Electoral Reform Society

Single transferable vote Electoral reform First-past-the-post voting

Electoral Reform Society
Founded1884; 136 years ago (1884)
London, United Kingdom
TypeNon-governmental organisation
FocusDemocracy, electoral reform, elections
Area served
United Kingdom
MethodLobbying, research, innovation
Key people
AffiliationsProportional Representation Society of Ireland (1911–1922)
Formerly called
Proportional Representation Society

The Electoral Reform Society (ERS) is an independent campaigning organisation based in the United Kingdom which promotes electoral reform. It seeks to replace the first-past-the-post voting system with one of proportional representation, advocating the single transferable vote. It is the world's oldest operating organisation concerned with political and electoral reform.


The Electoral Reform Society seeks a "representative democracy fit for the 21st century."[1] The Society advocates the replacement of the first-past-the-post and plurality-at-large voting systems with a proportional voting system, the single transferable vote. First-past-the-post is currently used for elections to the House of Commons and for most local elections in England and Wales, while plurality-at-large is used in multi-member council wards in England and Wales, and was historically used in the multi-member parliamentary constituencies before their abolition.[2] It also campaigns for improvements to public elections and representative democracy, and is a regular commentator on all aspects of representation, public participation and democratic governance in the United Kingdom.


The ERS was founded in January 1884 as the Proportional Representation Society by the polymath and politician John Lubbock.[3] By the end of the year the Society had attracted the support of 184 Members of Parliament, split almost equally between Conservatives and Liberals. Other early members included Charles Dodgson (better known as Lewis Carroll), C.P. Scott, editor of the Manchester Guardian and Thomas Hare, inventor of the Single Transferable Vote.[4] The initial aim of the Society was to have proportional representation included in the terms of the Representation of the People Act 1884 and the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, but, despite a determined campaign of political lobbying, it was unable to do so.[5]

A PRS pamphlet of the 1920s described the organisation's aims thus: 1. to reproduce the opinions of the electors in parliament and other public bodies in their true proportions 2. to secure the majority of electors shall rule and all other considerable minorities shall be heard 3. to give electors a wider freedom in the choice of representation 4. to give representative greater independence by freeing them from the pressure of sectional interests (perhaps party discipline and back-room deals were meant] 5. to ensure to parties representation by their ablest and most trusted members.[6]

Alongside its sister organisation, Proportional Representation Society of Ireland, the Society succeeded in getting STV introduced in local and then national elections in Ireland, and in numerous religious, educational and professional organisations. After World War II the Society suffered from financial problems and a lack of public appetite for reform. When Fianna Fáil put to a referendum a proposal to revert to first-past-the-post voting twice (1959 and 1968), the Society, under the leadership of Enid Lakeman, led a successful campaign to keep the STV system in Ireland[7]

In 1973 STV was introduced in Northern Ireland for elections to local councils and to the new Northern Ireland Assembly, and the Society and its staff were called upon to advise in the programme of education set up by the government to raise public awareness.[8]

Interest in proportional representation revived sharply in Britain after the February 1974 general election. From then on the Society was able to secure a higher public profile for its campaigns. In 1983 the Society was recognised by the United Nations Economic and Social Council as a Non-Governmental Organisation with Consultative Status.


The Society has campaigned successfully for the introduction of STV for local elections in Scotland,[9] and led the call for a referendum on the voting system in the wake of the United Kingdom parliamentary expenses scandal as part of the Vote for a Change campaign.[10] It is a founding member of the Votes at 16 Coalition.

AV referendum

The Society was later a principal funder of the YES! To Fairer Votes campaign in the unsuccessful bid for a Yes vote in the 2011 referendum on the Alternative Vote.[11] Its Chief Executive, Katie Ghose, served as the campaign's chair.

Police and crime commissioners

In 2012, the Society criticised Government handling of its policy of elected Police and Crime Commissioners – which led to the lowest turnout in British peacetime history.

In August 2012 the Society predicted turnout could be as low as 18.5% and outlined steps to salvage the elections, mobilising support from both candidates and voters.[12] The Government did not change tack, dubbing the prediction a "silly season story".[13] Following the result (in which the national turnout was a mere 15.1%, even lower than the Society's prediction), the Society branded the Government's approach to elections as a "comedy of errors", views that were reiterated by Shadow Home Secretary Yvette Cooper.[14]

Voter registration

The Society led bids to change the Government's approach to introduction of Individual Electoral Registration, which the New Statesman dubbed "the biggest political scandal you've never heard of".[15] Electoral Commission sources estimated as many as 10 million voters could disappear from the electoral roll under government plans, predominantly poor, young or black, and more liable to vote Labour.[16] The Society succeeded in securing changes to the legislation.[17]

European Union

In a 2014 report the society recommended several ways to make the European Union more accountable and argues that there is a democratic deficit. These included: better scrutiny of EU legislation by the British parliament, a voting system which gives voters more influence over individual candidates (e.g. single transferable vote) and recruitment of party candidates with a wider ranges of views on the EU.[18]

Analysis of 2016 EU referendum

In August 2016 the Society published a highly critical report on the referendum and called for a review of how future events are run. Contrasting it very unfavourably with the 'well-informed grassroots' campaign for Scottish independence, ERS Chief Executive Katie Ghose described it as "dire" with “glaring democratic deficiencies” which left voters bewildered. Katie Ghose noted a generally negative response to establishment figures with 29% of voters saying David Cameron (a Remain supporter) made them more likely to vote leave whilst only 14% said he made them want to vote remain. Looking ahead, the society called for an official organisation to highlight misleading claims and for Ofcom to define the role of broadcasters are expected to play.[19]

2018 gender analysis

In February 2018 the ERS reported that hundreds of seats were being effectively 'reserved' by men, holding back women’s representation. Their report states that 170 seats are being held by men first elected in 2005 or before – with few opportunities for women to take those seats or selections.[20][21]

Related organisations

See also


  1. ^ "What we stand for". Retrieved 23 October 2015.
  2. ^ Dunleavy, Patrick; Travers, Tony; Gilson, Chris (13 November 2012). "The LSE's simple guide to UK voting systems". London School of Economics. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  3. ^ Hart, Jenifer (1992). Proportional Representation: Critics of the British Electoral System 1820–1945. Oxford University Press. p. 100. ISBN 0198201362.
  4. ^ Hart, pp. 102–110
  5. ^ Hart, pp. 121–125
  6. ^ The Influence of the Method of Election upon the Constitution of Local Authorities, London: PRS, [1926]
  7. ^ Sinnott, Richard, 1999. ‘The electoral system’, pp. 99–126 in John Coakley and Michael Gallagher (eds), Politics in the Republic of Ireland, 3rd ed. London: Routledge and PSAI Press.
  8. ^ "CAIN: Politics: Elections: Introduction to the Electoral System in Northern Ireland". ulst.ac.uk.
  9. ^ "What is Fairshare?". Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  10. ^ "Parliament in crisis: When will MPs start to listen to the people?". TheGuardian.com. Guardian News and Media. 24 May 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  11. ^ Curtis, Polly; Kollewe, Julia (3 May 2011). "AV referendum: full details of donations to yes and no campaigns". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  12. ^ "Police and crime commissioner candidates warn of turnout". BBC News. 26 September 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  13. ^ Beckford, Martin (18 August 2012). "Turnout of 18% predicted for police commissioner election 'shambles'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  14. ^ "Yvette Cooper MP". 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013.
  15. ^ Hasan, Mehdi (6 October 2011). "Electoral registration: the biggest political scandal you've never heard of". New Statesman. London. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  16. ^ Wintour, Patrick (15 September 2011). "Shocked MPs told electoral plan could remove 10m voters". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  17. ^ "An important victory for voters, but no time for complacency". Retrieved 23 October 2015.
  18. ^ "Close the Gap — Tackling Europe's Democratic Deficit" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2014.
  19. ^ Rajeev Syal (1 September 2016). "Electoral reform campaigners slam 'dire' EU referendum debate". Guardian newspapers. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  20. ^ Martin, George (13 February 2018). "Male MPs are 'blocking' the safe seats – forcing women to fight marginals". i. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  21. ^ "Hundreds of seats effectively 'reserved' by men at Westminster, research shows". electoral-reform.org.uk. Electoral Reform Society. 13 February 2018. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  22. ^ "Our History". www.electoral-reform.org.uk.
  23. ^ "Civica acquires election and membership services leader ERS Group". 4 December 2018.