometre-long, 12-inch diameter pipe links the Long Lake oilsands upgrader to the Cheetham terminal and is part of Enbridge’s Athabasca system.[48] Unusually heavy rainfall in the region, that caused the 2013 Alberta floods, may have caused "ground movement on the right-of way that may have impacted the pipeline."[49] Enbridge’s Athabasca (Line 19) shares a portion of right of way with Line 37 and Enbridge's Wood Buffalo/Waupisoo (Line 75/18) which also shares a portion of right of way with Line 37, a major part of the network that serves Alberta's oilsands,[48] were closed down as a precautionary measure. Operations between Hardisty and Cheecham were restored on June 23 when Enbridge’s Athabasca pipeline (Line 19) was restarted.[49][unreliable source?]

On July 1, 2013, WWMT News in Michigan reported that the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality had issued a citation against Enbridge for contamination of North Ore Creek by an Enbridge pipeline maintenance activity.[50]

On January 30, 2017, a road crew punctured the Seaway S-1 crude oil pipeline in Texas, which is jointly joined by Enterprise Products Partners and Enbridge Inc. through the joint venture Seaway Crude Pipeline Company. Two days later, it was unclear how much oil had spilled over the nearby Highway 121 northeast of Dallas. After the incident, supply concerns reportedly helped push "oil prices 2% higher in early trading to nearly $54 a barrel."[51]

On October 9,2018, Enbridge's Westcoast Pipeline exploded in Shelley, British Columbia,[52] sparking a massive fireball and leading to shortages of natural gas throughout British Columbia.[53]

Protests and controversies

In May 2012, West Coast First Nations members and supporters protested near Enbridge's Annual Shareholder's meeting, against the proposed Northern Gateway Project.[54]

On May 31, 2012, the Vancouver Observer reported about 40 protesters outside the Canadian Oil and Gas Export Summit, protesting the proposed Enbridge Northern Gateway Project.[55]

On July 17, 2012, a group calling itself "We are the Kalamazoo" protested against Enbridge's response to the Kalamazoo spill and its plans to construct the line 6B pipeline. This protest was on the second anniversary of the Kalamazoo spill.[56]

On September 14, 2012, WLNS-TV reported clashes between Enbridge and landowners over eminent domain.[57]

On November 12, 2012, the Lansing State Journal reported that the head of the Line 6B pipeline project stated that he had never seen as much organized landowner resistance before despite 30 years in the pipeline industry. They noted that this was probably because of the 2010 Kalamazoo River spill.[58]

On April 20, 2013, a group of about 30 protesters gathered at the site of the Kalamazoo River oil spill to protest against tar sands oil, fracking, and Enbridge's response to the spill. Kalamazoo County Commissioner Jeff Heppler, whose property was affected by the spill, was present at the protest and stated, "'All I am asking is Enbridge do what they said they said they will do and what is right and take care of everybody, including the businesses that were adversely impacted by the oil spill.'"[59]

In May 2013, Hamilton area residents protested the reversal of flow in Line 9 and temporarily closed Ontario Highway 6.[60]

On June 6, 2013, a group called Hamilton 350 sent a letter of complaint to the Hamilton (Ontario) police service (HPS) for accepting over $44,000 in donations from Enbridge. The letter questions whether police officers would be impartial during any anti-Enbridge protests, given the donation. The letter questions, "If there were a standoff between, on the one side, environmentalists and/or native people (who claim the spot at which the Grand River is crossed by this pipeline) and, on the other side, Enbridge, Inc., would officers of the HPS be able to be truly impartial?"[61]

One June 26, 2013, Hamilton Police arrested at least 10 people who occupied an Enbridge compound for six days to protest the expansion of Enbridge's Line 9 and intent to ship diluted bitumen through the line.[62]

On July 22, 2013, a group of protesters locked themselves to equipment at an Enbridge pipeline construction site in Stockbridge, Michigan. Protesters stated that they had to take matters into their own hands given that state regulators were failing the public, "We felt that there was no other option."[63]

The Line 3 oil pipeline has also drawn resistance from climate justice organizers and Native communities in Minnesota.[64]

A September 16, 2013, "Inside Climate News" report by Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist David Hasemeyer describes how many Michigan landowners are concerned about the safety of new Enbridge pipeline being laid within a few feet of their homes, and the lack of regulations for how close a pipeline can be constructed to an existing home. The article quotes Richard Kuprewicz, president of an engineering consulting company and an adviser to Pipeline Hazardous Materials Administration: "Clearly the pipeline safety regulations aren't adequate in this area and the siting regulations aren't adequate," Kuprewicz said. "It's a bad combination." Homeowners are questioning Enbridge's claims of putting safety first while also placing pipelines sometimes within 10 feet of homes.[65]

In September 2016, a group of Native Americans protested the construction of the Dakota Access pipeline, which Enbridge announced plans to acquire a portion of in a $2 billion deal.[66]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d "Enbridge 2013 Annual Report" (PDF).
  2. ^ "Our Company Overview". Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  3. ^ "Enbridge 2014 Corporate Social Responsibility Report 2014 Corporate Performance Data on Key Governance, Environmental, Social and Economic Subjects". Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Enbridge Inc. - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Enbridge Inc". Reference for Business. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
  5. ^ Gray, Earle (2008). Ontario's Petroleum Legacy: The Birth, Evolution and Challenges of a Global Industry. Heritage Community Foundation. p. 73. ISBN 9780973989229.
  6. ^ a b c d "Crude success: Enbridge". Pipeline International. June 2011. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
  7. ^ a b c d "Canadian Corporate Reports. McGill Digital Archive. Company Detail: Enbridge". McGill University. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
  8. ^ "Enbridge Sells Interest In Colombian Pipeline". Pipeline & Gas Journal. 236 (5). May 2009. Archived from the original on 2014-02-25. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
  9. ^ Jones, Jeffrey (February 21, 2008). "Enbridge rekindles oil sands pipeline plan". Reuters. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  10. ^ "Alberta Clipper Project". Downstream Today. 2010-10-01. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
  11. ^ "Enbridge completes Sarnia solar farm". CBC News. 2010-10-04. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
  12. ^ "Deals of the day-Mergers and acquisitions". Reuters. January 27, 2017.
  13. ^ "Chippewas must pay energy giant's legal bills in lost court battle". CBC. Canada. July 28, 2017. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  14. ^ Dawson, Chester; McKinnon, Judy (2016-09-06). "Enbridge to Buy Spectra Energy in $28 Billion Deal". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-09-07.
  15. ^ FERC pipeline codes Archived 2013-01-20 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Spectra Energy (2015). "Spectra Energy Liquids". Spectra Energy. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  17. ^ "Enbridge and Spectra Energy Complete Merger". Media Centre News Releases. Enbridge. February 27, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  18. ^ a b Fielden, Sandy (2014-08-12). "Take a Pipe On The East Side? – Light Oil Market Access Into Eastern Canada". RBN Energy. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
  19. ^ Smith, Christopher E. (2013-04-18). "Enbridge updates Eastern Access crude project progress". Oil & Gas Journal. PennWell Corporation. Retrieved 2014-09-27.
  20. ^ "Western Gulf Coast Access: An Enbridge Growth Projects Series (Part 4)" (Press release). Enbridge. 2014-07-07. Retrieved 2015-06-02.
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  23. ^ "Montana-Alberta tie line now fully operational". Alberta Electric System Operators (AESO). Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  24. ^ Kessler, Richard A. "Montana–Alberta Wind Power Line Seen Nearing Completion". NHST Media Group. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  25. ^ a b Nelson, Cody (April 23, 2018). "Line 3 timeline: From construction to present day battles". MPRNews.
  26. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-19. Retrieved 2011-11-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ "National Transportation Safety Board Report Pipeline Accident Report" (PDF). NTSB.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 30, 2009.
  28. ^ Enbridge Inc. 2008 Corporate Social Responsibility Report Archived May 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ a b "Spills and Releases". Enbridge. 2007. Archived from the original on September 3, 2009.
  30. ^ Content, Thomas (January 4, 2007). "Oil group cleans spill in Clark County". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on May 20, 2013. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
  31. ^ Bergquist, Lee (2007-02-16). "Oil spill tainted water table". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on 2013-05-20. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
  32. ^ a b "PHMSA: Stakeholder Communications". Primis.phmsa.dot.gov. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  33. ^ The Canadian Press: Enbridge Energy agrees to pay $1.1 million for Wisconsin environmental violations
  34. ^ Enbridge Energy Settles Lawsuit Over Environmental Violations for $1.1 Million[permanent dead link]
  35. ^ "Enbridge still mopping up Anzac spill" from edmontonjournal.com[dead link]
  36. ^ "Correction Action Order: Neche, ND", PHMSA, January 19, 2010.
  37. ^ "CBC News: Oil Spill Into Manitoba Creek". CBC.ca. 2010-04-07. Archived from the original on April 11, 2010. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
  38. ^ a b c "EPA Response to Enbridge Spill in Michigan | US EPA". Epa.gov. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  39. ^ EPA Raises Oil Spill Estimate In Michigan River Archived October 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ "Three Years Later, Kalamazoo Tar Sands Cleanup Continues". Sustainablebusiness.com. 2013-03-28. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  41. ^ "Link" (PDF).
  42. ^ Enbridge proposes changes to Northern Gateway pipeline July 20, 2012 Canadian Press[dead link]
  43. ^ Enbridge to Spend Up to C$500 Million More on Northern Gateway Safety July 20, 2012, foxbusiness.com[dead link]
  44. ^ Michigan lawmaker wary of Enbridge plans July 19, 2012
  45. ^ AP Photo/EPA (2013-06-24). "Man climbs into pipeline in protest of Enbridge Inc. in Marshall". MLive.com. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  46. ^ Felton, Ryan (2013-06-24). "Man Skateboards Inside Pipeline To Protest 2010 Michigan Oil Spill". Detroit.jalopnik.com. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  47. ^ "Enbridge US". Romeoville.enbridgeus.com. Retrieved 2012-07-23.[permanent dead link]
  48. ^ a b "Enbridge Says Spill from Line 37 Near Fort McMurray, Alta., is Being Cleaned Up". Edmonton Journal. Canadian Press. 25 June 2013. Archived from the original on August 28, 2013.
  49. ^ a b "Line 37 Release". Enbridge Media Centre. 25 June 2013. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  50. ^ "deq-issues-violation-notice-enbridge". Archived from the original on 2013-07-03.
  51. ^ Molinski, Dan (January 31, 2017), Shutdown of Texas Pipeline Boosting Oil Prices, New York City: Wall Street Journal, retrieved February 1, 2017
  52. ^ "'It Was Huge': Enbridge Gas Pipeline Ruptures, Sparking Massive Fire and evacuation north of Prince George, B.C." Financial Post. 2018-10-10. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
  53. ^ "B.C.'s Natural Gas Supply Could be Reduced as Much as 50% This Winter". CBC. October 23, 2018. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
  54. ^ Colin Perkel (May 9, 2012). "First Nations Northern Gateway Protest Set To Take Place At Enbridge Shareholder Meeting". Huffingtonpost.ca. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  55. ^ "Enbridge oilsands pipeline protested outside Canadian Oil and Gas Export Summit". Vancouver Observer. 2012-05-31. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  56. ^ "Enbridge Energy officials respond to 'We are the Kalamazoo' oil spill protest at Capitol". MLive.com. 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  57. ^ Morrow, Emerald (2012-09-14). "Enbridge Clashes With Homeowners Over Eminent Domain". WLNS.com. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  58. ^ "Enbridge executives address local homeowner opposition". Lansing State Journal. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  59. ^ Theresa Ghiloni. "Protestors gather at site of Kalamazoo River oil spill in opposition of tar sands oil, fracking". MLive.com. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  60. ^ "Enbridge Pipeline Protesters Close Ontario Highway". CBC.ca. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  61. ^ "Group protests Enbridge donations to Hamilton police - Hamilton - CBC News". Cbc.ca. 2013-06-05. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  62. ^ "Enbridge protesters evicted, arrested | Toronto Star". Thestar.com. 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  63. ^ "'We Felt There Was No Other Option Than to Take Matters into Our Own Hands,' Pipeline Protester Says". MLive.com. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  64. ^ "Minnesota regulators to decide this week on Enbridge Line 3". MPRNews. June 25, 2018.
  65. ^ "Americans Finding Themselves Powerless to Stop Pipeline Companies From Taking Their Land". InsideClimate News. 2013-09-16. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  66. ^ Dalrymple, Amy (August 3, 2016). "Enbridge buys into Dakota Access Pipeline, Sandpiper future unclear". Duluth News Tribune.