Macron in 2019
|President of France|
|Assumed office |
14 May 2017
|Prime Minister||Édouard Philippe|
|Preceded by||François Hollande|
|Minister of the Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs|
26 August 2014 – 30 August 2016
|Prime Minister||Manuel Valls|
|Preceded by||Arnaud Montebourg|
|Succeeded by||Michel Sapin|
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron
21 December 1977
|Political party||La République En Marche (2016–present)|
|Awards||List of honours and decorations|
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (French: [emanˈɥɛl ʒɑ̃ miˈʃɛl fʁedeˈʁik makˈʁɔ̃]; born 21 December 1977) is a French politician who has been President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017.
Born in Amiens, Macron studied philosophy at Paris Nanterre University, later completing a master's degree in public affairs at Sciences Po and graduating from the École nationale d'administration in 2004. He worked as a senior civil servant at the Inspectorate General of Finances and later became an investment banker at Rothschild & Co.
Macron was appointed a deputy secretary general by President François Hollande shortly after his election in May 2012, making Macron one of Hollande's senior advisers. He was later appointed to the Cabinet as Minister of the Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs in August 2014 by Prime Minister Manuel Valls. In this role, Macron championed a number of business-friendly reforms. He resigned from the Cabinet in August 2016, launching a campaign for the 2017 presidential election. Although Macron had been a member of the Socialist Party from 2006 to 2009, he ran in the election under the banner of a centrist political movement he founded in April 2016, En Marche.
Though initially behind in opinion polls, Macron topped the ballot in the first round of voting, and was elected President of France on 7 May 2017 with 66.1% of the vote in the second round, defeating Marine Le Pen. He quickly appointed Édouard Philippe as prime minister, and in the legislative elections a month later, Macron's party, renamed "La République En Marche!" (LREM), secured a majority in the National Assembly. At the age of 39, Macron became the youngest president in French history.
Born in Amiens, he is the son of Françoise Macron (née Noguès), a physician, and Jean-Michel Macron, professor of neurology at the University of Picardy. The couple divorced in 2010. Macron has two siblings, Laurent, born in 1979 and Estelle, born in 1982. Françoise and Jean-Michel's first child was stillborn.
The Macron family legacy is traced back to the village of Authie in Hauts-de-France. One of Macron's paternal great-grandfathers, George William Robertson, was English, and was born in Bristol, United Kingdom. His maternal grandparents, Jean and Germaine Noguès (née Arribet), are from the Pyrenean town of Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Gascony. Macron commonly visited Bagnères-de-Bigorre to visit his grandmother Germaine, whom he called "Manette". Macron associates his enjoyment of reading and his left-ward political leanings to Germaine, who, after coming from a modest upbringing of a stationmaster father and a housekeeping mother, became a teacher then a principal, and died in 2013.
He was educated mainly at the Jesuit institute Lycée la Providence in Amiens before his parents sent him to finish his last year of school at the elite Lycée Henri-IV in Paris, where he completed the high school curriculum and the undergraduate program with a "Bac S, Mention Très bien". At the same time he was nominated for the "Concours Général" (most selective national level high school competition) in French literature and received his diploma for his piano studies at Amiens Conservatory. His parents sent him off to Paris due to their alarm at the bond he had formed with Brigitte Auzière, a married teacher with three children at Jésuites de la Providence, who later became his wife.
In Paris, he failed to gain entry to the École normale supérieure twice. He instead studied philosophy at the University of Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense, obtaining a DEA degree (a master level degree, with a thesis on Machiavelli and Hegel). Around 1999 Macron worked as an editorial assistant to Paul Ricoeur, the French Protestant philosopher who was then writing his last major work, La Mémoire, l'Histoire, l'Oubli. Macron worked mainly on the notes and bibliography. Macron became a member of the editorial board of the literary magazine Esprit.
Macron obtained a master's degree in public affairs at the Sciences Po, majoring in "Public Guidance and Economy" before training for a senior civil service career at the selective École nationale d'administration (ENA), training at an embassy in Nigeria and in an office in Oise before graduating in 2004.
Inspector of Finances
After graduating from ENA in 2004, Macron became an Inspector in the Inspection générale des finances (IGF), a branch of the Finance Ministry. Macron was mentored by Jean-Pierre Jouyet, the then-head of the IGF. During his time as an Inspector of Finances, Macron gave lectures during the summer at the "prep'ENA" (a special cram school for the ENA entrance examination) at IPESUP (fr), an elite private school specializing in preparation for the entrance examinations of the Grandes écoles, such as HEC or Sciences Po.
In August 2007, Macron was appointed deputy rapporteur for Jacques Attali's "Commission to Unleash French Growth". In 2008, Macron paid €50,000 to buy himself out of his government contract. He then became an investment banker in a highly-paid position at Rothschild & Cie Banque. In March 2010, he was appointed to the Attali Commission as a member.
In September 2008, Macron left his job as an Inspector of Finances and took a position at Rothschild & Cie Banque. Macron was inspired to leave the government due to the election of Nicolas Sarkozy to the presidency. He was originally offered the job by François Henrot. His first responsibility at Rothschild & Cie Banque was assisting with the acquisition of Cofidis by Crédit Mutuel Nord Europe.
Macron formed a relationship with Alain Minc, a businessman on the supervisory board of Le Monde. In 2010, Macron was promoted to partner with the bank after working on the recapitalization of Le Monde and the acquisition by Atos of Siemens IT Solutions and Services. In the same year, Macron was appointed as managing director and put in charge of Nestlé's acquisition of one of Pfizer's largest subsidiaries based around baby drinks. His share of the fees on this €9 billion deal made Macron a millionaire.
Macron reported that he had earned €2 million between December 2010 and May 2012. Official documents show that between 2009 and 2013, Macron had earned almost €3 million. He left Rothschild & Cie in 2012.
In his youth, Macron worked for the Citizen and Republican Movement for two years but he never applied to be a member. Macron was an assistant for Mayor Georges Sarre of the 11th arrondissement of Paris during his time at Sciences Po. Macron had been a member of the Socialist Party since he was 24 but he only renewed his subscription to the party from 2006 to 2009.
Macron met François Hollande through Jean-Pierre Jouyet in 2006 and joined his staff in 2010. In 2007, Macron attempted to run for a seat in the National Assembly in Picardy under the Socialist Party label in the 2007 legislative elections, however his application was declined. Macron was offered the chance to be the deputy chief of staff to Prime Minister François Fillon in 2010 though he declined.
Deputy Secretary-General of the Élysée
On 15 May 2012, Macron became the deputy secretary general of the Élysée, a senior role in President François Hollande's staff. Macron served with Nicolas Revel. He served under the secretary general, Pierre-René Lemas.
During the summer of 2012, Macron put forward a proposal that would increase the 35 hour work week to 37 hours until 2014. He also tried to hold back the large tax increases on the highest earners that were planned by the government. Hollande refused Macron's proposals. Nicolas Revel, the other deputy secretary general of the Élysée who he was serving with, opposed Macron on a proposed budget responsibility pact. Revel generally worked on social policy.
On 10 June 2014, it was announced that Macron had resigned from his role and was replaced by Laurence Boone. Reasons for his departure were that he was disappointed to not be included in the first Government of Manuel Valls and also frustrated by his lack of influence in the reforms proposed by the government. This was following the appointment of Jean-Pierre Jouyet as chief of staff.
Jouyet said that Macron left to "continue personal aspirations" and create his own financial consultancy firm. It was later reported that Macron was planning to create an investment firm that would attempt to fund educational projects. Macron was shortly afterwards employed at the University of Berlin with the help of businessman, Alain Minc. Macron was awarded the position of research fellow. Macron had also sought a position at Harvard University.
Macron was offered a chance to be a candidate in the municipal elections in 2014 in his hometown of Amiens. He declined the offer. Manuel Valls attempted to appoint Macron as the Budget Minister but François Hollande rejected the idea due to Macron never being elected before.
Minister of Economy and Industry
He was appointed as the Minister of Economy and Industry in the second Valls Cabinet on 26 August 2014, replacing Arnaud Montebourg. He was the youngest Minister of the Economy since Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in 1962. Macron was branded by the media as the "Anti-Montebourg" due to being pro-EU and much more moderate, while Montebourg was eurosceptic and left wing. As Minister of the Economy, Macron was at the forefront of pushing through business-friendly reforms. On 17 February 2015, prime minister Manuel Valls pushed Macron's signature law package through a reluctant parliament using the special 49.3 procedure.
Macron increased the French share in the company Renault from 15% to 20% and then enforced the Florange law which grants double voting rights on shares registered for more than two years unless two-thirds of shareholders vote to overturn it. This gave the French state a minority share in the company though Macron later stated that the government will limit its powers within Renault.
In August 2015, Macron said that he was no longer a member of the Socialist Party and was an independent.
The "Macron Law" was Macron's signature law package that was eventually pushed through parliament using the 49.3 procedure.
After the "Law on Growth and Purchasing Power" brought on by Arnaud Montebourg with the aim to "restore 6 billion euros of purchasing power" to the French public. Macron presented the Macron Law to a council of ministers. The law intended to rejuvenate the French economy by fixing regulations based around Sunday work, transport and driving licenses, public sector jobs and the transport market. Manuel Valls, under the fear that the law would not find a majority in the National Assembly, decided to push the law through with the 49.3 procedure. The law was adopted on 10 April 2015.
The OECD estimated that the Macron Law would generate a "0.3% increase in GDP over five-years and a 0.4% increase over 10-years" Ludovic Subran, the chief economist at credit insurance company, Euler Hermes, estimated that Macron Law would give France a GDP increase of 0.5%.
2017 French presidential bid
Formation of En marche and resignation from government
Macron first became known to the French public after his appearance on the French TV programme "Des Paroles Et Des Actes" in March 2015. Before forming his political party En marche, Macron had hosted a series of events with him speaking in public, his first one in March 2015 in Val-de-Marne. Macron threatened to leave Manuel Valls' second government over the proposed reform on removing dual-nationality from terrorists. He also took various foreign trips, including one to Israel where he spoke on the advancement of digital technology.
Tensions around the question of Macron's loyalty to the Valls government and Hollande himself increased when Hollande and Valls turned down a proposal for a law put forward by Macron. The law, titled "Macron 2" was going to be much bigger than the original Macron law with a larger aim of making the French economy competitive. Macron was given the chance to insert his opinion into the El Khomri law and put specific parts of "Macron 2" into the law though El Khomri could overturn these with help of other ministers.
Amid tensions and deterioration of relations with the current government, Macron founded an independent political party, En marche, in Amiens on 6 April 2016. A liberal, progressive political movement that gathered huge media coverage when it was first established, the party and Macron were both reprimanded by President Hollande and the question of Macron's loyalty to the government was raised. Several MEPs spoke out in support for the movement though the majority of the Socialist Party spoke against En marche including Manuel Valls, Michel Sapin, Axelle Lemaire and Christian Eckert.
In June 2016, support for Macron and his movement, En marche, began to grow in the media with L'Express, Les Echos, Le 1 and L'Opinion beginning to voice public support for Macron. Following several controversies surrounding trade unionists and their protests, major newspapers began to run stories about Macron and En marche on their front page with mainly positive press. This was criticised hugely by the far-left in France and the far-right with the term "Macronite" being coined to describe the pro-Macron influence within the press. The term has been expanded among the left-wing to also criticise the centrist leanings of most newspapers and their influence among left wing voter bases.
Macron was invited to attend a festival in Orléans by mayor Olivier Carré in May 2016, the festival is organised every year to celebrate Orléans' liberation by Joan of Arc. France Info and LCI reported that Macron had attached the Republican values of the Fifth Republic to Joan of Arc and then in a speech, he compared himself to Joan of Arc. Macron later went Puy du Fou and declared he was "not a socialist" in a speech amid rumours he was going to leave the current government.
On 30 August 2016, Macron resigned from the government ahead of the 2017 presidential election, to devote himself to his En marche movement. There had been rising tensions and several reports that he wanted to leave the Valls government since early 2015. Macron initially planned to leave after the cancellation of his "Macron 2" law but after a meeting with President François Hollande, he decided to stay and an announcement was planned to declare that Macron was committed to the government (though the announcement was pushed back due to the attacks in Nice and Normandy). Michel Sapin was announced as Macron's replacement. Speaking on Macron's resignation, Hollande said he had been "betrayed". According to an IFOP poll, 84% of French agreed with Macron's decision to resign.
First round of the presidential election
Macron first showed intention to run with the formation of En marche but following his resignation from the government, he was able to spend more time dedicating himself to his movement. He first announced that he was considering running for president in April 2016 and after his resignation from the position of economy minister, media sources began to find patterns in Macron's fundraising and typical presidential campaign fundraising tactics. In October 2016, Macron criticized Hollande's goal of being a "normal" president, saying that France needed a more "Jupiterian presidency".
On 16 November 2016, Macron formally declared his candidacy for the French presidency after months of speculation. In his announcement speech, Macron called for a "democratic revolution" and promised to "unblock France". Macron had wished that Hollande would join the race several months beforehand, saying that Hollande was the legitimate candidate for the Socialist Party. A book was published on 24 November 2016 by Macron to support his campaign titled "Révolution", the book sold nearly 200,000 copies during its printing run and was one of the best selling books in France during 2016.
Shortly after announcing his run, Jean-Christophe Cambadélis and Manuel Valls both asked Macron to run in the Socialist Party presidential primary though Macron ultimately refused. Jean-Christophe Cambadélis began to threaten to exclude members who associated or supported Macron following Lyon mayor Gérard Collomb's declaration of support for Macron.
Macron's campaign, headed by French economist Sophie Ferracci, announced in December 2016 that it had raised 3.7 million euros in donations without public funding (as En marche was not a registered political party). This was three times the budget of then-front runner Alain Juppé. Macron came under criticism from several individuals, including Benoît Hamon who requested Macron reveal a list of his donors accusing him of conflicts of interest due to Macron's past at Rothschilds. Macron replied to this, calling Hamon's behavior "demagogic." It was later reported by journalists Marion L'Hour and Frédéric Says that Macron had spent €120,000 on setting up dinners and meetings with various personalities within the media and in French popular culture while he was minister. Macron was then accused by deputies, Christian Jacob and Philippe Vigier of using this money to further the representation of En Marche in French political life. Michel Sapin, his successor and Minister of Economy saw nothing illegal about Macron's actions saying that Macron had the right to spend the funds. Macron said in response to these allegations that it was "defamatory" and that none of the ministerial budget had been spent on his party.
Macron's campaign enjoyed considerable coverage from the media. Mediapart reported that Macron had over fifty magazine covers dedicated purely to him compared to Melenchon's "handful" despite similar followings online and both having large momentum during the campaign. Macron has been consistently labelled by the far-left and far-right as the "media candidate" and has been viewed as such in opinion polls. He is friends with the owners of Le Monde and Claude Perdiel the former owner of Nouvel Observateur. Many observers have compared Macron's campaign to a product being sold due to Maurice Lévy, a former CEO using marketing tactics to try to advance Macron's presidential ambitions. The magazine Marianne has reported that BFMTV, whose owner is Patrick Drahi, has broadcast more coverage of Macron than all four main candidates combined, Marianne has said this may be due to Macron's campaign having links with Drahi through a former colleague of Drahi, Bernard Mourad.
After a range of comparisons to centrist, François Bayrou, Bayrou announced he was not going to stand in the presidential election and instead form an electoral alliance with Macron which went into effect on 22 February 2017, and has since lasted with En marche and the Democratic Movement becoming allies in the National Assembly. Following this, Macron's poll ratings began to rise and after several legal issues surrounding François Fillon become publicized, Macron overtook him in the polls to become the front runner after polls shown him beating National Front candidate Marine Le Pen in the second round.
Macron attracted criticism for the time taken to spell out a formal program during his campaign; despite declaring in November, he had still not released a complete set of proposals by February, attracting both attacks from critics and concern among allies and supporters. He eventually laid out his 150-page formal program on 2 March, publishing it online and discussing it at a marathon press conference that day.
Macron accumulated a wide array of supporters, securing endorsements from François Bayrou of the Democratic Movement (MoDem), MEP Daniel Cohn-Bendit, the ecologist candidate François de Rugy of the primary of the left, and Socialist MP Richard Ferrand, secretary-general of En marche, as well as numerous others – many of them from the Socialist Party, but also a significant number of centrist and centre-right politicians. The Grand Mosque of Paris urged French Muslims to vote en masse for Macron.
On 23 April 2017, Macron received the most votes in the first round of the presidential election, with 24% of the overall vote and more than 8 million votes all together. He progressed to the second round with Marine Le Pen. Former candidates François Fillon and Benoît Hamon voiced their support for Macron.
Second round of the presidential election
Macron qualified for the run-off against National Front candidate Marine Le Pen on 23 April 2017, after coming first place in the vote count. Following the announcement of his qualification, François Fillon and Benoît Hamon expressed support for Macron. President François Hollande also endorsed Macron. Many foreign politicians voiced support for Macron in his bid against right-wing populist candidate Marine Le Pen, including European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, and former US President Barack Obama.
A debate was arranged between Macron and Le Pen on 3 May 2017. The debate lasted for 2 hours and Macron was considered the winner due to opinion polls.
In March 2017, Macron's digital campaign manager, Mounir Mahjoubi, told Britain's Sky News that Russia is behind "high level attacks" on Macron, and said that its state media are "the first source of false information". He said: "We are accusing RT (formerly known as Russia Today) and Sputnik News (of being) the first source of false information shared about our candidate ...".
Two days before the French Presidential Election on 7 May, it was reported that nine gigabytes of Macron's campaign emails had been anonymously posted to Pastebin, a document-sharing site. These documents were then spread onto the imageboard 4chan which led to the hashtag "#macronleaks" trending on Twitter. In a statement on the same evening, Macron's political movement, En marche, said: "The En marche movement has been the victim of a massive and coordinated hack this evening which has given rise to the diffusion on social media of various internal information". Macron's campaign had been presented a report before in March 2017 by the Japanese cyber security firm Trend Micro detailing how En marche had been the target of phishing attacks. Trend Micro said that the group conducting these attacks were Russian hacking group Fancy Bear who were also accused of hacking the Democratic National Committee on 22 July 2016. These same emails were verified and released in July 2017 by WikiLeaks. This was following Le Pen accusing Macron of tax avoidance.
On 7 May 2017, Macron was elected President of France with 66.1% of the vote compared to Marine Le Pen's 33.9%. The election had record absention at 25.4% and 8% of ballots being blank or spoilt. Macron resigned from his role as president of En marche and Catherine Barbaroux became interim leader.
President of France
Macron qualified for the runoff after the first round of the election on 23 April 2017. He won the second round of the presidential election on 7 May by a landslide according to preliminary results, making the candidate of the National Front, Marine Le Pen, concede. At 39, he became the youngest president in French history and the youngest French head of state since Napoleon. He is also the first president of France born after the establishment of the Fifth Republic in 1958.
Macron formally became president on 14 May. He appointed Patrick Strzoda as his chief of staff and Ismaël Emelien as his special advisor for strategy, communication and speeches. On 15 May, he appointed Édouard Philippe of the Republicans as Prime Minister. On the same day, he made his first official foreign visit, meeting in Berlin with Angela Merkel, the Chancellor of Germany. The two leaders emphasised the importance of France–Germany relations to the European Union. They agreed to draw up a "common road map" for Europe, insisting that neither was against changes to the Treaties of the European Union.
In the 2017 legislative election, Macron's party La République en marche and its Democratic Movement allies secured a comfortable majority, winning 350 seats out of 577. After The Republicans emerged as the winners of the Senate elections, government spokesman Christophe Castaner stated the elections were a "failure" for his party.
In his first few months as president, Macron pressed for enactment of package of reforms on public ethics, labor laws, taxes, and law enforcement agency powers.
In response to Penelopegate, the National Assembly passed a part of Macron's proposed law to stop mass corruption in French politics by July 2017, banning elected representatives from hiring family members. Meanwhile, the second part of the law scrapping a constituency fund was scheduled for voting after Senate objections.
Macron's plan to give his wife an official role within government came under fire with criticisms ranging from it being undemocratic to what critics perceive as a contradiction to his fight against nepotism. Following an online petition of nearly 290,000 signatures on change.org Macron abandoned the plan. On 9 August, the National Assembly adopted the bill on public ethics, a key theme of Macron's campaign, after debates on the scrapping the constituency funds.
Labour policy and unions
Macron aims to shift union–management relations away from the adversarial lines of the current French system and toward a more flexible, consensus-driven system modelled after Germany and Scandinavia. He has also pledged to act against companies employing cheaper labour from eastern Europe and in return affecting jobs of French workers, what he has termed as "social dumping". Under the EU rules, eastern European workers can be employed for a limited time at the salary level in eastern European countries which has led to dispute between the EU states.
The French government announced the proposed changes to France's labour rules ("Code du Travail"), being among the first steps taken by Macron and his government to galvanise the French economy. Macron's reform efforts have encountered resistance from some French trade unions. The largest trade union, the CFDT, has taken a conciliatory approach to Macron's push and has engaged in negotiations with the president, while the more militant CGT is more hostile to reforms. Macron's labour minister, Muriel Pénicaud, is overseeing the effort.
The National Assembly including the Senate approved the proposal, allowing the government to loosen the labour laws after negotiations with unions and employers' groups. The reforms, which were discussed with unions, limit payouts for dismissals deemed unfair and give companies greater freedom to hire and fire employees as well as to define acceptable working conditions. The president signed five decrees reforming the labour rules on 22 September. Government figures released in October 2017 revealed that during the legislative push to reform the labour code, the unemployment rate had dropped 1.8%, the biggest since 2001.
On 23 June 2018, President Macron said: "The reality is that Europe is not experiencing a migration crisis of the same magnitude as the one it experienced in 2015", "A country like Italy has not at all the same migratory pressure as last year. The crisis we are experiencing today in Europe is a political crisis". In November 2019, Macron introduced new immigration rules to restrict the number of refugees reaching France, while stating to "take back control" of the immigration policy.
Pierre de Villiers, then-Chief of the General Staff of the Armies, stepped down on 19 July 2017 following a confrontation with Macron. De Villiers cited the military budget cut of €850 million as the main reason he was stepping down. Le Monde later reported that De Villiers told a parliamentary group, "I will not let myself be fucked like this." Macron named François Lecointre as De Villiers' replacement.
Macron's government presented its first budget on 27 September, the terms of which reduced taxes as well as spending to bring the public deficit in line with the EU's fiscal rules. The budget replaced the wealth tax with one targeting real estate, fulfilling Macron's campaign pledge to scrap the wealth tax. Before it was replaced, the tax collected up to 1.5% of the wealth of French residents whose global worth exceeded €1.3m.
In February 2017, Macron announced a plan to offer voluntary redundancy in an attempt to further cut jobs from the French civil service. In December 2019, Macron informed that he would scrap 20th century Byzantine pension system and introduce a single nations pension system managed by the state. In January 2020, after weeks of public transport shutdown and vandalization across Paris against the new pension plan, Macron compromised the plan by revising the retirement age. In February, the pension overhaul was adopted by decree using Article 49 of the French constitution.
In July 2017, the Senate approved its first reading of a controversial bill with stricter anti-terror laws, a campaign pledge of Macron. The National Assembly voted on 3 October to pass the bill 415–127, with 19 abstentions. Interior Minister Gérard Collomb described France as being "still in a state of war" ahead of the vote, with the 1 October Marseille stabbing having taken place two days prior. The Senate then passed the bill on its second reading by a 244–22 margin on 18 October. Later that day Macron stated that 13 terror plots had been foiled since 2017 began. The law replaced the state of emergency in France and made some of its provisions permanent.
The law gives authorities expanded power to search homes, restrict movement, close places of worship, and search areas around train stations as well as international ports and airports. It was passed after modifications to address concerns about civil liberties. The most punitive measures will be reviewed annually and are scheduled to lapse by the end of 2020. The bill was signed into law by Macron on 30 October. He announced that, starting 1 November, it would bring an end to the state of emergency.
Asylum and the refugee crisis
Speaking on refugees and, specifically, the Calais Jungle, Macron said he would not allow another refugee camp to form in Paris before outlining the government policy towards immigration and asylum. He announced plans to speed up asylum applications and deportations but give refugees better housing.
Visiting Corsica in February 2018, Macron sparked controversy when he rejected nationalist wishes for Corsican as an official language but offered to recognize Corsica in the French constitution.
Macron also proposed a plan to "reorganise" the Islamic religion in France saying: "We are working on the structuring of Islam in France and also on how to explain it, which is extremely important – my goal is to rediscover what lies at the heart of laïcité, the possibility of being able to believe as not to believe, in order to preserve national cohesion and the possibility of having free consciousness." He declined to reveal further information about the plan.
Foreign policy and national defence
Macron attended the 2017 Brussels summit on 25 May 2017, his first NATO summit as president of France. At the summit, he met US President Donald Trump for the first time. The meeting was widely publicized due to a handshake between the two of them being characterized as a "power-struggle".
On 29 May 2017, Macron met with Vladimir Putin at the Palace of Versailles. The meeting sparked controversy when Macron denounced Russia Today and Sputnik accusing the news agencies of being "organs of influence and propaganda, of lying propaganda". Macron also urged cooperation in the conflict against ISIS and warned that France would respond with force in Syria if chemical weapons are used. In response to the chemical attack in Douma, Syria in 2018, Macron directed French participation in airstrikes against Syrian government sites, coordinated with the United States and the United Kingdom.
In his first major foreign policy speech on 29 August, President Macron stated that fighting Islamist terrorism at home and abroad was France's top priority. Macron urged a tough international stance to pressure North Korea into negotiations, on the same day it fired a missile over Japan. He also affirmed his support for the Iranian nuclear deal and criticized Venezuela's government as a "dictatorship". He added that he would announce his new initiatives on the future of European Union after the German elections in September. At the 56th Munich Security Conference in February, Macron presented his 10-year vision policy to strengthen the European Union. The President remarked larger budget, integrated capital markets, effective defense policy and quick decision making holds the key for Europe. Adding that reliance on NATO and especially the US and the UK was not good for Europe, and a dialogue must be established with Russia.
In July 2020, Macron called for sanctions against Turkey for the violation of Greece's and Cyprus' sovereignty, saying it is "not acceptable that the maritime space of (EU) member states be violated and threatened." He also criticized Turkish military intervention in Libya. Macron said that "We have the right to expect more from Turkey than from Russia, given that it is a member of NATO."
According to the IFOP poll for Le Journal du Dimanche, Macron started his five-year term with a 62 per cent approval rating. This was higher than François Hollande's popularity at the start of his first term (61 per cent) but lower than Sarkozy's (65 per cent).
An IFOP poll on 24 June 2017 said that 64 percent of French people were pleased with Macron's performance. In the IFOP poll on 23 July 2017, Macron suffered a 10 percent point drop in popularity, the largest for any president since Jacques Chirac in 1995. 54 per cent of French people approved of Macron's performance a 24 percentage point drop in three months. The main contributors to this drop in popularity are his recent confrontations with former Chief of Defence Staff Pierre De Villiers, the nationalization of the Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyard owned by the bankrupt STX Offshore & Shipbuilding, and the reduction in housing benefit. In August 2017, IFOP polls stated that 40 per cent approved and 57 per cent disapproved of his performance.
By the end of September 2017, seven out of ten respondents said that they believe Emmanuel Macron was respecting his campaign promises, though a majority felt that the policies the government was putting forward were "unfair."
On 18 July 2018, Le Monde revealed in an article that a member of Macron's staff Alexandre Benalla posed as a police officer and beat a protester during May Day demonstrations in Paris earlier in the year and was suspended for a period of 15 days before only being internally demoted. The Élysée failed to refer the case to the public prosecutor and a preliminary investigation into the case was not opened until the day after the publication of the article, and the lenient penalty served by Benalla raised questions within the opposition about whether the executive deliberately chose not to inform the public prosecutor as required under the code of criminal procedure.
Overall, Macron is largely seen as a centrist. Some observers describe him as a social liberal and others call him a social democrat. During his time in the French Socialist Party, he supported the party's centrist wing, whose political stance has been associated with Third Way policies advanced by Bill Clinton, Tony Blair and Gerhard Schröder, and whose leading spokesman has been former prime minister Manuel Valls.
In the past, Macron has called himself a socialist, but he has labelled himself as a centrist liberal since August 2015. He has refused observations by critics that he is an "ultra-liberal" economically. During a visit to Vendee in August 2016, he said he was not a socialist and that he just served in a "left wing government." He has called himself both a "man of the left" and "liberal" in his book Révolution. Macron has since been labeled a libertarian with a socially liberal viewpoint.
Macron created the centrist political party En Marche with the attempt to create a party that can cross partisan lines. Speaking on why he formed En Marche, he said there is a real divide in France between "conservatives and progressives". His political platform during the 2017 French presidential election contained stances from both the left and right, which led to him being positioned as a radical centrist by Le Figaro. Macron has rejected centrist as a label, although political scientist Luc Rouban has compared his platform to former centrist president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, who is the only other French president to have been elected on a centrist platform.
Macron has been compared to former president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing due to their ability to win a presidential election on a centrist platform and for their similar governing styles. Both were inspectors of finance, were given responsibilities based around tax and revenue, both were very ambitious about running for the position of president, showing their keenness early in their careers and both were seen as figures of renewal in French political life. d'Estaing even said himself in 2016 that he was "a little like Macron." Observers have noted that while they are alike ideologically, d'Estaing had ministerial experience and time in Parliament to show for his political life while Macron had never been elected before.
Macron has advocated in favor of the free market and reducing the public-finances deficit. He first publicly used the word liberal to describe himself in a 2015 interview with Le Monde. He added that he is "neither right nor left" and that he advocates a "collective solidarity". During a visit to the Puy du Fou in Vendée with Philippe de Villiers in August 2016, he stated: "Honesty compels me to say that I am not a socialist." Macron explained that he was part of the "left government" because he wanted to "serve the public interest" as any minister would. In his book Révolution, published in November 2016, Macron presents himself as both a "leftist" and a "liberal ... if by liberalism one means trust in man."
With his party En Marche, Macron's stated aim is to transcend the left–right divide in a manner similar to François Bayrou or Jacques Chaban-Delmas, asserting that "the real divide in our country ... is between progressives and conservatives". With the launch of his independent candidacy and his use of anti-establishment rhetoric, Macron has been labelled a populist by some observers, notably Manuel Valls, but Macron rejects this term.
Macron is a supporter of the El Khomri law. He became the most vocal proponent of the economic overhaul of the country. Macron has stated that he wants to go further than the El Khomri law when reforming the labor code.
Macron is in favor of tax cuts. During the 2017 presidential election, Macron proposed cutting the corporate tax rate from 33.3% to 25%. Macron also wants to remove investment income from the wealth tax so that it is solely a tax on high-value property. Macron also wants to exempt 18 million households from local residence tax, branding the tax as "unfair" during his 2017 presidential campaign.
Macron is against raising taxes on the highest earners. When asked about François Hollande's proposal to raise income tax on the upper class to 75%, Macron compared the policy to the Cuban taxation system. Macron supports stopping tax avoidance.
Macron has advocated for the end of the 35 hour work week; however, his view has changed over time and he now seeks reforms that aim to preserve the 35 hour work week while increasing France's competitiveness. He has said that he wants to return flexibility to companies without ending the 35 work week. This would include companies renegotiating work hours and overtime payments with employees.
He has supported the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union and criticized the Walloon government for trying to block it. He believes that CETA should not require the endorsement of national parliaments because "it undermines the EU". Macron supports the idea of giving the Eurozone its own common budget.
Regarding the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), Macron stated in June 2016 that "the conditions [to sign the treaty] are not met", adding that "we mustn't close the door entirely" and "need a strong link with the US".
In March 2018, Macron announced that the government would spend 1.5 billion euros ($1.9 billion) on artificial intelligence in order to boost innovation. The money would be used to sponsor research projects and scientific laboratories, as well as to finance startup companies within the country whose focus is AI.
Macron described France's colonization of Algeria as a "crime against humanity". He also said: "It's truly barbarous and it's part of a past that we need to confront by apologizing to those against whom we committed these acts." Polls following his remarks reflected a decrease in his support.
In January 2017, he said France needed a more "balanced" policy toward Syria, including talks with Bashar al-Assad. In April 2017, following the chemical attack in Khan Shaykhun, Macron proposed a possible military intervention against the Assad regime, preferably under United Nations auspices. He has warned if the Syrian regime uses chemical weapons during his presidency he will act unilaterally to punish it.
He supports the continuation of President Hollande's policies on Israel, opposes the BDS movement, and has refused to state a position on recognition of the State of Palestine. In May 2018, Macron condemned "the violence of Israeli armed forces" against Palestinians in Gaza border protests.
Macron has called for a peaceful solution during the 2017 North Korea crisis, though he agreed to work with US President Trump against North Korea. Macron and Trump apparently conducted a phone call on 12 August 2017 where they discussed confronting North Korea, denuclearizing the Korean Peninsula and enforcing new sanctions.
In response to the Turkish invasion of northern Syria aimed at ousting U.S.-backed Syrian Kurds from the enclave of Afrin, Macron said that Turkey must respect Syria's sovereignty, despite his condemnation of Bashar al-Assad.
Macron has voiced support for the Saudi Arabian-led military campaign against Yemen's Shiite rebels. He also defended France's arms sales to the Saudi-led coalition. Some rights groups have argued that France is violating national and international law by selling weapons to members of the Saudi-led coalition fighting in Yemen.
In response to the death of Chinese Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo, who died of organ failure while in government custody, Macron praised Liu as "a freedom fighter". Macron also described as "extremely fruitful and positive" his first contacts with President Xi Jinping.
An article in the New York Times described Emmanuel Macron as "ardently pro-Europe" and stated that he "has proudly embraced an unpopular European Union."
Macron was described by some as Europhile and federalist but he describes himself as "neither pro-European, eurosceptic nor a federalist in the classical sense", and his party as "the only pro-European political force in France".
In June 2015, Macron and his German counterpart Sigmar Gabriel published a platform advocating a continuation of European integration. They advocate the continuation "of structural reforms (such as labor markets), institutional reforms (including the area of economic governance)", but also a reconciliation of "tax and social systems (like better co-ordination or harmonization of the corporate taxes via, for example, minimum wages)".
In addition, Macron stated: "I'm in favor of strengthening anti-dumping measures which have to be faster and more powerful like those in the United States. We also need to establish a monitoring of foreign investments in strategic sectors at the EU level in order to protect a vital industry and to ensure our sovereignty and the European superiority." Macron also stated that, if elected, he would seek to renegotiate the Treaty of Le Touquet with the United Kingdom which has caused a build-up of economic migrants in Calais. When Macron served as economy minister he had suggested the Treaty could be scrapped if the UK left the European Union.
On 1 May 2017, Macron said the EU needs to reform or face Frexit. On 26 September, he unveiled his proposals for the EU, intending to deepen the bloc politically and harmonise its rules. He argued for institutional changes, initiatives to promote EU, along with new ventures in the technology, defence and energy sectors. His proposals also included setting up a rapid reaction force working along with national armies while establishing a finance minister, budget and parliament for the Eurozone. He also called for a new tax on technology giants, an EU-wide asylum agency to deal with the refugee crisis, and changes to the Common Agricultural Policy.
Following the declaration of independence by Catalonia, Macron joined the EU in supporting Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy. In a conversation with BBC's Andrew Marr, Macron stated that theoretically if France should choose to withdraw from the EU, they would do so through a national popular vote. In November 2019, Macron blocked EU accession talks with Albania and North Macedonia, proposing changes to EU Enlargement policy. In an interview with The Economist, Macron explained that the EU was too reliant on NATO and the US, and that it should initiate "strategic dialogue" with Russia.
After the European elections in 2019, it was Macron in particular who prevented the leading candidate of the European People's Party, Manfred Weber, as president of the European Commission. Previously it was a tradition that always the top candidate of the largest party took over this post. Critics accuse Macron of having ignored by his actions the democratic decision of the voters for power-political reasons, and thus sacrificed the democratic principles of his own interests.
In July 2015, as economy minister, Macron stated in an interview that any Greece bailout package must also ease their burden by including reductions in the country's overall debt. In July 2015, while challenging the "loaded question" of the 2015 Greek referendum, Macron called for resisting the "automatic ejection" of Greece from the Eurozone and avoiding "the Versailles Treaty of the Eurozone," in which case the "No" side would win. He believes that the Greek and European leaders co-produced the Greek government-debt crisis, and that the agreement reached in summer 2015 between Greece and its creditors, notably driven by François Hollande, will not help Greece in dealing with the debt, while at the same time criticizing the International Monetary Fund.
In June 2016, he criticized the austerity policies imposed on Greece, considering them to be unsustainable and calling for the joint establishment of "fiscal and financial solidarity mechanisms" and a mechanism for restructuring the debt of Eurozone member states. Yanis Varoufakis, minister of finance in the First Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras, praised Macron, calling him "the only French Minister in the François Hollande's administration that seemed to understand what was at stake in the Eurozone" and who, according to him, "tried to play the intermediary between us [Greece] and the troika of our creditors EC, IMF, ECB even if they don't allow him to play the role".
President Macron supports NATO and its role in the security of eastern European states and he also said pressure NATO partners like Poland to uphold what he called "European values". He said in April 2017 that "in the three months after I'm elected, there will be a decision on Poland. You cannot have a European Union which argues over every single decimal place on the issue of budgets with each country, and which, when you have an EU member which acts like Poland or Hungary on issues linked to universities and learning, or refugees, or fundamental values, decides to do nothing." Polish Foreign Minister Witold Waszczykowski said in response that Macron "violated European standards and the principles of friendship with Poland".
During a press conference with Vladimir Putin at the Palace of Versailles in May 2017, he condemned the Russian state media as "lying propaganda." At the same month, he said that "we all know who Le Pen’s allies are. The regimes of Orbán, Kaczyński, Putin. These aren’t the regimes with an open and free democracy. Every day they break many democratic freedoms."
Macron supported the open-door policy toward migrants from the Middle East and Africa pursued by Angela Merkel in Germany during the 2017 election campaign and promoted tolerance towards immigrants and Muslims. Macron expressed confidence in France's ability to absorb more immigrants and welcomed their arrival into Europe, asserting that the influx will have a positive economic impact. However, he later stated that France could "not hold everyone" and cited migration as a major concern of voters. New migration measures were introduced which toughened controls on asylum and fixed quotas for foreign workers.
However, he believes that Frontex (the European Border and Coast Guard Agency) is "not a sufficiently ambitious program" and has called for more investment in coast and border guards, "because anyone who enters [Europe] at Lampedusa or elsewhere is a concern for all European countries".
In June 2018 the Aquarius (NGO ship) carrying 629 migrants that were rescued near Libya was denied entry to the Sicilian port by Italy's new interior minister Matteo Salvini. Italian PM Giuseppe Conte accused France of hypocrisy after Macron said Italy was acting "irresponsibly" by refusing entry to migrants and suggested it had violated international maritime law. Italy's deputy PM Luigi Di Maio said: "I am happy the French have discovered responsibility . . . they should open their ports and we will send a few people to France."
Security and terrorism
Macron believes that the proposed reform bill on deprivation of citizenship for French-born and naturalized citizens convicted on terrorism charges was not a "concrete solution" and believes that "the endless prolongation of the state of emergency raises legitimate questions". He advocates an increase in state funding of intelligence agencies.
He considers that his proposal to provide each young adult a "Culture Pass" of €500 may encourage young people to discover the culture of France and deter terrorism.
Macron has endorsed proposals to make it mandatory for Internet companies to allow the government to access encrypted communications from customers.
Macron expressed deep regret at US President Trump's decision to take back U.S. armed forces from Syria.
In October 2019, Macron warned that Turkey would be responsible for helping Islamic State to re-establish a Caliphate in Syria as he called on Turkey to stop its military offensive against Kurdish forces the north of Syria.
Ahead of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, Macron called for acceleration of the ecological transition and advocated a "balance between ecological imperatives and economic requirements", an objective that the French government seeks to achieve by fighting on "five fronts": "innovation", "simplification", "strengthening of our energy efficiency and [...] reduction of fossil fuel usage", "energy competitiveness" and "action in Europe and worldwide".
During the summer of 2016, he defended the use of diesel fuel, which he believes there should not be a "hunt" for since it "remains at the heart of the French industrial policy". Macron expressed this opinion in the aftermath of the Volkswagen emissions scandal. He was then part of a Socialist-backed government; prominent members from that party, including Paris mayor Anne Hidalgo, criticized that position. In addition, Macron is in favor of using nuclear energy which he considers "a French choice and a choice for the future". Nevertheless, in the multi-year energy program (programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie, PPE) Macron committed to reduce the use of nuclear energy in France by 2035.
In 2016, Macron proposed that France "secures its supplies in the most strategic materials using three levers: the circular economy and the recovery of materials contained in the end of life of the products [...]; the diversification of supplies to overcome geopolitical risks [...] and to bring more competitiveness; the creation of new reasonably-sized mines in France, while following the best social and environmental standards".
Although he is sceptical about the construction of the Aéroport du Grand Ouest, Macron stated he believed the construction should start since the people backed the project in the 2016 local referendum. However, after Macron's inauguration, Prime Minister Philippe said that the plans for construction would be abandoned. He criticised Donald Trump for pulling the United States out of the Paris climate accord on 2 June 2017, and called for scientists to come to France in order to work together on climate change.
In 2018, Macron announced that France would commit 700 million euros to the International Solar Alliance, a treaty-based alliance to expand solar power infrastructure. In the same year, Macron announced that France would phase out coal power, with the target of shutting down all coal-fired power stations (which make up about 1% of French energy generation) by 2021.
In 2018, he pursued a petrol tax, albeit, the tax stems from an earlier policy under his predecessor, François Hollande. A burgeoning grassroots movement, the Gilets jaunes protests developed throughout France in November and December, extending even to the overseas territory of Réunion. On 4 December, Prime minister Édouard Philippe announced that the tax increase would be pushed back six months. The following day however, Macron scrapped the fuel tax increase altogether.
On 13 January 2019, he penned a 2,300-word letter addressing the nation in response to 9 consecutive weeks of protests by the Gilets Jaunes movement, calling for 3 months of national debate to address grievances.
Macron called the 2019 Brazil wildfires an "international crisis" as the Amazon rainforest produces "20% of the world's oxygen." Macron stated he will refuse to ratify the EU–Mercosur Free Trade Agreement unless Brazil commits to protecting the environment.
Macron supports the principle of secularism (laïcité). He also said that "we have a duty to let everybody practice their religion with dignity". In July 2016, at the first meeting of En marche, Macron expressed opposition to banning Muslim headscarves in universities, stating, "Personally, I do not believe we should be inventing new texts, new laws, new standards, in order to hunt down veils at universities and go after people who wear religious symbols during field trips."
In an interview with the French news magazine Marianne, Macron asserted that "secularism is not designed to promote a republican religion", and responded to comments by Manuel Valls and Jean-Pierre Chevènement regarding the practice of Islam in French society by condemning the notion that citizens should be "discreet" in their religious practice, stating that "historical precedents when we asked for discretion in matters of religion did not bring honor to the Republic."
In the same interview, Macron said of French Muslims, "I ask one thing: absolutely respect the rules while in public. Religious relationships are about transcendence, and I am not asking people to be moderate – that's not what I'm arguing. My own deep conviction is that a practising Catholic may believe that the laws of his religion go far beyond the laws of the Republic. I simply believe that when one enters the public realm, the laws of the Republic must prevail over religious law." He also condemned "religious schools that teach hatred towards the Republic, with instruction mainly in Arabic or, in other instances, which teach the Torah more than basic fundamentals." This statement triggered an intense negative reaction from the Fonds Social Juif Unifié (FSJU), an organization that runs Jewish religious schools in France.
Regarding support for Macron from religious groups, Jean-Dominique Durand—an expert on the history of contemporary Christianity and a deputy mayor of Lyon—said to The Washington Post: "What we have now is silence from the bishops. Protestants, Muslims, Jews have all mobilized for Macron. Not the Catholics, not in any clear way."
Macron supports stopping what he calls the "compartmentalisation of healthcare" by allowing private practitioners into public hospitals. Macron also supports investing money in medical science to develop new technology and find better ways to treat patients.
Macron advocates for national health insurance covering optics, hearing and dentalcare. According to Les Echos, extending national health insurance coverage to optics, hearing and dentalcare would cost €4.4 billion a year.
Macron supports giving more autonomy to schools and universities. Macron wants to create a programme that forces schools to pay experienced teachers higher salaries and give them more educational freedom.
Macron wants to combat the issue of income inequality in schools by attempting to improve working-class schools and providing incentives to more well-off children as a way to persuade them into attending working-class schools.
Macron wants to make vocational education a priority. He has referred to Germany's system as one that his government would follow when putting forward measures relating to vocational education.
Responsibility for the Holocaust
In July 2017, while at a ceremony at the site of the Vélodrome d'Hiver where 13,000 Jews had been rounded up for deportation to death camps in July 1942, Macron denounced his country's role in the Holocaust and the historical revisionism that denied France's responsibility for the 1942 Vel' d'Hiv Roundup and the eventual deportation of 76,000 Jews. Earlier that year, Marine Le Pen, leader of the National Front, had stated in speeches that the government during WWII "was not France".
"It was indeed France that organised this [roundup]", Macron said, French police collaborating with the Nazis. "Not a single German took part," he added. Previous president Jacques Chirac had already stated that the Government during the War represented the French State. Macron further stated: "It is convenient to see the Vichy regime as born of nothingness, returned to nothingness. Yes, it's convenient, but it is false. We cannot build pride upon a lie."
Macron made a subtle reference to Chirac's 1995 apology when he added, "I say it again here. It was indeed France that organized the roundup, the deportation, and thus, for almost all, death."
On anti-Zionism and antisemitism
In his speech condemning the historical collaboration of France with the Nazis, Macron also termed anti-Zionism as a new form of antisemitism. While addressing Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu, Macron stated that "we will never surrender to the messages of hate; we will not surrender to anti-Zionism because it is a reinvention of anti-Semitism." He also drew parallels between antisemitism in the past and present. He stated, "You only need to stop for a moment," adding, "to see, behind the new façade, the racism of old, the entrenched vein of anti-Semitism."
In November 2018 he referred to nationalism as the "exact opposite" of patriotism, and a betrayal of it, characterizing nationalism as "who cares about others". This prompted criticism that his definition was wrong. Macron is accused by members of the Yellow vests of being an "ultra-liberal president for the rich".
Co-Prince of Andorra
As President of France, Macron also serves ex officio as one of the two Co-Princes of Andorra. His chief of staff Patrick Strzoda serves as his representative in this capacity. Joan Enric Vives i Sicília, appointed as the current Bishop of Urgell on 12 May 2003, serves as Macron's Co-Prince.
Macron is married to Brigitte Trogneux, 24 years his senior, who was a teacher in his high school, La Providence High School in Amiens. They met during a theatre workshop that she was giving when he was a 15-year-old student and she was a 39-year-old teacher, but they only became a couple once he was 18. His parents initially attempted to separate the couple by sending him away to Paris to finish the final year of his schooling, as they felt his youth made this relationship inappropriate. However, the couple reunited after Macron graduated, and were married in 2007. She has three children from a previous marriage, but Macron has no children of his own. Trogneux's role in Macron's 2017 presidential campaign has been considered pivotal, with close Macron allies stating that Trogneux assisted Macron with developing skills such as public speaking.
His best man was Henry Hermand (1924–2016), a businessman who loaned €550,000 to Macron for the purchase of his first apartment in Paris when he was Inspector of Finances. Hermand also let Macron use some of his offices on the Avenue des Champs Élysées in Paris for his movement En marche.
In the 2002 French presidential election, Macron voted for souverainist Jean-Pierre Chevènement. In 2007, Macron voted for Ségolène Royal in the second round of the presidential election. During the Socialist Party primary in 2011, Macron voiced his support for François Hollande.
He is also a pianist, having studied piano for ten years in his youth, and especially enjoys the work of Schumann and Liszt. Macron also skis, plays tennis and enjoys boxing. In addition to his native French, Macron also speaks fluent English. One of his great-grandfathers was an Englishman from Bristol.
In August 2017, a photojournalist was arrested and detained by the police for six hours after he entered the private residence where Macron was vacationing in Marseille. Macron subsequently filed a complaint for "harassment." In September 2017, he dropped the complaint "as a gesture of appeasement."
On 27 August 2017, President Macron and his wife Brigitte adopted Nemo, a black Labrador Retriever-Griffon dog who lives with them in the Élysée Palace. As a schoolboy, Macron took the decision to be baptized as a Catholic. In June 2018, prior to meeting Pope Francis, he identified himself as an Agnostic Catholic. In the same year he accepted being made an honorary canon of St John Lateran, the cathedral of Rome.
A fan of association football, Macron is a supporter of French club Olympique de Marseille. During the 2018 World Cup, he attended the semi-final between France and Belgium with the Belgian King Philippe and Queen Mathilde. At the World Cup final against Croatia, Macron sat and celebrated alongside Croatian president Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović. Macron's celebrations, reactions, and interactions with the Croatian president drew widespread media attention, slightly lifting both leaders' approval ratings. Photos of Macron celebrating France's victory went viral on social media, with images of him standing on a table, kissing the World Cup trophy, and standing in rainfall hugging French players circulating through international press. Macron's affectionate embraces of Grabar-Kitarović also went viral on social media with the two leaders parodied as an enamored couple.
Honours and decorations
|Ribbon bar||Honour||Date and comment|
|Grand Master & Grand Cross of the National Order of the Legion of Honour||14 May 2017 – automatic upon taking presidential office|
|Grand Master & Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit||14 May 2017 – automatic upon taking presidential office|
|Ivory Coast||Grand Cross of the National Order of the Ivory Coast||20 December 2019|
|Belgium||Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold||19 November 2018|
|Finland||Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose with Collar||29 August 2018|
|Denmark||Knight of the Order of the Elephant||28 August 2018|
|Senegal||Grand Cross of the National Order of the Lion||2 February 2018|
|Tunisia||Grand Cordon of the Order of the Republic of Tunisia||31 January 2018|
|Greece||Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer||7 September 2017|
|United Kingdom||Commander of the Order of the British Empire||5 June 2014|
|Brazil||Grand Officer of the Order of the Southern Cross||9 December 2012|
- Revolution, ed. Scribe Publications, 2017.
- Macron par Macron, ed. l'Aube, 2017.
- "Dans un livre, Anne Fulda raconte Macron côté intime" (in French). JDD à la Une. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- Badeau, Kevin (7 April 2017). "Le livre qui raconte l'intimité d'Emmanuel Macron". Les Echos. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Média, Prisma. "Qui sont le frère et la sœur d'Emmanuel Macron? - Gala". Gala.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Boucher, Laurent (26 April 2017). "Sur les traces de l'arrière-grand-père d'Emmanuel Macron entre Amiens et Arras". La Voix. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Le Big Mac: Emmanuel Macron’s rise and rise".
- Flandrin, Antoine (16 September 2017). "L'histoire de France selon Macron". Le Monde. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- "Sacrées mémés de Bagnères-de-Bigorre !". ladepeche.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron en meeting à Pau devant 5 500 personnes". SudOuest.fr. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, l'Elysée pied au plancher". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "D'où vient Emmanuel Macron ?". lesechos.fr. 24 April 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Gorce, Bernard (10 April 2017). "La jeunesse très catholique des candidats à la présidentielle". La Croix. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron", Gala France. Retrieved 3 March 2017
- "Emmanuel Macron, un ex-banquier touche-à-tout à Bercy" (in French). France 24. 27 August 2014. Archived from the original on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- Chrisafis, Angelique (11 July 2016). "Will France's young economy minister – with a volunteer army – launch presidential bid?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- 88 notes pour piano solo, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Neva Editions, 2015, p.193. ISBN 978-2-3505-5192-0
- "What Emmanuel Macron's home town says about him". The Economist. 4 May 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
- Vincent de Féligonde, Emmanuel Macron, ancien conseiller du prince aux manettes de Bercy, La Croix, 26 August 2014
- (in French) Christine Monin, RETRO : Emmanuel Macron, mon copain d'avant, Le Parisien, 10 May 2017.
- (in French) Jordan Grevet, "Emmanuel Macron, un ministre pas si brillant...", Closer, 13 October 2014.
- De Jaeger, Jean-Marc (15 May 2017). "L'université de Nanterre félicite Emmanuel Macron, son ancien étudiant en philosophie". Le Figaro. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- Guélaud, Claire (16 May 2012). "Emmanuel Macron, un banquier d'affaires nommé secrétaire général adjoint de l'Elysée". Le Monde (in French).
- Wüpper, Gesche (27 August 2014). "Junger Wirtschaftsminister darf Frankreich verführen". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, de la philosophie au ministère de l'Économie • Brèves, Emmanuel Macron, Paul Ricoeur, Politique, Socialisme, Libéralisme, François Hollande • Philosophie magazine". philomag.com (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, premier Président qui n'a pas fait son service militaire". L'Opinion (in French). 9 May 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, le coup droit de Hollande – JeuneAfrique.com". JeuneAfrique.com (in French). 3 March 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Kaplan, Renee (2 September 2014). "Who is the hot new French Economy Minister". Frenchly. Archived from the original on 9 September 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Coignard, Sophie (22 April 2016). "Coignard - Derrière Macron, l'ombre de Jouyet". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Ipesup, la prépa chérie des CSP+, est à vendre". Challenges (in French). Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- "Ipesup change de main pour grandir". Challenges (in French). Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- "Prépa ENA - Groupe Ipesup". Groupe Ipesup (in French). Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- lefigaro.fr (27 April 2017). "Laurence Parisot dément se tenir "prête" pour Matignon en cas de victoire d'Emmanuel Macron". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- Marnham, Patrick (4 February 2017). "Who's behind the mysterious rise of Emmanuel Macron?". The Spectator. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Biography of Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron of France". Biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. 17 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron s'explique sur ses anciens revenus de banquier". Le Point (in French). 19 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Décret n° 2010-223 du 4 mars 2010 relatif à la commission pour la libération de la croissance française, 4 March 2010, retrieved 7 August 2017
- "Au fait, il faisait quoi chez Rothschild, Emmanuel Macron ?". L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- Chaperon, Isabelle (10 May 2017). "Les années Rothschild d'Emmanuel Macron". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- "Comment Macron m'a séduit puis trahi". streetpress.com. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- "Rothschild & Cie coopte trois nouveaux associés". lesechos.fr. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- "Macron, ce chouchou des patrons qui succède à Montebourg". Challenges (in French). Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- "Macron, la première marche". lesechos.fr. 27 January 2017. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- "La bombe Macron". LExpress.fr (in French). 2 September 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- JDD, Le. "Macron dit ce qu'il a fait de ses trois millions d'euros de revenus". lejdd.fr.
- "Subscribe to read | Financial Times". Financial Times.
- "Macron, ce jeune chevènementiste". Marianne (in French). 12 November 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- Prissette, Nicholas (2016). Emmanuel Macron en marche vers l'Élysée. Plon. p. 79.
- "Emmanuel Macron n'est plus encarté au Parti socialiste". Le Figaro (in French). 18 February 2015. ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Avec Macron, l'Elysée décroche le poupon". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Macron, militant PS depuis 2006, n'est plus à jour de cotisation depuis 5 ans". L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- "Emmanuel Macron : l'homme du Président". Visions Mag (in French). 24 February 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- Bourmaud, François-Xavier (2016). Emmanuel Macron : le banquier qui voulait être roi. l'Archipel. p. 224. ISBN 9782809818734.
- Arrêté du 15 mai 2012 portant nomination à la présidence de la République, retrieved 2 August 2017
- Prissette, Nicolas (2016). Emmanuel Macron en marche vers l'Élysée. Plon. p. 144.
- Berretta, Emmanuel (10 June 2014). "Hollande remanie l'Élysée et recrute Laurence Boone". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Pourquoi le gouvernement a cédé sur le salaire des patrons : les dessous d'un deal". L'Opinion (in French). 26 May 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- Visot, Marie (10 June 2014). "Laurence Boone, une forte tête à l'Élysée". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "INFO OBS. Emmanuel Macron prépare son départ de l'Elysée". L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Elysée : Hollande chamboule son cabinet". lesechos.fr. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "VIDEO. Le roman d'une ambition". Franceinfo (in French). 27 February 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Les redoutables réseaux de Macron". Challenges (in French). Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- Chabas, Charlotte (27 August 2014). "Emmanuel Macron, de " Mozart de l'Elysée " à ministre de l'économie". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- Corbet, Sylvie; Ganley, Elaine (26 August 2014). "French gov't reshuffle expels dissident ministers". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014.
- "Emmanuel Macron: son adversaire, c'est la défiance". RFI (in French). 29 August 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- JDD, Le. "Macron, l'anti-Montebourg". lejdd.fr (in French). Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- Revault d'Allonnes, David (17 February 2015). "Loi Macron : comment le 49-3 a été dégainé comme un dernier recours". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 16 April 2017.
- "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Renault : la bataille entre Ghosn et Macron prend fin". L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Magnaudeix, Mathieu. "Macron rattrapé par son bilan à Bercy". Mediapart (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron n'est plus encarté au Parti socialiste". Le Figaro (in French). 28 August 2015.
- Laurent, Samuel (8 December 2014). "Ce que prévoit (ou pas) la future loi Macron". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Meichtry, William Horobin and Stacy (9 March 2015). "5 Things About the Macron Law". WSJ. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Pourquoi le marteau du 49-3 est un outil indispensable". lesechos.fr. 24 February 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "LOI n° 2015-990 du 6 août 2015 pour la croissance, l'activité et l'égalité des chances économiques | Legifrance". legifrance.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Visot, Marie (18 September 2015). "La Loi Macron ne devrait créer que peu de croissance". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Pouchard, Anne-Aël Durand et Alexandre (30 August 2016). "Quel est le bilan d'Emmanuel Macron au gouvernement ?". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Des paroles et des actes. Invité : Emmanuel Macron". Franceinfo (in French). 5 March 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Magnaudeix, Mathieu. "A l'Assemblée, le pouvoir installe ses têtes". Mediapart (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Lelab Europe1 - le meilleur de l'actualité politique sur le web". lelab.europe1.fr.
- "Emmanuel Macron prend ses distances avec la déchéance de nationalité". FIGARO. 9 February 2016.
- "Macron, VRP de la French Tech en Israël". lesechos.fr. 8 September 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Orange, Martine. "Comment l'Europe a pesé sur la loi El Khomri". Mediapart (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, le dernier maillon fort qui pourrait lâcher". L'Opinion (in French). 16 February 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron lance un " mouvement politique nouveau " baptisé " En marche ! "". Le Monde.fr (in French). 6 April 2016. ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Emmanuel Macron, un banquier social-libéral à Bercy". Le Parisien (in French). 26 August 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Macron veut voir son 'projet progressiste' défendu en 2017". Europe1. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- Roger, Patrick (20 August 2016). "Macron précise son projet " progressiste " pour 2017". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "La folle séquence médiatique d'Emmanuel Macron - Le Lab Europe 1" (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Finalement, le parti d'Emmanuel Macron est "et de droite, et de gauche" (mais surtout progressiste) - Le Lab Europe 1" (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "France elections: Hollande slaps down ambitious minister Macron". BBC. 14 July 2016.
- JDD, Le. "Macron et l'héritage de Jeanne d'Arc". lejdd.fr (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Macron ou la "révolution passive" des élites françaises". Slate.fr (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Visot, Marie (16 June 2016). "Michel Sapin-Emmanuel Macron : les meilleurs ennemis de Bercy". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Prissette, Nicolas (2016). Emmanuel Macron en marche vers l'Élysée. Plon. p. 255.
- "Ces journaux qui en pincent pour Macron". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "La presse est unanime : Emmanuel Macron". Acrimed | Action Critique Médias (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "La macronite de l'Express". L'Humanité (in French). 27 October 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "La "macronite"n'est pas une maladie". Valeurs actuelles (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Le " cas Macron " : un feuilleton médiatique à suspense". Acrimed | Action Critique Médias (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- cinéaste, François Ruffin (4 June 2016). "François Ruffin : " La macronite ? C'est le "socialisme" dans sa phase terminale "". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Front de gauche: une notice contre la Macronite". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- magazine, Le Point (30 August 2015). "Mélenchon ironise sur la "macronite" et fait du pied aux frondeurs du PS". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Macron à Orléans : c'est quoi les fêtes johanniques, si prisées des politiques ?". LCI (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "A Orléans, Emmanuel Macron a rendu hommage à Jeanne d'Arc qui " a su rassembler la France "". Le Monde.fr (in French). 8 May 2016. ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Avec Jeanne d'Arc, Macron attend des voix". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Macron: "L'honnêteté m'oblige à vous dire que je ne suis pas socialiste"". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Macron quits to clear way for French presidential bid". BBC News. 30 August 2016.
- Julien Licourt; Yohan Blavignat (30 August 2016). "Macron évite soigneusement d'évoquer sa candidature". Le Figaro (in French).
- "Emmanuel Macron démissionne pour se consacrer à son mouvement En Marche - France 24". France 24 (in French). 30 August 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Macron démissionne avec l'Elysée en ligne de mire". lesechos.fr (in French). 30 August 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, la démission continue". Slate.fr (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "L'histoire secrète de la démission d'Emmanuel Macron". Franceinfo (in French). 31 August 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- alliès, stéphane. "Macron démissionne, avec 2017 dans le viseur". Mediapart (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "L'émancipation express du chouchou de l'Elysée". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron : "J'ai démissionné pour être libre"". Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- d'Allonnes, David Revault (31 August 2016). "Hollande : " Emmanuel Macron m'a trahi avec méthode "". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Ifop - Les Français et la démission d'Emmanuel Macron du gouvernement". ifop.com (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Hélène Combis (19 June 2017). "'Président jupitérien' : comment Macron comptait régner sur l'Olympe (avant les Gilets jaunes)". France Inter (in French).
- Wieder, Thomas (7 April 2016). "Le pari libéral d'Emmanuel Macron". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Mourgue, Marion (18 May 2016). "Les levées de fonds au profit d'Emmanuel Macron se poursuivent". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "France's Macron joins presidential race to 'unblock France'". BBC. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Boni, Marc de (16 March 2016). "2017 : Macron calme le jeu et se range derrière Hollande". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Macron a une drôle de définition des mots "traître" et "loyauté"". Le Huffington Post. 22 November 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- ""Révolution", le livre-programme de Macron se hisse dans le top des ventes". Challenges (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "2016, la folle année du livre politique". L'Opinion (in French). 23 December 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- JDD, Le. "Taubira et Sarkozy en tête des ventes de livres politiques en 2016". lejdd.fr (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "Macron refuse toute participation à la primaire, une "querelle de clan"" (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Primaire à gauche: Emmanuel Macron rejette les appels de Valls et Cambadélis". BFMTV (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Cambadélis menace de sanction les soutiens de Macron". Le Point (in French). 2 September 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Qui sont les trente proches d'Emmanuel Macron qui comptent au sein d'En marche ! ?". Le Monde.
- "Présidentielle: "On est vraiment entré dans la campagne", Macron montre les biceps à Paris". 20minutes.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Vaudano, Maxime (22 December 2016). "Primaire de la droite : ce que les comptes racontent de la campagne". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Mathieu, Mathilde. "Macron et ses donateurs: et voilà le débat sur la transparence!". Mediapart (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- lefigaro.fr. "Macron refuse de publier la liste de ses donateurs". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Bercy : Quand Macron dépensait 120 000 euros en 8 mois pour ses repas en bonne compagnie". Atlantico.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Roger, Patrick (26 January 2017). "Emmanuel Macron assure qu'" aucun centime " de Bercy n'a été utilisé pour En Marche !". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "France's politically wounded pile up, leaving Macron and Le Pen leading presidential race". CBC News. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- BFMTV. "Affaire Fillon: Macron appelle au " calme " et constate " une forte demande de transparence "". BFMTV (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Vaudano, Maxime (3 February 2017). "Emmanuel Macron peut-il être inquiété dans l'affaire des " frais de bouche " ?". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- JDD, Le. "Emmanuel Macron et les 120.000 euros de Bercy". lejdd.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron peut-il être la grande surprise de la présidentielle 2017 ?". Le Huffington Post (in French). 10 December 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Ça vous regarde - Emmanuel Macron : bulle médiatique ou candidat crédible ?". LCP Assemblée nationale (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Macron est-il une bulle ?". France Inter (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "VIDÉO - Emmanuel Macron sera-t-il plus qu'une "bulle médiatique" ?". RTL.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, bulle médiatique et fantasme d'une gauche en recomposition". Le Huffington Post. 12 March 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Huertas, Hubert. "Croquis. De Mélenchon à Macron, les ressorts d'un déséquilibre". Mediapart (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, "candidat des médias" : autopsie d'un choix implicite". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, le candidat des médias". Le Monde diplomatique (in French). 1 May 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- magazine, Le Point (1 March 2017). "Emmanuel Macron est-il le candidat des médias ?". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Michaela Wiegel: Seine Lehrerin, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 9 May 2017, p. 9.
- "Pour Claude Perdriel, propriétaire de Challenges, "c'est Macron!"". L'Opinion (in French). 17 October 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Sgherri, Marie-Sandrine (15 February 2017). "Emmanuel Macron, le produit de l'année ?". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Comment Macron est devenu un phénomène médiatique". Challenges (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "De DSK à Macron, l'étonnant parcours d'Ismaël Emelien". LExpress.fr (in French). 25 October 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "BFMTV diffuse autant de Macron que de Fillon, Hamon, Mélenchon et Le Pen réunis !". Marianne (in French). 21 February 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Bernard Mourad quitte Altice pour rejoindre l'équipe d'Emmanuel Macron". Challenges (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Présidentielle : polémique après une poignée de mains entre Emmanuel Macron et Ruth Elkrief". Franceinfo (in French). 27 April 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Bayrou propose "une offre d'alliance" à Macron qui "accepte"". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron et François Bayrou, l'alliance pour la présidentielle". LExpress.fr (in French). 22 February 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Sondage: Fillon s'effondre et serait éliminé dès le 1er tour". Challenges (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron président selon un nouveau sondage". RTL.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Pauline De Saint-Rémy; Loïc Farge (16 February 2017). "Certains proches de Macron s'interrogent sur "l'absence de programme"". RTL. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
- David Ponchelet (2 March 2017). "Programme d'Emmanuel Macron : que promet-il pour les Outre-mer ?". franceinfo. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
- "Qui sont les soutiens d'Emmanuel Macron ?". Le Monde. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
- "La grande mosquée de Paris appelle à voter "massivement" Macron". Le Figaro (in French). 24 April 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron se voit en "président des patriotes face à la menace nationaliste"". leparisien.fr. 23 April 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Berdah, Arthur (24 April 2017). "François Hollande : "Pour ma part, je voterai Emmanuel Macron"". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Juncker breaks tradition with support for Macron". EUobserver. 24 April 2017.
- "Obama wishes French presidential hopeful Macron good luck ahead of key vote". CNBC. 21 April 2017.
- "Débat Macron-Le Pen : la presse étrangère abasourdie par la violence des échanges". La Tribune (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Mark Stone (5 March 2017). "Is Russia interfering in the French election? One of Emmanuel Macron's aides claims so". Sky News. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- "En marche ! dénonce un piratage " massif et coordonné " de la campagne de Macron". Le Monde.fr (in French). 6 May 2017. ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Les "Macron Leaks", itinéraire d'une opération de déstabilisation politique". rts.ch (in French). Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- Eric Auchard and Bate Felix (5 May 2017). "Macron's French presidential campaign emails leaked online". Frankfurt/Paris. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- magazine, Le Point (25 April 2017). "La campagne de Macron cible de tentatives de piratage de hackers russes". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "WikiLeaks releases thousands of hacked Macron campaign emails". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "French election: Macron takes action over offshore claims". BBC News. 4 May 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- l'Intérieur, Ministère de. "Résultats de l'élection présidentielle 2017". interieur.gouv.fr/Elections/Les-resultats/Presidentielles/elecresult__presidentielle-2017 (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- lefigaro.fr. "Macron va démissionner de la présidence d'En marche!". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Les 577 candidats de "La République en marche" seront connus jeudi 11 mai". La Tribune (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Plowright, Adam (7 May 2017). "Emmanuel Macron: a 39-year-old political prodigy". MSN.
- "En direct, Emmanuel Macron élu président : " Je défendrai la France, ses intérêts vitaux, son image "". Le Monde. 7 May 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- Leicester, John; Corbet, Sylvie. "Emmanuel Macron becomes France's youngest president". TorontoSun.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Schnur, Dan. "Anger underlying French elections is roiling California too". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- "Macron the mould-breaker – France's youngest leader since Napoleon". 7 May 2017 – via Reuters.
- C.Sa (8 May 2017). "Passation de pouvoir : François Hollande passera "le flambeau" à Macron dimanche 14 mai". Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- Grammont, Stéphane (14 May 2017). "Patrick Strzoda, ancien préfet de Bretagne, directeur de cabinet d'Emmanuel Macron". France 3 Bretagne. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- Penicaud, Céline (14 May 2017). "Le parcours fulgurant d'Ismaël Emelien, le nouveau conseiller spécial d'Emmanuel Macron". BFM TV. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- "France's Macron names Republican Philippe as PM". BBC News. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- "Le premier ministre Philippe prépare " un gouvernement rassembleur de compétences "". Le Monde. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- "French President Macron heads to Berlin for his first official foreign visit". CNN. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron and Angela Merkel pledge to draw up 'common road map' for Europe". The Telegraph. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- l'Intérieur, Ministère de. "Résultats des élections législatives 2017". interieur.gouv.fr/Elections/Les-resultats/Legislatives/elecresult__legislatives-2017.
- Macron’s government admits French Senate elections a ‘failure’ South China Morning Post
- "France bans hiring of spouses by politicians in wake of Fillon scandal". Reuters. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "French vote brings Macron's anti-sleaze law closer". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- Masters, James. "Emmanuel Macron under fire over wife's 'First Lady' role". CNN. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "France: Macron to abandon plans for official first lady". BBC News. 8 August 2017. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "France's parliament approves bill to clean up politics". Reuters. 9 August 2017.
- Pierre Briacon, Emmanuel Macron plunges head-first into labor reform: France's new president is counting on divisions in the labor movement and fast-track legislation, Politico (17 May 2017).
- Liz Alderman, In French Labor Overhaul, Union Leader Offers a Way to a Compromise, New York Times (20 June 2017).
- "France's Macron, on Eastern Europe trip, to raise issue of cheap labor". 7 August 2017 – via Reuters.
- "France Unveils Contentious Labor Overhaul in Big Test for Macron". New York Times.
- Jennifer Thompson & Madison Marriage, Macron's reform agenda faces resistance, Financial Times.
- Macron Tries to Sell Plan to Reform France's Labor Market, Associated Press (23 May 2017).
- "French parliament approves Macron's labour reforms - France 24". France 24. 3 August 2017. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "Macron signs French labor reform decrees". Reuters.
- "France sees big drop in unemployment rate in boost for Macron". 25 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- Editorial, Reuters. "Italy says 'arrogant' France could become main enemy on migration".
- "France to 'take back control' of immigration policy". Luxembourg Times. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
- Chrisafis, Angelique (19 July 2017). "Head of French military quits after row with Emmanuel Macron". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "French army chief resigns over Macron spat". POLITICO. 19 July 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "Macron names François Lecointre new armed forces chief". France 24. 19 July 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "French government sees EU credibility in reach with 2018 budget". Reuters.
- "Macron fights 'president of the rich' tag after ending wealth tax". Reuters.
- Dyson, Richard; Meadows, Sam (27 October 2017). "British expats among those benefiting as Macron slashes French wealth tax". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- Samuel, Henry (2 February 2018). "Emmanuel Macron takes France by surprise by unveiling 'voluntary redundancy' plan for bloated state sector". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- "France's Resistance to Change Grows as Macron Vows New Pension Plan". TrueNewsSource. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
- "Will Macron's Compromise on Pension Plan Mellow Protests in France?". True News Source. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- "French government adopts pension reform by decree". Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- "Macron urges French police to make full use of draconian anti-terror powers". 19 October 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- "France to enshrine some state of emergency measures into law". Deutsche-Welle.
- "French parliament passes controversial anti-terror law". Anadolu Agency.
- "French parliament adopts controversial anti-terror bill". France24.
- "French parliament adopts controversial anti-terror bill". Deutsche-Welle.
- Willsher, Kim (16 January 2018). "France will not allow another refugee camp in Calais, says Macron". the Guardian. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- "Macron rejects Corsican language demand". BBC News. 7 February 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- "Macron backs Corsica mention in French constitution, rejects other dem". Reuters U.K. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- "Emmanuel Macron to propose reorganization of Islam in France". POLITICO. 11 February 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- "'Their knuckles turned white': Donald Trump and Emmanuel Macron's awkward handshake". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Macron 'wins battle of the alphas' in handshake with Donald Trump". Evening Standard. 25 May 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Macron slams Russian media 'lies' during muscular exchange with Putin at Versailles". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Macron denounces Russian media on Putin visit". BBC News. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- Chrisafis, Angelique (29 May 2017). "Macron warns over Syrian chemical weapons in frank meeting with Putin". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- Statements by Theresa May and Emmanuel Macron on the Syria Strike, New York Times (13 April 2018).
- Helene Cooper, Thomas Gibbons-Neff & Ben Hubbard, U.S., Britain and France Strike Syria Over Suspected Chemical Weapons Attack, New York Times (13 April 2018).
- "Emmanuel Macron: Fighting Islamist terror is France's top priority". Deutsche-Welle.
- "France's Macron urges better long-term relations with Russia". BCNN1. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
- "Macron seeks EU sanctions over Turkish 'violations' in Greek waters". Reuters. 23 July 2020.
- "France's Macron slams Turkey's 'criminal' role in Libya". Al Jazeera. 30 June 2020.
- "Turkey warns Egypt over Libya and lashes out at Macron's role". Japan Times. 20 July 2020.
- "France-Turkey spat over Libya arms exposes NATO's limits". Associated Press. 5 July 2020.
- "Popularité : Macron fait un peu mieux que Hollande, un peu moins bien que Sarkozy, deux semaines après l'élection". LCI (in French). Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Cote de popularité : 62% des Français satisfaits d'Emmanuel Macron président (sondage)" (in French). Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Macron's popularity similar to predecessors as mandate kicks off". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "French President Macron, PM Philippe approval ratings rise: poll". Reuters. 24 June 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Chute d'Emmanuel Macron dans les sondages, d'une ampleur quasi inédite". FIGARO (in French). 3 August 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron slumps in popularity ratings". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- magazine, Le Point (27 August 2017). "Nouvelle forte baisse de la popularité d'Emmanuel Macron". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "French military chief quits after Macron clash". Sky News. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Macron seizes French shipyards to block Italian take-over". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- Chrisafis, Angelique (24 July 2017). "Housing benefit cuts spark row as Emmanuel Macron's poll ratings fall". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "EXCLUSIF. La popularité de Macron s'effondre encore : - 14 points". Europe 1 & JDD. 26 August 2017.
- "Regain de popularité pour Emmanuel Macron et Édouard Philippe" (in French). Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "L'action d'Emmanuel Macron". ELABE (in French). 27 September 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "Réformes: 69% des Français jugent "injuste" la politique menée par Macron". LExpress.fr (in French). 27 September 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- Van Renterghem, Marion (28 November 2018). "Riots, low ratings ... where did it all go wrong for Emmanuel Macron?". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- Sharkov, Damien (24 September 2018). "In France, Macron's Popularity Hits Record Low". Newsweek. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "Enquête, profil du suspect, réactions politiques... ce que l'on sait de l'affaire Benalla". Le Monde. 19 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "France's Macron Joins Presidential Race to 'Unblock France'". BBC, UK. 16 November 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- "French election: Far right Marine Le Pen and centrist Emmanuel Macron through to final round". London Evening Standard. 24 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "France's Fillon overtakes centrist Macron in election ratings – poll". Reuters. 21 February 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Centrist Macron and far-right Le Pen in French presidency fight". The Scotsman. 24 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "France election: Centrist rising star Macron urges unity". BBC News. 4 February 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Right-wing Le Pen claims victory alongside centrist Macron for French presidential runoff, with E.U. future at stake". The Washington Post. 23 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Macron ou la "révolution passive" des élites françaises". Slate (in French). 29 May 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Valls II: social-démocrate ou social-libéral ?". Libération (in French). 27 August 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Jalabert, Pascal. "La ligne social libérale passe par Macron". Est Républicain (in French). Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Macron, l'anti-Montebourg" (in French). leJDD.fr. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Nommé à Bercy, l'ancien banquier Emmanuel Macron fait consensus". Le Point. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Biseau, Grégoire; Allemagna, Lilian (26 August 2014). "Valls et les jeunes loups hollandais". Libération. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Ils ont marqué 2012 : Emmanuel Macron, l'enfant prodige de l'Elysée". Tempsreel.nouvelobs.com. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Gauche, droite, centre... qui peut s'allier à Macron?". Bfmtv.com. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "C'est la confiance des entreprises que Manuel Valls doit vraiment obtenir". Slate. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Manuel Valls, c'est le blairisme, mais plus à droite encore". Tempsreel.nouvelobs.com. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Perrineau, Pascal (2016). "Les droites en France à l'horizon de 2017". Le Débat. 191 (4/191): 113–20. doi:10.3917/deba.191.0113.
- "Valls and Macron have much in common...apart from their poll ratings". Financial Times. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- France Inter (24 January 2017), "Moi, je suis socialiste" : Emmanuel Macron en 2014 - Le 07h43, retrieved 6 August 2017
- "Emmanuel Macron, ou le libéral libéré". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron : " J'assume d'être libéral "". leparisien.fr (in French). 12 November 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, l'homme qui excelle pour ne pas répondre aux questions". Marianne (in French). 4 September 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Fournier, Audrey (27 September 2015). "Emmanuel Macron : " Le libéralisme est une valeur de la gauche "". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- BFMTV. "Macron: " L'honnêteté m'oblige à vous dire que je ne suis pas socialiste "". BFMTV (in French). Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Les premiers extraits du livre de Macron dévoilés". Le Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Doucet, David (26 April 2017). "Le Parti socialiste et les Républicains risquent d'imploser". Les Inrocks. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Dépasser le clivage gauche-droite, comme le veut Macron, une idée payante ?". Le Monde.fr (in French). 8 April 2016. ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Macron : " La gauche aujourd'hui ne me satisfait pas "". Le Monde.fr (in French). 23 April 2016. ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Sénécat, Adrien (10 November 2016). "Macron candidat à la présidentielle : des propositions mélangeant gauche, droite, neuf et vieux". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Feertchak, Alexis (6 January 2017). "L'offre politique d'Emmanuel Macron au défi des classes populaires". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Mediapart Fr (2 November 2016), Macron le Gaulois?, retrieved 6 August 2017
- "Macron est politiquement coincé". leparisien.fr (in French). 23 April 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Luc Rouban: " Macron renoue avec la tradition des inspecteurs des Finances à sensibilité sociale "". L'Opinion (in French). 17 March 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, un Giscard de gauche". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- "Macron, ce Giscard de gauche que la France attend". Challenges (in French). Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- "Histoires d'info. Emmanuel Macron dans les pas de Valéry Giscard d'Estaing?". Franceinfo (in French). 1 September 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- Lebaron, Frédéric (23 August 2016). "2. La croyance économique dans le champ politique français". Regards Croisés Sur l'Économie (in French) (18): 32–44. ISSN 1956-7413.
- "Emmanuel Macron, le lanceur d'alerte". Marianne (in French). 1 September 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- "Le conseil de Giscard d'Estaing à Macron: gagner "de l'expérience"". FranceSoir (in French). 6 July 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- Opération Elysée (17 November 2016), Emmanuel Macron peut-il créer la surprise pour la présidentielle 2017 ?, retrieved 12 August 2017
- "Avec Macron, l'Elysée décroche le poupon". Libération. 17 September 2012. Archived from the original on 7 October 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron: "Le libéralisme est une valeur de la gauche"". Le Monde. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, l'homme qui excelle pour ne pas répondre aux questions" (in French). Marianne.net. 4 September 2016. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Macron: 'L'honnêteté m'oblige à vous dire que je ne suis pas socialiste'". BFMTV. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Toussay, Jade (23 November 2016). "Les premiers extraits de 'Révolution', le livre d'Emmanuel Macron, dévoilés". The Huffington Post (in French). Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Boudet, Alexandre (13 July 2016). "Dans son meeting, Macron se présente comme antisystème, ses adversaires rient jaune". The Huffington Post (in French). Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Réaux, Amandine (13 July 2016). "Le gouvernement dénonce le populisme d'Emmanuel Macron dans sa critique du système". Le Lab (in French). Europe 1. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Walt, Vivienne, "Emmanuel Macron Has Big Plans for France. Is It Ready for Them?", Time, 5 July 2016.
- "Emmanuel Macron : " Il faut aller plus loin que la loi El Khomri"". lesechos.fr. 23 May 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "Macron Sets Out Tax Policies For France". tax-news.com. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- France, Connexion. "Macron's planned tax reforms and you". connexionfrance.com. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "Taxe d'habitation: Macron avait bien promis son exonération "en début de quinquennat"". Le Huffington Post. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "Comment Macron compte supprimer la taxe d'habitation pour 80% des Français" (in French). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- Visot, Marie (26 August 2014). "Emmanuel Macron, l'anti-Montebourg". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "Ils ont marqué 2012 : Emmanuel Macron, l'enfant prodige de l'Elysée". L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "France's new economy minister suggests scrapping 35 hour working week rules". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron annonce ses 8 mesures chocs dans "l'Obs"". L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- Pietralunga, Cédric (16 December 2016). "Macron, l'amorce d'un virage à gauche". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "French candidates divided on future of 35-hour work week - France 24". France 24. 13 April 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- lefigaro.fr (23 February 2017). "Assurance-chômage, fonctionnaires, impôts... les propositions d'Emmanuel Macron". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- Rose, Michel. "France's Macron unveils mix of tax cuts, spending cuts in economic plans". Reuters UK. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- Cazenave, Fabien (20 October 2016). "Emmanuel Macron critique le véto wallon". Ouest France (in French). Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Macron: "Les questions wallonnes sur le Ceta sont pertinentes, mais..."". Le Soir (in French). 19 October 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "French Candidate Macron Urges Euro-Zone Budget, Common Debt, During Berlin Visit". Handelsblatt Global Edition. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- editor, Patrick Wintour Diplomatic (2 May 2017). "What would Emmanuel Macron as France's leader mean for Europe?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 July 2017.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "Interview d'Emmanuel Macron dans Le Monde: "Nous devons délivrer l'Europe de ce qu'elle est devenue"" (in French). En Marche. 20 June 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "France's Macron Says German Trade Surplus Harmful to EU Economy", Bloomberg.com, 16 April 2017.
- "Macron Unveils $1.9 Billion Technology Push to Rival U.S., China". Bloomberg.com. 29 March 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- "Emmanuel Macron loses lead in French election polls after remarks on colonial Algeria and gay marriage spark outrage". The Daily Telegraph. 18 February 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- Genin, Aaron (30 April 2019). "FRANCE RESETS AFRICAN RELATIONS: A POTENTIAL LESSON FOR PRESIDENT TRUMP". The California Review. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- "French presidential hopeful Macron calls colonisation a 'crime against humanity". France 24. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- Sophie Pedder (30 September 2017). "President Macron wants France to play a bigger part in Europe". The Economist.
- "EARLIER CLASSES". French American Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- "France's presidential hopeful Macron pushes for Syria talks". Fox News Channel. 24 January 2017.
- Valens, Marco (7 April 2017). "Le Pen 'Shocked' By Trump's Decision to Hit Syria, Macron Urges Military Intervention". The Issue. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron: "Faire de la destitution d'Assad un préalable à tout a été une erreur"". Le Monde (in French). 24 January 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "France's Macron condemns Gaza violence, to call Israeli PM Tuesday". Reuters. 14 May 2018.
- Dalton, Matthew (10 March 2017). "LafargeHolcim Faces Warnings on Providing Cement for U.S. Border Wall". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- République, Présidence de la. "Communiqué - Corée du Nord". elysee.fr (in French). Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "Macron, Trump agree to work together to defuse N. Korea threat - France 24". France 24. 12 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron calls for peaceful outcome with North Korea". POLITICO. 13 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "French President labels attacks on Rohingya minority as 'genocide'". sbs.com.au. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- "Civilians pay price as Turkey battles Syrian Kurds". Associated Press. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "France's Macron defends Saudi arms sales, to hold Yemen conference". Reuters. 10 April 2018.
- "French government faces legal pressure over arms sales to Saudi, UAE". Reuters. 6 May 2018.
- "Will Macron Have Courage to End Arms Sales to Saudis?". Le Monde. 14 September 2017.
- "Pressure mounts on Macron over arms sales to Saudi Arabia, UAE". Reuters. 22 March 2018.
- "World reacts with praise, sadness to Liu Xiaobo's death". Inquirer News. 14 July 2017.
- Rubin, Alissa J. (19 April 2017). "Macron Wants to Change France. But Will Voters Elect an Unknown?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- "L'offre politique d'Emmanuel Macron au défi des classes populaires". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron se pose en europhile assumé" (in French). Euractiv.fr. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "François Bayrou réaffirme sa prééminence au centre". La Croix (in French). 22 September 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Macron veut une Europe à deux vitesses" (in French). leJDD.fr. 31 May 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Macron l'EuropĂŠen prĂ'ne la ÂŤ transgression Âť". Les Échos (in French). France. 19 April 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "A Berlin, Macron veut " restaurer la confiance avec les Allemands en faisant des réformes sérieuses "". Le Monde (in French). 10 January 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Orange, Martine (12 June 2016). "Comment l'Europe a pesé sur la loi El Khomri". Mediapart (in French). Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Macron, le réformateur orthodoxe". Mediapart (in French). 12 October 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Asthana, Anushka (28 April 2017). "Emmanuel Macron: I'll renegotiate Le Touquet border treaty". Retrieved 7 May 2017 – via The Guardian.
- Bolongaro, Kait (1 May 2017). "Macron to EU: Reform or face Frexit". Politico. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron wants reforms for post-Brexit EU". Al-Jazeera.
- "France's Macron expresses full support to Spanish PM over Catalonia crisis". Reuters U.K. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron: French would 'probably' vote to leave EU". Sky News. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- "France wants to change the rules on enlargement". New Europe. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- Mischke, Judith (4 July 2019). "'Very disappointed' Manfred Weber blames Macron and Orbán". POLITICO.
- "Greece needs debt relief, France's Macron tells German newspaper". Reuters. 11 July 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- "Grèce: Macron met en garde contre un " traité de Versailles de la zone euro "". Le Monde. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Grèce: Emmanuel Macron pessimiste sur l'accord". Le Figaro. 15 July 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Varoufakis encense Macron". Le Figaro. 19 April 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Gov't spokesman: we will not agree to Macron using Poland during campaign". Radio Poland. 28 April 2017.
- "Macron's statement 'unacceptable', says Polish FM". Radio Poland. 28 April 2017.
- "Video: Macron slams RT, Sputnik news as 'lying propaganda' at Putin press conference". France 24. 30 May 2017.
- "Macron causes Polish outrage after claiming a Kaczynski and Le Pen alliance". Euronews. 2 May 2017.
- "France's Macron urges EU to curb cheap east European workers". Reuters. 25 May 2017.
- "Accueil des réfugiés : "Un devoir" pour Macron". Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Macron : "L'arrivée de réfugiés est une opportunité économique"". Le Figaro. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Macron tightens migration stance: 'We can't host everyone'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- "France to 'take back control' of immigration policy". Financial Times. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- "Italy's Matteo Salvini shuts ports to migrant rescue ship". BBC News. 11 June 2018.
- "Italian foreign ministry summons French ambassador as tensions mount over port closures to refugee rescue boats". The Independent. 13 June 2018.
- "Macron hits out at Italy after migrant boat is turned away". Financial Times. 12 June 2018.
- Macron, Emmanuel (2016). Révolution. XO. p. 270. ISBN 9782845639669.
- Sophie BrunnFrance Télévisions (4 October 2016). "Proportionnelle, cumul des mandats... Les pistes d'Emmanuel Macron pour améliorer "l'hygiène démocratique" en France". Francetvinfo.fr. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- Alerteinfo (27 January 2017). "Emmanuel Macron veut créer un "pass culture" de 500 euros pour les jeunes". 20 Minutes. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- French election: Macron vows to tackle terrorism by taking on tech companies – BBC, 10 April 2017
- "French President Emmanuel Macron says deeply regrets US President Donald Trump decision on troops in Syria". timesnownews.com.
- Matamoros, Cristina Abellan (10 October 2019). "Macron: Turkey's offensive in Syria helping ISIS build caliphate". euronews.
- Emmanuel Macron, "Construire une "alliance de Paris pour le climat"", Annales des Mines – Responsabilité et Environnement, vol. 2, no 78, 2015, p. 3
- "Macron et son vibrant plaidoyer en faveur du diesel | Automobile". Le Point. 6 July 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- "Macron se pose en chantre du diesel et s'oppose à Hidalgo". Le Figaro. 23 August 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- "Diesel : Emmanuel Macron déclenche les foudres de son camp" (in French). Rtl.fr. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- ""Le nucléaire est un choix français et un choix d'avenir", assure Emmanuel Macron – L'Usine de l'Energie". Usinenouvelle.com. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- "Nucléaire, éolien... les grandes annonces de Macron sur la transition écologique - France 24". France 24 (in French). 27 November 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Emmanuel Macron, " Avant-propos ", Annales des Mines – Responsabilité et Environnement, vol. 2, no 82, 2016, p. 3
- "Affaire Fillon en direct : " Je ne serai jamais un plan B ", répète Juppé". Le Monde. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- Henley, Jon (3 June 2017). "'Make our planet great again': Macron's response to Trump is praised". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
- Sudarshan Varadhan, France to commit 700 million euros to International Solar Alliance, Reuters (11 March 2018).
- Jeremy B White, France to shut all coal-fired power stations by 2021, Macron declares, Independent (24 January 2018).
- "French fuel protests leave 1 dead, dozens injured". CNN. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- "Macron Blinks in Fuel-Tax Dispute With Yellow Vests". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Willsher, Kim (5 December 2018). "Macron scraps fuel tax rise in face of gilets jaunes protests" – via www.theguardian.com.
- "With 2,300-word letter, Macron launches debate to quell 'yellow vest' unrest". Reuters. 13 January 2019.
- "France's Macron launches national debate to soothe ongoing 'yellow vest' protests". CNBC. 14 January 2019.
- Thunberg, Greta (25 January 2019). "'Our house is on fire': Greta Thunberg, 16, urges leaders to act on climate". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077.
- "Ireland, France set to block EU-Mercosur trade deal over Amazon". Al-Jazeera. 23 August 2019.
- Rose, Michel (18 October 2016). "Macron outlines vision of French Islam, drops more ambition hints". Reuters. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Voile à l'université: Macron prend le contre-pied de Valls". Le Figaro (in French). 12 July 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron: "La République est ce lieu magique qui permet à des gens de vivre dans l'intensité de leur religion"" (in French). Marianne.net. 1 October 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Les écoles juives condamnent les propos d'Emmanuel Macron dans Marianne". La Croix. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Magnaudeix, Mathieu. "Macron, le réformateur orthodoxe". Mediapart (in French). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "Macron balance sur notre système de santé " défaillant "". leparisien.fr (in French). 1 October 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "On le voit dans les meetings, il est en train de se passer quelque chose autour de la candidature Macron". Slate.fr (in French). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "Lunettes, dentaire : la mesure Macron coûterait 4,4 milliards". lesechos.fr. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron sur l'éducation : un air de déjà-vu". L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- Stromboni, Camille (1 September 2016). "Emmanuel Macron prône plus de liberté pour l'université". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "Les mesures chocs que Macron va annoncer, par Thierry Fabre". Challenges (in French). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- Simons, Marlise (17 July 1995). "Chirac Affirms France's Guilt In Fate of Jews". The New York Times.
- McAuley, James (10 April 2017). "Marine Le Pen: France 'not responsible' for deporting Jews during Holocaust". The Washington Post.
- Carrier, Peter (23 July 2018). Holocaust Monuments and National Memory Cultures in France and Germany Since 1989: The Origins and Political Function of the Vél' D'Hiv' in Paris and the Holocaust Monument in Berlin. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781845452957. Retrieved 23 July 2018 – via Google Books.
- "'France organised this': Macron denounces state role in Holocaust atrocity". The Guardian. London. 17 July 2017.
- Goldman, Russell (17 July 2017). "Macron Denounces Anti-Zionism as 'Reinvented Form of Anti-Semitism'". The New York Times.
- McAuley, James (16 July 2017). "Macron hosts Netanyahu, condemns anti-Zionism as anti-Semitism". The Washington Post.
- "Israel PM mourns France's deported Jews". 16 July 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Emmanuel Macron says anti-Zionism is a new type of anti-Semitism". 17 July 2017.
- "The president of France just said bashing Israel is anti-Semitism by a different name".
- Liptak, Kevin (12 November 2018). "Emmanuel Macron rebukes nationalism as Trump observes Armistice Day". CNN. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "The French president and the alt-right both get nationalism wrong". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "Steve Hilton: Trump is right, French President Macron completely wrong about nationalism". Fox News. 11 November 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Lichfield, John (5 February 2019). "Call Emmanuel Macron any name you like — but not 'liberal'". Politico. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- (in French) VIDEO. Les images du mariage d'Emmanuel Macron et de Brigitte Trogneux diffusées. Le Parisien (22 November 2016).
- Druckerman, Pamela (2 February 2017). "Sex and the French Elections". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron – The new French minister of the economy". Cosmopolis. 27 August 2014.
- Serhan, Yasmeen (8 February 2017). "Emmanuel Macron's Unexpected Shot at the French Presidency". The Atlantic. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- "Subscribe | theaustralian". The Australian. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Brigitte Macron – Trogneux : le rôle essentiel de la femme d'Emmanuel Macron". Linternaute (in French). Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron and the Barren Elite of a Changing Continent". Washington Examiner. 14 May 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
- FRANCE 24 English (4 May 2018), Macron, one year on: What's changed in France?, retrieved 31 August 2018
- Bacqué, Raphaëlle (6 November 2011). "Henry Hermand, acteur de la deuxième gauche et mentor d'Emmanuel Macron, est mort". Le Monde. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
Il avait enfin aidé Emmanuel Macron, personnellement d'abord par un prêt de 550 000 euros afin que le jeune inspecteur des finances acquière son premier appartement parisien, puis politiquement en abritant récemment dans ses bureaux les premiers militants d'En marche, l'association qui œuvre aujourd'hui à la candidature de l'ancien ministre de l'économie.
- Raulin, Nathalie (7 November 2016). "Décès de Henry Hermand, le bienfaiteur de Macron". Libération. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
Quelques années plus tard, il accordera au jeune inspecteur des finances un prêt personnel de 550 000 euros pour financer l'achat de son premier appartement parisien. Enthousiasmé par le lancement d'En Marche, il héberge dans ses bureaux parisiens le mouvement naissant, avant que ce dernier ne déménage tour Montparnasse.
- Prissette, Nicolas (2016). Emmanuel Macron en marche vers l'Élysée. France: Plon. p. 240. ISBN 9782259251532.
- Fulda, Anne (2017). Emmanuel Macron, un jeune homme si parfait. Plon. p. 193.
- Fulda, Anne (13 December 2012). "Emmanuel Macron : Le cerveau droit de Hollande". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "In France, a Stark Debate and a Stark Choice". New York Times. 4 May 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- Tsioulcas, Anastasia (9 May 2017). "Something You Didn't Know About Emmanuel Macron: He's A Pianist". NPR. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- "La Culture selon Emmanuel Macron. Grand entretien pour classiquenews". Classique News (in French). 1 April 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- "Pyrénées : Emmanuel Macron en marche sur les terres de son enfance - France 3 Occitanie". France 3 Occitanie. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Stade Bleu Présidentiel : JO 2024, politique sportive, l'OM... ce qu'il faut retenir de l'interview d'Emmanuel Macron". France Bleu (in French). 24 February 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Willsher, Kim (9 April 2016). "Emmanuel Macron: France's political prince eyeing the Elysée". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron interview (English): Getting "tough" on Brexit". YouTube. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron: 'I'm not a naive optimist' BBC News". YouTube. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- Willsher, Kim (1 November 2018). "Macron to host May in Somme, where his British great-grandfather fought". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- "Emmanuel Macron porte plainte pour "harcèlement"". Valeurs actuelles. 15 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "Macron retire sa plainte contre un photographe". L'Expansion. 15 September 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Quinault Maupoil, Tristan (28 August 2017). "Un nouveau chien à l'Elysée : Nemo, adopté par les Macron à la SPA". Le Figaro. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
- "France's new president is a 'zombie Catholic'". Catholic News Agency.
- "Meeting with Pope puts Macron's religious views in spotlight". The Local. 25 June 2018.
- "Meeting with Pope puts Macron's religious views in spotlight". thelocal.fr. 25 June 2018.
- "Emmanuel Macron: "OM made me dream, cry, vibrate"". Archived from the original on 2 April 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "'France were lucky,' Belgian PM tells Macron". Reuters. 11 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- "France won the World Cup, but Croatian Prez's 'comforting' hugs won hearts". The Indian Express. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- Morrin, Siobhan (16 July 2018). "Controversy, Joy and Politics: 5 Takeaways From the World Cup Final". Time. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Soaked but smiling, Croatian president wins admirers at World Cup..." Reuters. 15 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- Rose, Michel (16 July 2018). "Macron can bless his lucky stars, again, as 'Les Bleus' win World Cup". Reuters. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- "French President Macron Has Plenty of Fun at World Cup Final". The New York Times. Associated Press. 17 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- "France's Macron can thank his lucky stars, again, after World Cup triumph". France 24. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- Ellison, Jo (16 July 2018). "Macron, Oprah and why we should embrace the hug". Financial Times. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- Hoffman, Ashley (18 July 2018). "Emmanuel Macron Knows How to Celebrate a World Cup Victory". Time. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "People now want French and Croatian presidents to fall in love". Nairobi News. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- "La adorable presidenta de Croacia que esconde a una política xenófoba". Publico (in Spanish). 16 July 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- "Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun ritarikunnan suurristin ketjuineen ulkomaalaiset saajat". ritarikunnat.fi (in Finnish).
- "Modtagere af danske dekorationer". kongehuset.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- "En photos, les moments forts de la visite de Macron à Tunis". 1 February 2018.
- "France's Macron calls for efforts to tackle climate change - Metro News". Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- "Honorary awards" (PDF). 2014.
- "Decreto". 19 December 2012.